Ray Borrow

Summary

Affiliation: Health Protection Agency
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not provide additional serotype antibody protection in children who have been primed with two doses of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Paul Balmer
    Health Protection Agency, Clinical Sciences Building II, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 25:6321-5. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Neisseria meningitidis group B correlates of protection and assay standardization--international meeting report Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 16-17 March 2005
    R Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 24:5093-107. 2006
  3. pmc Persistence of antibodies in laboratory staff immunized with quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    Johannes Elias
    Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany
    J Occup Med Toxicol 8:4. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in children: what is the evidence?
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:292-303. 2012
  5. pmc An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease
    Debajeet Choudhuri
    Centre for Population Health Sciences, Global Health Academy, The University of Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:S29. 2011
  6. pmc Kinetics of antibody persistence following administration of a combination meningococcal serogroup C and haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in healthy infants in the United Kingdom primed with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, P O Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:154-9. 2010
  7. pmc Serotype-specific immune unresponsiveness to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine following invasive pneumococcal disease
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9XZ, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 76:5305-9. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Meningococcal surrogates of protection--serum bactericidal antibody activity
    Ray Borrow
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, Health Protection Agency North West Laboratory, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, UK
    Vaccine 23:2222-7. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Prevention of meningococcal serogroup C disease by NeisVac-C
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 8:265-79. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Long-term protection in children with meningococcal C conjugate vaccination: lessons learned
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, NW Regional HPA Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 5:851-7. 2006

Detail Information

Publications98

  1. ncbi request reprint The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not provide additional serotype antibody protection in children who have been primed with two doses of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Paul Balmer
    Health Protection Agency, Clinical Sciences Building II, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 25:6321-5. 2007
    ..In this cohort of children, PPV-23 vaccine did not broaden the protection in vitro against potentially pathogenic strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We call into question the recommendation to use the PPV-23 in children...
  2. ncbi request reprint Neisseria meningitidis group B correlates of protection and assay standardization--international meeting report Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 16-17 March 2005
    R Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 24:5093-107. 2006
  3. pmc Persistence of antibodies in laboratory staff immunized with quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    Johannes Elias
    Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany
    J Occup Med Toxicol 8:4. 2013
    ..While, until recently, immunization with quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine represented one cornerstone of protection, data on long-term persistence of antibodies in adults remain scarce...
  4. doi request reprint Use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in children: what is the evidence?
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:292-303. 2012
    ..The use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPVs) has in recent years become a topic of much debate, especially for use in children...
  5. pmc An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease
    Debajeet Choudhuri
    Centre for Population Health Sciences, Global Health Academy, The University of Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:S29. 2011
    ..We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococcal disease burden among children under 5 years of age...
  6. pmc Kinetics of antibody persistence following administration of a combination meningococcal serogroup C and haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in healthy infants in the United Kingdom primed with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, P O Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:154-9. 2010
    ....
  7. pmc Serotype-specific immune unresponsiveness to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine following invasive pneumococcal disease
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9XZ, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 76:5305-9. 2008
    ..This serotype-specific unresponsiveness may reflect immune paralysis due to large pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen loads and/or a potential genetic basis for nonresponse to individual pneumococcal serotypes...
  8. ncbi request reprint Meningococcal surrogates of protection--serum bactericidal antibody activity
    Ray Borrow
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, Health Protection Agency North West Laboratory, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, UK
    Vaccine 23:2222-7. 2005
    ..SBA activity as a correlate of protection for evaluating the immune response to meningococcal vaccines is described in this review...
  9. ncbi request reprint Prevention of meningococcal serogroup C disease by NeisVac-C
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 8:265-79. 2009
    ..NeisVac-C also enhances tetanus toxid responses and a dose of NeisVac-C in older children induces responses similar to a dose of tetanus toxoid vaccine...
  10. ncbi request reprint Long-term protection in children with meningococcal C conjugate vaccination: lessons learned
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, NW Regional HPA Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 5:851-7. 2006
    ..The assumption that immune memory was predictive of long-term protection is incorrect, at least after vaccination in infancy. Persistence of antibody and herd immunity may be more relevant for long-term disease control...
