David Livermore

Summary

Affiliation: Health Protection Agency
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc In vitro activity of cephalosporin RWJ-54428 (MC-02479) against multidrug-resistant gram-positive cocci
    Alan P Johnson
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:321-6. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint CTX-M: changing the face of ESBLs in Europe
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:165-74. 2007
  3. doi request reprint Has the era of untreatable infections arrived?
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:i29-36. 2009
  4. pmc Performance of the Oxoid M.I.C.Evaluator Strips compared with the Etest assay and BSAC agar dilution
    Shazad Mushtaq
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1702-11. 2010
  5. doi request reprint Characterization of β-lactamase and porin mutants of Enterobacteriaceae selected with ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104)
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Microbiology Services, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:1354-8. 2012
  6. ncbi request reprint Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, HPA Microbiology Services Colindale, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW95EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1941-4. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint Defining an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:3-10. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the chromogenic Cica-beta-Test for detecting extended-spectrum, AmpC and metallo-beta-lactamases
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:1375-9. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Introduction: the challenge of multiresistance
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:S1-7. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint The zeitgeist of resistance
    David Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:i59-61. 2007

Detail Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc In vitro activity of cephalosporin RWJ-54428 (MC-02479) against multidrug-resistant gram-positive cocci
    Alan P Johnson
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:321-6. 2002
    ..015 to 0.5 microg/ml. RWJ-54428 did not select resistant mutants of MRSA or enterococci in challenge experiments and has the potential to be useful for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive cocci...
  2. ncbi request reprint CTX-M: changing the face of ESBLs in Europe
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:165-74. 2007
    ..Irrespective of the particular enzyme, most producers are multiresistant. These changing patterns present major therapeutic and infection control challenges, with the public health intervention points unclear...
  3. doi request reprint Has the era of untreatable infections arrived?
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:i29-36. 2009
    ..A final and surprising problem is Neisseria gonorrhoeae, where each good oral agent has been eroded in turn and where there is now little in reserve behind the oral oxyimino cephalosporins, to which low-level resistance is emerging...
  4. pmc Performance of the Oxoid M.I.C.Evaluator Strips compared with the Etest assay and BSAC agar dilution
    Shazad Mushtaq
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1702-11. 2010
    ..The Oxoid M.I.C.Evaluator (M.I.C.E; Thermo Fisher Scientific) comprises an antibiotic gradient on a plastic support. We compared its performance with Etest--a similar product--using BSAC agar dilution as a reference...
  5. doi request reprint Characterization of β-lactamase and porin mutants of Enterobacteriaceae selected with ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104)
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Microbiology Services, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:1354-8. 2012
    ..Ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104) is a novel inhibitor combination active against Enterobacteriaceae with class A and C β-lactamases. We investigated its risk of mutational resistance...
  6. ncbi request reprint Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, HPA Microbiology Services Colindale, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW95EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1941-4. 2011
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Defining an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:3-10. 2008
    ..It seems best-and pragmatic-that the term 'ESBL' retains its broad modern usage, but that should always be accompanied by mention of the enzyme's family as, e.g., in 'TEM ESBL' or 'OXA ESBL', not as a sole moniker...
  8. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the chromogenic Cica-beta-Test for detecting extended-spectrum, AmpC and metallo-beta-lactamases
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:1375-9. 2007
    ..Chromogenic tests might usefully shorten this delay, and we investigated the Cica-beta-Test for this purpose...
  9. ncbi request reprint Introduction: the challenge of multiresistance
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:S1-7. 2007
    ..One that does have increased anti-Gram-negative activity, compared with earlier analogues, is tigecycline, a glycylcycline derivative of minocycline...
  10. ncbi request reprint The zeitgeist of resistance
    David Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:i59-61. 2007
    ..For a resistance to 'succeed', it needs to have a mechanism that imposes little fitness burden, along with a biologically 'fit' host strain or strains. Once this combination arises, control is extremely difficult...
  11. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic resistance: location, location, location
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 13:7-16. 2007
    ....
  12. pmc In vitro activity of the oxazolidinone RWJ-416457 against linezolid-resistant and -susceptible staphylococci and enterococci
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1112-4. 2007
    ..RWJ-416457 MICs for mutants with 23S rRNA mutations were 2 to 32 microg/ml, versus linezolid MICs of 8 to 64 microg/ml; actual values reflected the proportion of gene copies mutated...