  11. pmc Interlaboratory standardization of the measurement of serum bactericidal activity by using human complement against meningococcal serogroup b, strain 44/76-SL, before and after vaccination with the Norwegian MenBvac outer membrane vesicle vaccine
    Ray Borrow
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, HPA North West Laboratory, P O Box 209, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:970-6. 2005
    ..The SBA assay has been harmonized between the four different laboratories with good agreement on seroconversion rates, n-fold changes in titers, and percentages of subjects with SBA titers of >or=4...
  12. doi request reprint Glycoconjugate vaccines and immune interactions, and implications for vaccination schedules
    Ray Borrow
    Health Protection Agency, Clinical Sciences Building 2, PO Box 209, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1621-31. 2011
    ..Potential interactions arising from new CRM(197) or TT conjugates will need to be thoroughly examined...
  13. pmc Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine
    Jay Lucidarme
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, P O Box 209, Floor 2, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M139WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:919-29. 2010
    ..On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%...
  14. pmc Immunogenicity of, and immunologic memory to, a reduced primary schedule of meningococcal C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants in the United kingdom
    Ray Borrow
    PHLS Meningococcal Reference Unit, Withington Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 71:5549-55. 2003
    ..This study provides the first evidence that the number of doses of MCC-TT used in infant immunization schedules could be decreased...
  15. pmc Effects of prior polysaccharide vaccination on magnitude, duration, and quality of immune responses to and safety profile of a meningococcal serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccination in adults
    Jo Southern
    Immunisation Department, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Ave, Colindale, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:1100-4. 2004
    ..The study shows that MCC-TT is safe and immunogenic in naive and previously MACP-vaccinated adults, though the magnitude and persistence of postvaccination SBA responses in the latter group were lower...
  16. pmc Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel vaccines in healthy infants in the United Kingdom
    Jo Southern
    Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:194-9. 2009
    ..This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies...
  17. pmc Age-stratified prevalences of pneumococcal-serotype-specific immunoglobulin G in England and their relationship to the serotype-specific incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease prior to the introduction of the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine
    Paul Balmer
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Laboratory, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, United Kingdom M13 9WZ
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1442-50. 2007
    ..These data provide a baseline for natural immunity to the pneumococcal serotypes analyzed prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom...
  18. pmc Safety and immunogenicity of coadministering a combined meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age
    Elizabeth Miller
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:367-72. 2011
    ..The United Kingdom infant immunization schedule now recommends that these three vaccines may be offered at one visit at between 12 and 13 months of age...
  19. doi request reprint Immunogenicity of a single dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given at 3 months of age to healthy infants in the United kingdom
    Helen Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:616-22. 2012
    ..Recent data have demonstrated that 2 of the 3 MCC vaccines showed potential for use as a single priming dose in infancy...
  20. pmc Immunoglobulin G subclass response to a meningococcal quadrivalent polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine
    Helen Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, P O Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:507-10. 2006
    ..Further studies on IgG subclasses following meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccination are needed...
  21. pmc Development and evaluation of a tetraplex flow cytometric assay for quantitation of serum antibodies to Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135
    Gouri Lal
    Health Protection Agency, Vaccine Evaluation Department, Manchester Royal Infirmary, United Kingdom
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:272-9. 2004
    ..The tetraplex assay has the potential to be an important addition to the serologic evaluation of meningococcal capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines...
  22. pmc Phase I safety and immunogenicity study of a candidate meningococcal disease vaccine based on Neisseria lactamica outer membrane vesicles
    Andrew R Gorringe
    Health Protection Agency, Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:1113-20. 2009
    ..In conclusion, this N. lactamica OMV vaccine is safe and induces a weak but broad humoral immune response to N. meningitidis...
  23. doi request reprint Impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days in England and wales
    Shamez N Ladhani
    Health Protection Services Colindale, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 56:633-40. 2013
    ....
  24. pmc Comparison and correlation of neisseria meningitidis serogroup B immunologic assay results and human antibody responses following three doses of the Norwegian meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine MenBvac
    Jamie Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 74:4557-65. 2006
    ..These results emphasize the need for standardized methodologies that would allow a more robust comparison of assays between laboratories and promote their further evaluation as correlates of protection against MenB disease...