  13. ncbi request reprint Trends in penicillin and macrolide resistance among pneumococci in the UK and the Republic of Ireland in relation to antibiotic sales to pharmacies and dispensing doctors
    David M Livermore
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 28:273-9. 2006
    ..Stabilisation or decline in penicillin resistance has occurred in Ireland despite stable or increasing oral beta-lactam sales...
  14. ncbi request reprint The beta-lactamase threat in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, UK
    Trends Microbiol 14:413-20. 2006
    ..This review discusses the epidemiology and microbiology of these resistance problems, along with possible solutions...
  15. doi request reprint NXL104 combinations versus Enterobacteriaceae with CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases
    David M Livermore
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:1053-6. 2008
    ..We examined whether combinations of oxyimino-cephalosporins with NXL104, a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, overcame these resistances...
  16. ncbi request reprint Can beta-lactams be re-engineered to beat MRSA?
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:11-6. 2006
    ..A phase II trial in skin and skin structure infection recorded cures by ceftobiprole in 4/4 MRSA infections, and results of the phase III trials are awaited with great interest...
  17. ncbi request reprint Tigecycline: what is it, and where should it be used?
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:611-4. 2005
    ..It is also likely to find a role in the treatment of infections due to multiresistant pathogens, including Acinetobacter spp. and ESBL producers, as well as MRSA and enterococci...
  18. ncbi request reprint Orthodox and unorthodox clavulanate combinations against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:189-93. 2008
    ..Combinations of clavulanate with modern anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporins also deserve investigation, as these compounds remain labile to ESBLs...
  19. doi request reprint Non-susceptibility trends among Enterobacteriaceae from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001-06
    David M Livermore
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:ii41-54. 2008
    ..Reflecting this importance, members of the family constitute 4 of the 12 collection groups in the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Bacteraemia Surveillance Programme...
  20. doi request reprint Non-susceptibility trends among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001-06
    David M Livermore
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 C olindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:ii55-63. 2008
    ..Pseudomonas spp. are collected in the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) bacteraemia surveillance, with Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia well represented in the 'other Gram-negatives' group...
  21. doi request reprint What remains against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae? Evaluation of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, fosfomycin, minocycline, nitrofurantoin, temocillin and tigecycline
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Microbiology Services Colindale, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 37:415-9. 2011
    ..Studies with transconjugants and transformants confirmed the small effect of KPC enzymes against temocillin, whereas OXA-48 and NDM-1 conferred clear resistance...
  22. doi request reprint Strategies to overcome extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases in shigellae
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Microbiology Services Colindale, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 37:405-9. 2011
    ..Clinical utility will depend also on a drug's ability to reach intracellular shigellae in the intestinal epithelium and this deserves exploration for clavulanic acid and faropenem...
  23. doi request reprint Activity of aminoglycosides, including ACHN-490, against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, HPA Microbiology Services, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:48-53. 2011
    ..They included 53 Klebsiella spp., 19 Enterobacter spp., 6 Escherichia coli and 4 others; most were multiresistant. Genes were identified by PCR and sequencing; MICs were measured by CLSI agar dilution...
  24. pmc Activities of NXL104 combinations with ceftazidime and aztreonam against carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, HPA Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:390-4. 2011
    ..with the KPC enzyme, but metallo-β-lactamase producers were resistant. Aztreonam-NXL104 was active against all carbapenemase producers at 4 and 4 μg/ml, including those with metallo-β-lactamases...
  25. doi request reprint Activity of BAL30376 (monobactam BAL19764 + BAL29880 + clavulanate) versus Gram-negative bacteria with characterized resistance mechanisms
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, HPA Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 9EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:2382-95. 2010
    ..We tested BAL30376 and its components versus isolates and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters...
  26. doi request reprint Antimicrobial treatment and clinical outcome for infections with carbapenem- and multiply-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii around London
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 35:19-24. 2010
    ..This difference was significant (P=0.003), although the patients receiving nebulised drug were mostly younger, included trauma cases and were at a hospital with good outcomes...
  27. ncbi request reprint beta-Lactamases- the Threat Renews
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, NW9 5EQ, London, UK
    Curr Protein Pept Sci 10:397-400. 2009
    ..Tony Fink's work contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms and active site function of beta-lactamases and this knowledge now informs the search for new beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors...
  28. doi request reprint Activity of the anti-MRSA carbapenem razupenem (PTZ601) against Enterobacteriaceae with defined resistance mechanisms
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:330-5. 2009
    ..Razupenem (previously known as PTZ601, PZ-601, SMP-601 or SM-216601) is a novel carbapenem, active against Enterobacteriaceae as well as Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci...
  29. doi request reprint Activity of cephalosporin CXA-101 (FR264205) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia group strains and isolates
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 34:402-6. 2009
    ..MICs of CXA-101 were 2- to 16-fold below those of ceftazidime for multiresistant P. aeruginosa from CF patients, but ranged up to > 128 mg/L; values for B. cepacia from CF resembled those for ceftazidime...
  30. doi request reprint Temocillin revived
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 63:243-5. 2009
    ..In settings where these are unlikely or are covered by other agents, temocillin may be useful, potentially 'sparing' carbapenems and having little apparent potential to select for Clostridium difficile...
  31. doi request reprint Future directions with daptomycin
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:iii41-iii49. 2008
    ..There is presently a paradox whereby vancomycin is agreed to be less than ideal, with outcomes impaired against MRSA with modestly raised MICs, but where new agents have yet to demonstrate unequivocal superiority...
  32. ncbi request reprint Minimising antibiotic resistance
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:450-9. 2005
    ..Last, there is a need to re-invigorate antimicrobial development, which has been downgraded by many major pharmaceutical houses...
  33. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of piperacillin/tazobactam and other broad-spectrum antibiotics against bacteria from hospitalised patients in the British Isles
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 22:14-27. 2003
    ..Thus, if disc tests suggest that an isolate is marginally resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam and the drug is sought as therapy, it is recommended that MIC be determined with, e.g., an Etest...
  34. doi request reprint Activity of oxazolidinone TR-700 against linezolid-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci and enterococci
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW95EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 63:713-5. 2009
    ..TR-700 is the active moiety of TR-701 (DA-7157), a new oral/intravenous oxazolidinone prodrug. We examined its activity against linezolid-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci and enterococci...
  35. ncbi request reprint Ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli from bacteraemias in England; increasingly prevalent and mostly from men
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:1040-2. 2003
    ..To assess ciprofloxacin resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from bacteraemia patients in England in relation to age, sex and Region...
  36. ncbi request reprint Properties and potential of ertapenem
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:331-44. 2003
    ..Nevertheless, if ertapenem is to be used widely, its effects on the resistance ecology need to be monitored carefully...
  37. ncbi request reprint The threat from the pink corner
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Ann Med 35:226-34. 2003
    ..Disturbingly, there is a near-total lack of developmental antibiotics active against gram-negative pathogens...
  38. ncbi request reprint The need for new antibiotics
    D M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 10:1-9. 2004
    ..Unless antibacterial development is re-energised, there is a serious risk that a growing proportion of infections, especially in hospitals, will become effectively untreatable...
  39. ncbi request reprint Selectivity of ertapenem for Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants cross-resistant to other carbapenems
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:306-11. 2005
    ..There is, however, concern that this use will select for resistances to imipenem and meropenem in nosocomial pathogens, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and we investigated the validity of this concern...
  40. ncbi request reprint Can better prescribing turn the tide of resistance?
    David Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:73-8. 2004
    ..If resistance is unlikely to be reduced significantly by changing prescription practices, how can clinicians outpace increased resistance, particularly when much of 'big pharma' is abandoning antibiotic development?..
  41. doi request reprint Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates producing VEB-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the United Kingdom
    Neil Woodford
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:1265-8. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of VEB enzymes among Pseudomonas spp. referred to the UK's national reference laboratory and with phenotypic evidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production...
  42. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of ceftaroline (PPI-0903M, T-91825) against bacteria with defined resistance mechanisms and phenotypes
    Shazad Mushtaq
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:300-11. 2007
    ..Ceftaroline (PPI-0903M, T-91825) is a novel cephalosporin, administered as an N-phosphono prodrug. We investigated its in vitro activity and resistance selection potential...