  25. ncbi request reprint Clinical and immunologic risk factors for meningococcal C conjugate vaccine failure in the United Kingdom
    Cressida Auckland
    Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 194:1745-52. 2006
    ..The meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine was introduced into the United Kingdom with licensure based on immunogenicity data not efficacy data...
  26. ncbi request reprint Effect of sequence variation in meningococcal PorA outer membrane protein on the effectiveness of a hexavalent PorA outer membrane vesicle vaccine in toddlers and school children
    Jamie Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Department, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Vaccine 23:2623-7. 2005
    ..This was also reflected when > or = 4-fold rises in SBA titres were examined. This finding in sera from toddlers and school children may have implications for PorA based vaccines...
  27. ncbi request reprint Total and serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody titres in children with normal and abnormal humoral immunity
    Sharif Uddin
    University of Manchester, Booth Hall Children s Hospital, Charlestown Rd, Manchester, M9 7AA, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 24:5637-44. 2006
    ..Serotype-specific IgG were useful in determining the protection against specific pneumococcal strains, and showed that the PPV-23 did not broaden protection against non-PCV-7 serotypes...
  28. pmc Molecular targets in meningococci: efficient routine characterization and optimal outbreak investigation in conjunction with routine surveillance of the meningococcal group B vaccine candidate, fHBP
    Jay Lucidarme
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, PO Box 209, Floor 2, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:194-202. 2011
    ....
  29. pmc Comparison of phenotypically indistinguishable but geographically distinct Neisseria meningitidis Group B isolates in a serum bactericidal antibody assay
    Jamie Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Clinical Sciences Building II, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1451-7. 2007
    ..These results have implications for the choice of MenB target strains for inclusion in future studies of MenB vaccines and highlight the requirement for standardization of target strains between laboratories...
  30. ncbi request reprint Antibody persistence and immunological memory at age 4 years after meningococcal group C conjugate vaccination in children in the United kingdom
    Ray Borrow
    Public Health Laboratory Service Meningococcal Reference Unit, Withington Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 186:1353-7. 2002
    ..6; 95% CI, 338.0-2568.1). This is the first demonstration of immunological memory at 4 years of age in children receiving MCC vaccine on the United Kingdom's 2/3/4-month immunization schedule...
  31. pmc The distribution and 'in vivo' phase variation status of haemoglobin receptors in invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease: genotypic and phenotypic analysis
    Jay Lucidarme
    Public Health England, Manchester, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e76932. 2013
    ..Furthermore, the results of the study support a putative but non-essential role of the meningococcal haemoglobin receptors as virulence factors whilst further highlighting their vaccine candidacy...
  32. pmc Genetic distribution of noncapsular meningococcal group B vaccine antigens in Neisseria lactamica
    Jay Lucidarme
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Public Health England, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:1360-9. 2013
    ..Thus, 4CMenB vaccine responses may impact or be impacted by nasopharyngeal carriage of commensal neisseriae. This highlights an area for further research and surveillance should the vaccine be routinely implemented. ..
  33. pmc Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales
    Jay Lucidarme
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, P O Box 209, Floor 2, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3577-85. 2009
    ..Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster...
  34. ncbi request reprint Development and validation of a nonaplex assay for the simultaneous quantitation of antibodies to nine Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes
    Gouri Lal
    Health Protection Agency, Vaccine Evaluation Department, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    J Immunol Methods 296:135-47. 2005
    ..The pneumococcal nonaplex assay will prove to be a valuable tool to aid in the evaluation of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines...
  35. ncbi request reprint A multi-country evaluation of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B factor H-binding proteins and implications for vaccine coverage in different age groups
    Susan K Hoiseth
    From the Pfizer Vaccine Research, Pearl River, NY Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Wurzburg, Würzburg Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany National Institute of Health, Carlos III, Madrid, Spain Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA and Pfizer, Collegeville, PA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:1096-101. 2013
    ..A comprehensive understanding of fHBP epidemiology is required to accurately assess the potential vaccine impact when considering different vaccination implementation strategies...