  43. ncbi request reprint Activity of the siderophore monobactam BAL30072 against multiresistant non-fermenters
    Shazad Mushtaq
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:266-70. 2010
    ..and against laboratory P. aeruginosa strains with defined resistance mechanisms...
  44. pmc Efflux pumps, OprD porin, AmpC beta-lactamase, and multiresistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients
    Maria Tomas
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2219-24. 2010
    ..Overexpressed mexA or ampC and reduced oprD were associated with beta-lactam resistance. A specific combination of mexR, nalC, and nalD mutations occurred in 11 Liverpool strain isolates, including 7 with upregulated mexA...
  45. doi request reprint AdeABC-mediated efflux and tigecycline MICs for epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii
    Michael Hornsey
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1589-93. 2010
    ..baumannii clones. The role of AdeABC in the emergence of tigecycline resistance during therapy was also investigated for two representatives of the prevalent UK lineage, OXA-23 clone 1...
  46. doi request reprint Decline of EMRSA-16 amongst methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bacteraemias in the UK between 2001 and 2007
    Matthew J Ellington
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:446-8. 2010
    ..2% and 35.4%, respectively). We sought to determine the proportions of these strains before and after the general decline in MRSA bacteraemia that began around 2004...
  47. pmc Comparative activities of doripenem versus isolates, mutants, and transconjugants of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. with characterized beta-lactamases
    Shazad Mushtaq
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency Colindale, London, NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1313-9. 2004
    ..5 microg/ml) of E. coli derivatives with cloned IMP-1 and NMC-A beta-lactamases suggested that carbapenem resistance might require other factors besides the enzymes...
  48. doi request reprint Non-susceptibility trends among enterococci and non-pneumococcal streptococci from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001-06
    Derek F J Brown
    Health Protection Agency, Clinical Microbiology and Public Health Laboratory, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QW, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:ii75-85. 2008
    ..To describe the current patterns and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in enterococci and streptococci (excepting pneumococci) from bacteraemia in the UK and Ireland from 2001 to 2006...
  49. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, AZD2563, against randomly selected and multiresistant Gram-positive cocci
    Alan P Johnson
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 50:89-93. 2002
    ..AZD2563 was equally active against the surveillance isolates and those that had been selected for their multiresistance to other agents. The MICs of AZD2563 were either the same as those of linezolid or two-fold lower...
  50. pmc Doripenem versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro: activity against characterized isolates, mutants, and transconjugants and resistance selection potential
    Shazad Mushtaq
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency Colindale, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3086-92. 2004
    ..Most mutants selected with aminoglycosides and quinolones had little or no cross-resistance to carbapenems, including doripenem...
  51. ncbi request reprint Two widely disseminated strains of Enterococcus faecalis highly resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland
    Neil Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency Colindale, London NW9 5HT UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:711-4. 2003
    ..Further work is needed to characterize these two 'epidemic' E. faecalis strains and to investigate the presence of virulence genes...
  52. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter in the UK, and in vitro evaluation of tigecycline (GAR-936)
    Caroline J Henwood
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:479-87. 2002
    ..In conclusion, carbapenems, colistin and minocycline retained greatest activity against the Acinetobacter isolates collected. Tigecycline was less active than minocycline, but both agents overcame most tetracycline resistance...
  53. ncbi request reprint The impact of carbapenemases on antimicrobial development and therapy
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre Public Health Laboratory, London, UK
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 3:218-24. 2002
    ..For now, the best pharmaceutical strategy seems to lie in the development of novel antimicrobial classes with anti-Gram-negative activity, rather than in overcoming carbapenemases directly...
  54. pmc Detection of oxazolidinone-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains by real-time PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis
    Neil Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, Central Public Health Laboratory, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4298-300. 2002
    ..Both assays detected isolates heterozygous at this position. Recognition of isolates with what is presently the most frequent oxazolidinone resistance mutation may aid surveillance and individual case management...
  55. pmc Trends in fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance in enterobacteriaceae from bacteremias, England and Wales, 1990-1999
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:473-8. 2002
    ..1% in 1990 to 10.5% in 1996 and 10.9% in 1999. For both Klebsiella and Enterobacter spp., most resistance was localized in a few centers. Resistance was infrequent and scattered in P. mirabilis, but reached a prevalence of 3.3% in 1999...