  36. ncbi request reprint Neisseria vaccines 2007
    Jamie Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 6:485-9. 2007
  37. ncbi request reprint Immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in asplenic individuals
    Elaine Stanford
    Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
    Hum Vaccin 5:85-91. 2009
    ..Although immunogenic, there is insufficient evidence here to recommend routine PCV7 immunization over PPV23 immunization in adult asplenic individuals...
  38. doi request reprint Immunoglobulin G deficiency in United kingdom children with invasive pneumococcal disease
    Elaine Stanford
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:462-5. 2011
    ....
  39. pmc Assignment of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W135, and Y anticapsular total immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, and IgG2 concentrations to reference sera
    Helen Joseph
    Vaccine Evaluation Department, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:1-5. 2004
    ..The assignment here of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses to these reference sera will allow more detailed evaluation of meningococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines...
  40. ncbi request reprint Serologic correlates of protection for evaluating the response to meningococcal vaccines
    Paul Balmer
    Vaccine Evaluation Department, NW Regional HPA Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 3:77-87. 2004
    ..The serologic correlates of protection for evaluating the response to meningococcal vaccines are described in this review...
  41. pmc Using the indirect cohort design to estimate the effectiveness of the seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in England and Wales
    Nick Andrews
    Statistics, Modelling and Economics Department, Health Protection Services, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e28435. 2011
    ..We estimated the effectiveness of PCV-7 against IPD...
  42. ncbi request reprint Issues surrounding standardization of meningococcal group W135 serology
    Paul Balmer
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, UK
    Vaccine 25:A63-8. 2007
    ..International standardization of assays is necessary to allow for comparisons of data over time and place...
  43. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the key antigenic components and pre-clinical immune responses to a meningococcal disease vaccine based on Neisseria lactamica outer membrane vesicles
    Michelle Finney
    Health Protection Agency, Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK
    Hum Vaccin 4:23-30. 2008
    ..However, such antisera did mediate opsonophagocytosis, suggestingthat this may did mediate opsonophagocytosis, suggesting that this may be a mechanism by which this vaccine protects in a mouse model of meningococcal bacteraemia...
  44. pmc Prevalence of serum bactericidal antibody to serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis in England a decade after vaccine introduction
    David A Ishola
    Immunisation Department, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:1126-30. 2012
    ....
  45. pmc Meningococcal group C and w135 immunological hyporesponsiveness in african toddlers
    Helen Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, P O Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1492-6. 2011
    ....
  46. doi request reprint Recombinant protein meningococcal serogroup B vaccine combined with outer membrane vesicles
    Xilian Bai
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 11:969-85. 2011
    ..The novel vaccine Bexsero (previously 4CMenB) has been developed and proven safe and immunogenic in clinical trials...
  47. pmc Inadequacy of colominic acid as an absorbent intended to facilitate use of complement-preserved baby rabbit serum in the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B serum bactericidal antibody assay
    Jamie Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:556-61. 2007
    ..However, alternative absorbents, such as purified MenB polysaccharide, may warrant further evaluation...
  48. ncbi request reprint Assessment of functional antibody responses
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Department, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Methods Mol Med 87:289-300. 2003
  49. pmc Anti-pneumococcal antibody titre measurement: what useful information does it yield?
    Paul Balmer
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
    J Clin Pathol 60:345-50. 2007
    ..This review details a history of the pneumococcal serological assays and provides some insight into when serology can prove useful, including vaccination data for certain at-risk groups...
  50. pmc Characterization of Neisseria meningitidis isolates that do not express the virulence factor and vaccine antigen factor H binding protein
    Jay Lucidarme
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, North West Regional Laboratory, P O Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building II, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1002-14. 2011
    ..No fH binding was detected to other ligands among the fHbp-negative strains. The implications of these findings for meningococcal pathogenesis and prevention are discussed...
  51. doi request reprint Multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled trial of an investigational recombinant Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine with and without outer membrane vesicles, administered in infancy
    Jamie Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
    Clin Infect Dis 51:1127-37. 2010
    ..7-2,4). In this trial, we assessed the immunogenicity of these formulations in infants, who are at greatest risk of contracting MenB disease...
  52. ncbi request reprint Avidity maturation following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine in UK infants
    Emma Longworth
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, Manchester Public Health Laboratory, Withington Hospital, Nell Lane, UK
    Vaccine 20:2592-6. 2002
    ..No increase in avidity was observed in the control group. Antibody avidity indices are useful laboratory markers for the priming of immunological memory following vaccination with meningococcal serogroup B OMV vaccines...
  53. doi request reprint Advances with vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 17:1478-91. 2012
    ..The future now holds a distinct possibility, globally, for substantially decreasing meningococcal disease, regardless of infecting serogroup...
  54. doi request reprint Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y and W glycoconjugate vaccine, ACWY-TT
    Helen Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, PO Box 209, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Adv Ther 30:431-58. 2013
    ..Studies in young infants from 2 months of age have now commenced but immunisation with a single dose of ACWY-TT from 12 months of age is a safe and immunogenic option in the prevention of meningococcal disease...
  55. doi request reprint Invasive meningococcal disease in England and Wales: implications for the introduction of new vaccines
    Shamez N Ladhani
    Health Protection Agency Colindale, Immunisation Department, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 30:3710-6. 2012
    ....
  56. doi request reprint Genetic shifts of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B antigens and the quest for a broadly cross-protective vaccine
    Xilian Bai
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 9:1203-17. 2010
    ..The outlook for the quest for broadly cross-protective meningococcal serogroup B vaccine components in the postgenomic era will be discussed...
  57. ncbi request reprint Three cases of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a capsule null locus strain circulating among healthy carriers in Burkina Faso
    Helen Findlow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, M13 9WZ, UK
    J Infect Dis 195:1071-7. 2007
    ..The presence of cnl meningococci that can escape serum killing and cause invasive disease is of concern for future vaccination strategies and should promote rigorous surveillance of cnl meningococcal disease...
  58. pmc Updated postlicensure surveillance of the meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in England and Wales: effectiveness, validation of serological correlates of protection, and modeling predictions of the duration of herd immunity
    Helen Campbell
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:840-7. 2010
    ..Modeling suggested that protection against carriage persists for at least 3 years and predicted the stabilization of serogroup C disease at low levels (fewer than 50 cases per year) up to 2015-2016...
  59. doi request reprint Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine: the experience in England and Wales
    Helen Campbell
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 27:B20-9. 2009
    ..The MCC immunization programme has been extremely successful in controlling serogroup C disease and continues to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to review the experiences in England and Wales over the past 9 years...
  60. doi request reprint Effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine programmes
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Public Health England, Clinical Sciences Building, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK Electronic address
    Vaccine 31:4477-86. 2013
    ..If herd protection wanes following catch-up campaigns, many children may become vulnerable to infection. This has led many to question whether an adolescent booster is also required. ..
  61. doi request reprint Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in the UK in 2009
    Karen S Wagner
    Travel and Migrant Health Section, Colindale, Health Protection Agency, London, NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 30:7111-7. 2012
    ..This study aimed to estimate the immunity of the UK population to tetanus and diphtheria, including the potential impact of new glycoconjugatate vaccines, and the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster in 1994...
  62. pmc Molecular characterization of Neisseria meningitidis isolates using a resequencing DNA microarray
    Caroline E Corless
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, Health Protection Agency Manchester Laboratory, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
    J Mol Diagn 10:265-71. 2008
    ..These results suggest that that microarray resequencing may be a useful tool for the characterization of meningococci, particularly for those isolates that cannot be phenotyped, offering an alternative to conventional sequencing methods...
  63. doi request reprint Safe laboratory handling of Neisseria meningitidis
    Ray Borrow
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Public Health England, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK Electronic address
    J Infect 68:305-12. 2014
    ....
  64. pmc Genotypic analysis of meningococcal factor h-binding protein from non-culture clinical specimens
    Stephen A Clark
    Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Public Health England, Clinical Sciences Buildings, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e89921. 2014
    ..8%) of the non-culture clinical specimens in this study and exhibits sufficient sensitivity to type fHbp from the vast majority of non-culture clinical specimens received by the Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England. ..
  65. pmc Human papillomavirus antibody reference reagents for use in postvaccination surveillance serology
    Sara L Bissett
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:449-51. 2012
    ..These pools will be useful as control reagents for HPV serology...