  56. doi request reprint Chequerboard titration of cephalosporin CXA-101 (FR264205) and tazobactam versus beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, HPA Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1972-4. 2010
    ..We investigated the tazobactam concentrations needed to potentiate this cephalosporin against strains with these mechanisms...
  57. pmc Occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clones at multiple hospitals in London and Southeast England
    Juliana M Coelho
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Ave, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3623-7. 2006
    ..Their spread is forcing the use of unorthodox therapies, principally colistin and tigecycline, although the optimal regimens remain uncertain...
  58. pmc Plasmids imparting sulfonamide resistance in Escherichia coli: implications for persistence
    David C Bean
    Centre for Infectious Disease, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1088-93. 2009
    ....
  59. pmc Occurrence of OXA-58-like carbapenemases in Acinetobacter spp. collected over 10 years in three continents
    Juliana Coelho
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:756-8. 2006
    ..Most isolates (28 of 30) also had bla(OXA-51). We conclude that bla(OXA-58) is geographically widespread and has occurred in Acinetobacter spp. for over 10 years...
  60. ncbi request reprint Activity of faropenem against cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
    Shazad Mushtaq
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:1025-30. 2007
    ..We therefore evaluated faropenem, a penem in Phase III development, against recently collected oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant bacteria...
  61. ncbi request reprint Bacterial resistance: origins, epidemiology, and impact
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:S11-23. 2003
    ..Overall, the best that can reasonably be anticipated is an improved balance between the accumulation of resistance and new antibacterial development...
  62. doi request reprint Tigecycline resistance in Serratia marcescens associated with up-regulation of the SdeXY-HasF efflux system also active against ciprofloxacin and cefpirome
    Michael Hornsey
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:479-82. 2010
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility to moxifloxacin of pneumococci isolated in English hospitals participating in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) in 2003
    Alan P Johnson
    Department of Healthcare Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, HPA Centre for Infections, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 25:539-41. 2005
    ..8%, 5.4% and 13% of the isolates, respectively. These results show that the large majority of pneumococci were susceptible to moxifloxacin in 2003, the year when it was licensed for clinical use in the UK...
  64. doi request reprint Emergence of AcrAB-mediated tigecycline resistance in a clinical isolate of Enterobacter cloacae during ciprofloxacin treatment
    Michael Hornsey
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 35:478-81. 2010
    ..Treatment with ciprofloxacin, a substrate of AcrAB in E. cloacae, possibly selected for cross-resistance to tigecycline as a result of RamA-mediated AcrAB upregulation...
  65. ncbi request reprint Ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in England and Wales in 2002
    Kevin A Fenton
    Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Lancet 361:1867-9. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that national and local treatment guidelines need to be reviewed urgently...
  66. doi request reprint Linezolid-resistant ST36 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with prolonged linezolid treatment in two paediatric cystic fibrosis patients
    Robert L R Hill
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:442-5. 2010
    ..To describe the emergence of linezolid-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of sequence type (ST)36 lineage in two paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, after long-term low-dose linezolid treatment...
  67. ncbi request reprint Mutators among CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and risk for the emergence of fosfomycin resistance
    Matthew J Ellington
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 58:848-52. 2006
    ..Hypermutability among natural E. coli populations might facilitate the emergence of resistance to fosfomycin. We therefore examined the prevalence of mutators amongst urinary isolates of E. coli producing CTX-M beta-lactamases...
  68. doi request reprint Real-time PCR for detection of the O25b-ST131 clone of Escherichia coli and its CTX-M-15-like extended-spectrum beta-lactamases
    Hiran Dhanji
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 36:355-8. 2010
    ..coli O25b:H4 ST131 clone that commonly produces this enzyme. We describe rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays able to detect E. coli belonging to the ST131 clone and to identify bla(CTX-M-15)-like...
  69. pmc Complete nucleotide sequences of plasmids pEK204, pEK499, and pEK516, encoding CTX-M enzymes in three major Escherichia coli lineages from the United Kingdom, all belonging to the international O25:H4-ST131 clone
    Neil Woodford
    ARMRL, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:4472-82. 2009
    ..coli...