  66. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of human papillomavirus antibodies in males and females in England
    Sarika Desai
    HIV and STI Department, Statistics, Modelling and Bioinformatics Department, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Sex Transm Dis 38:622-9. 2011
    ..Serum antibodies offer a longer-term marker of infection in individuals who seroconvert and can therefore provide additional information about the exposure of populations to HPV...
  67. ncbi request reprint Evidence for naturally acquired T cell-mediated mucosal immunity to Neisseria meningitidis
    Victoria Davenport
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 171:4263-70. 2003
    ..This mucosal cellular immunity can be present in the absence of serum bactericidal Abs, a classical marker of protective immunity...
  68. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for Neisseria meningitidis in North America and field experience during an outbreak
    Andrew J Pollard
    Division of Infectious and Immunological Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia s Research Institute for Child and Family Health, Vancouver, Canada
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:1209-15. 2002
    ..Use of a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay could enhance laboratory confirmation of cases and guide the public health response in North America...
  69. pmc Validation of serological correlate of protection for meningococcal C conjugate vaccine by using efficacy estimates from postlicensure surveillance in England
    Nick Andrews
    Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:780-6. 2003
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Long term effects of vaccination of patients deficient in a late complement component with a tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    Alexander E Platonov
    Central Institute of Epidemiology, Novogireevskaya St 3a, Moscow 111123, Russia
    Vaccine 21:4437-47. 2003
    ..05). Vaccination with of meningococcal tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine decreases the risk of meningococcal infection in LCCD patients...
  71. pmc Effect of vaccination with carrier protein on response to meningococcal C conjugate vaccines and value of different immunoassays as predictors of protection
    Moya Burrage
    Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 70:4946-54. 2002
    ....
  72. pmc Neisseria lactamica protects against experimental meningococcal infection
    Kerry J Oliver
    Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Salisbury SP4 0JG, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 70:3621-6. 2002
    ..The results confirm the potential of N. lactamica to form the basis of a vaccine against meningococcal disease...
  73. ncbi request reprint O-Acetylation status of the capsular polysaccharides of serogroup Y and W135 meningococci isolated in the UK
    Emma Longworth
    PHLS Meningococcal Reference Unit, Manchester Public Health Laborotory, Withington Hospital, Manchester M20 2LR, UK
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 32:119-23. 2002
    ..Although the biological relevance of O-acetylation status is unknown for these serogroups, an understanding of O-acetylation status of the respective polysaccharides may provide useful insights into the optimal vaccine formulation...
  74. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of meningococcal serogroup C bactericidal antibody in England and Wales in the pre-vaccination era
    Caroline Trotter
    Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 21:1094-8. 2003
    ..This study provides baseline antibody levels which will facilitate the evaluation of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination programme...
  75. ncbi request reprint Genetics of capsule O-acetylation in serogroup C, W-135 and Y meningococci
    Heike Claus
    Institut für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 2, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 51:227-39. 2004
    ..Our report is the first description of sequences of sialic acid O-acetyltransferase genes that have not been cloned from either other bacterial or mammalian organisms...
  76. ncbi request reprint Age-specific seroprevalence of serogroup C meningococcal serum bactericidal antibody activity and serogroup A, C, W135 and Y-specific IgG concentrations in the Turkish population during 2005
    Mehmet Ceyhan
    Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    Vaccine 25:7233-7. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint On the neisserial vaccine quest: Neisseria Vaccines 2007
    Rolando Pajon
    Meningococcal Research Department, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Cubanacán Havana, Cuba
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 5:545-50. 2007
  78. ncbi request reprint Prospective survey on carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and protective immunity to meningococci in schoolchildren in Niamey (Niger): focus on serogroup W135
    Amina Amadou Hamidou
    centre de recherche médicale et sanitaire, Réseau International des Instituts Pasteur, BP 10887, Niamey, Niger
    Microbes Infect 8:2098-104. 2006
    ..In May, 45.5% of them had specific IgG > or = 2 microg/ml vs. 5.3% among non-carriers...
  79. pmc Early appearance of bactericidal antibodies after polysaccharide challenge of toddlers primed with a group C meningococcal conjugate vaccine: what is its role in the maintenance of protection?