  70. doi request reprint Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria: a review of the global challenge
    Neil Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    J Infect 59:S4-16. 2009
    ..The emergence of antibiotic resistance is inevitable, but we must seek to decrease its impact and prolong the effectiveness of the agents available to us...
  71. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in London and South-East England
    Nicola A C Potz
    Healthcare Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 58:320-6. 2006
    ..To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in London and South-East England...
  72. doi request reprint Tackling antibiotic resistance: a dose of common antisense?
    Neil Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 63:225-9. 2009
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Wide geographic spread of diverse acquired AmpC beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in the UK and Ireland
    Neil Woodford
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:102-5. 2007
    ..To determine the distribution of acquired AmpC beta-lactamases in 173 isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. submitted to the UK's national reference laboratory for antibiotic resistance...
  74. ncbi request reprint Low in vitro selection frequencies of enterococcal and staphylococcal mutants resistant to the oxazolidinone AZD2563
    Mark W Stockdale
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency Colindale, 61 Colindale Ave, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 23:88-91. 2004
    ..Mutants of one E. faecalis isolate had a G2576-->U 23S rRNA mutation; mutants derived from the second E. faecalis isolate lacked this mutation...
  75. ncbi request reprint Ertapenem resistance among Klebsiella and Enterobacter submitted in the UK to a reference laboratory
    Neil Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:456-9. 2007
    ..or an AmpC enzyme in Enterobacter spp. - plus impermeability and/or increased efflux. Imipenem and meropenem often remain moderately active against isolates with low-level ertapenem resistance...
  76. ncbi request reprint Calcium-supplemented daptomycin Etest strips for susceptibility testing on Iso-Sensitest agar
    Alan P Johnson
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Colindale, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:860-2. 2004
    ....
  77. doi request reprint Arrival of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing KPC carbapenemase in the United Kingdom
    Neil Woodford
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:1261-4. 2008
    ..KPC-type carbapenemases are increasingly prevalent in parts of the USA and Israel and are an emerging concern in South America, Europe and China. We investigated the UK's first two KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates...
  78. ncbi request reprint Multiplex PCR for genes encoding prevalent OXA carbapenemases in Acinetobacter spp
    Neil Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Ave, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 27:351-3. 2006
    ..Genes encoding OXA-58 were detected (with bla(OXA-51-like)) in a cluster of related isolates from a single hospital. This simple assay will assist in monitoring the mechanisms responsible for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp...
  79. doi request reprint Non-susceptibility trends among staphylococci from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001-06
    Russell Hope
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:ii65-74. 2008
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Cephalosporin resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli isolated from raw chicken imported into the UK
    Hiran Dhanji
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:2534-7. 2010
    ..coli belonging to the international uropathogenic ST131 clone...
  81. doi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131 Escherichia coli producing CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in nursing homes in Belfast, UK
    Hiran Dhanji
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:297-303. 2011
    ..Of these, 58 isolates belonged to UK strain A, a variant of the international ST131 clone. Here we investigated the remaining 60 ESBL producers...
  82. ncbi request reprint The role of ISAba1 in expression of OXA carbapenemase genes in Acinetobacter baumannii
    Jane F Turton
    Laboratory of HealthCare Associated Infection, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 258:72-7. 2006
    ..These results suggest that ISAba1 is providing the promoter for blaOXA-51-like and, probably, for blaOXA-23-like...
  83. pmc bla(VIM-2) cassette-containing novel integrons in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida isolates disseminated in a Korean hospital
    Kyungwon Lee
    Department of Clinical Pathology and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1053-8. 2002
    ..Strict measures are required in order to control a further spread of resistance...
  84. pmc Sulfonamide resistance in Haemophilus influenzae mediated by acquisition of sul2 or a short insertion in chromosomal folP
    Virve I Enne
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1934-9. 2002
    ..The two mechanisms of resistance, mediated by sul2 and modified folP, were detected in isolates from both the United Kingdom and Kenya...
  85. ncbi request reprint In vivo development of ertapenem resistance in a patient with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
    Eugenne Elliott
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ampath Laboratories, Milpark Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 42:e95-8. 2006
    ..All 4 isolates belonged to the same strain and produced a group 1 CTX-M enzyme; additionally, the resistant isolates had lost a porin...
  86. pmc Nosocomial outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a new bla(IMP) allele, bla(IMP-7)
    Alan Patrick Gibb
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:255-8. 2002
    ..They produced a novel integron-associated metallo-beta-lactamase, designated IMP-7, with 91% identity to IMP-1. bla(IMP-7) was not detected with standard bla(IMP)-specific primers, owing to mismatches in the forward primer...
  87. ncbi request reprint Resistance among Escherichia coli to sulphonamides and other antimicrobials now little used in man
    David C Bean
    Centre for Infectious Disease, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:962-4. 2005
    ..Resistance to other agents no longer in common use was also examined...
  88. ncbi request reprint Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from South Africa with multiple TEM, SHV and AmpC beta-lactamases
    Sabiha Y Essack
    School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Durban Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 23:398-400. 2004
    ..The pI 8.4 activity was an AmpC-type enzyme. Determinants of the pI 5.6 and 7.6 activities were not identified...
  89. ncbi request reprint Reduced imipenem susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates with plasmid-mediated CMY-2 and DHA-1 beta-lactamases co-mediated by porin loss
    Kyungwon Lee
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120 752, South Korea
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:201-6. 2007
    ..pneumoniae at this Korean hospital was largely co-mediated by production of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases along with lack or greatly diminished expression of OmpK35 and OmpK36 porins...
  90. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of tigecycline against carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant isolates of Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp
    Neil Woodford
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:582-3. 2007
  91. ncbi request reprint Early onset Morganella morganii sepsis in a newborn infant with emergence of cephalosporin resistance caused by depression of AMPC beta-lactamase production
    Ajay K Sinha
    Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, UK
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:376-7. 2006
    ..When choosing antibiotic therapy, the risk of development of resistance to cephalosporins should be considered in infections caused by M. morganii and other Gram-negative organisms with inducible AmpC beta-lactamases...
  92. ncbi request reprint Activity of ertapenem against Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    David M Livermore
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:280-1. 2004
  93. ncbi request reprint False-positive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase tests for Klebsiella oxytoca strains hyperproducing K1 beta-lactamase
    Nicola A C Potz
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:545-7. 2004
  94. doi request reprint Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Turkey with OXA-48-like carbapenemases and outer membrane protein loss
    Dolunay Gulmez
    Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, 06100 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 31:523-6. 2008
    ..Both isolates also had group 1 CTX-M-type ESBLs and had lost major outer membrane proteins. OXA-48-like carbapenemases appear to be scattered in Turkey and surveillance to determine their prevalence is warranted...
  95. ncbi request reprint Activity of temocillin against prevalent ESBL- and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae from south-east England
    David M Livermore
    J Antimicrob Chemother 57:1012-4. 2006
  96. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of pneumococci causing meningitis in England and Wales to first-line antimicrobial agents, 2001-2004
    Alan P Johnson
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:1181-2. 2005
  97. ncbi request reprint Detection of CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in the United Kingdom
    Shazad Mushtaq
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:528-9. 2003
  98. ncbi request reprint Disagreements between disc diffusion, and MIC-based susceptibility categorizations of ertapenem versus ESBL producers
    Julie R Samuel
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:984-5. 2005
  99. doi request reprint Non-susceptibility trends and serotype distributions among Streptococcus pneumoniae from community-acquired respiratory tract infections and from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 1999 to 2007
    David J Farrell
    Quotient Bioresearch, Microbiology, 7 9 William Road, London NW1 3ER, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:ii87-95. 2008
    ....
  100. pmc Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing the OXA-23 enzyme in Curitiba, Brazil
    Libera M Dalla-Costa
    Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná HC, Curitiba, Brazil
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3403-6. 2003
    ..Treatment options were limited, although the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B in vitro. The strain contributed to the deaths of five patients...
  101. pmc Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections with PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Warsaw, Poland: further evidence for an international clonal complex
    Joanna Empel
    National Medicines Institute, ul Chełmska 30 34, 00 725 Warsaw, Poland
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2829-34. 2007
    ..It is associated with various beta-lactamases, including PER-1 and VIM metalloenzymes. This work further demonstrates the value of MLST of P. aeruginosa...