    Theodore F Tsai
    Wyeth Research, 500 Arcola Rd, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:854-61. 2006
    ..The majority of toddlers previously immunized with MCC and challenged 1 year later with PS antigen mounted protective levels of bactericidal antibody within 2 to 4 days...
  80. ncbi request reprint Safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence of a new meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine in healthy Indian adults
    Nilima Kshirsagar
    Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital Parel, Mumbai, India
    Vaccine 25:A101-7. 2007
    ..This opens the prospective for further development and licensure of this vaccine to eliminate epidemic meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa...
  81. pmc Seroprevalence of bactericidal and anti-outer membrane vesicle antibodies to Neisseria meningitidis group B in England
    Caroline Trotter
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2PR, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:863-8. 2007
    ..With the exception of children aged 3 to 11 months, there was no clear relationship between disease incidence and seroprevalence...
  82. ncbi request reprint Revaccination of children after completion of standard chemotherapy for acute leukemia
    Soonie R Patel
    Pediatric Oncology Department, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 44:635-42. 2007
    ..After the treatment of patients with acute leukemia, there is a decrease in vaccine-specific antibody and an increased susceptibility to certain vaccine-preventable diseases. A simple revaccination schedule is warranted...
  83. ncbi request reprint Revaccination with measles, tetanus, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, meningococcus C, and pneumococcus vaccines in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    Soonie R Patel
    Pediatric Oncology Department, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 44:625-34. 2007
    ..A simple and validated revaccination schedule is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of a revaccination schedule for pediatric HSCT recipients...
  84. ncbi request reprint The rise and fall of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso, 2002-2005
    Yves Traore
    Universite de Ouagadougou
    Clin Infect Dis 43:817-22. 2006
    ..During the period 2001-2002, Burkina Faso reported its first meningitis epidemic due to Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) serogroup W135, prompting concerns that this serogroup would persist as a cause of epidemic disease...
  85. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and boosting after a reduced number of doses of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers
    David Goldblatt
    Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:312-9. 2006
    ..The minimum number of doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine required for protection is not known. We studied the immunogenicity of a reduced schedule in infants and toddlers...
  86. ncbi request reprint The magnitude of the antibody and memory B cell responses during priming with a protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in human infants is associated with the persistence of antibody and the intensity of booster response
    Geraldine Blanchard Rohner
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Immunol 180:2165-73. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that these two parameters are good markers of B cell responses to priming and can be used as predictors of long term humoral immunity induced by glycoconjugate vaccines received in early infancy...
  87. pmc A generic mechanism in Neisseria meningitidis for enhanced resistance against bactericidal antibodies
    Maria Jose Uria
    Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Department of Microbiology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, England, UK
    J Exp Med 205:1423-34. 2008
    ..The strains with IS1301 in the IGR avoided complement-mediated lysis in the presence of bactericidal antibodies directed at the outer membrane protein, PorA, or raised against whole cells...
  88. pmc Immunologic hyporesponsiveness to serogroup C but not serogroup A following repeated meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccination in Saudi Arabia
    Hani Jokhdar
    School of Epidemiology and Health Science, Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:83-8. 2004
    ....
  89. pmc Immunogenicity and safety of three doses of a bivalent (B:4:p1.19,15 and B:4:p1.7-2,4) meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine in healthy adolescents
    Dominique Boutriau
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rue de l Institut 89, 1330 Rixensart, Belgium
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:65-73. 2007
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Lack of serum bactericidal activity in preschool children two years after a single dose of serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine
    Matthew D Snape
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:128-31. 2005
    ..A serum bactericidal titer of <1/8 correlates with susceptibility to invasive meningococcal disease. We assessed this correlate of protection in a cohort of children approximately 2 years after a single dose of vaccine...
  91. pmc Analysis of human serum immunoglobulin G against O-acetyl-positive and O-acetyl-negative serogroup W135 meningococcal capsular polysaccharide
    Peter C Giardina
    Department of Applied Immunology and Microbiology, Wyeth Vaccines Research, 401 Middletown Road, Pearl River, NY 10965, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:586-92. 2005
    ..Our data indicate that, for some sera, the agreement in anti-OA+ versus anti-OA- W135 IgG assignments is serum specific and does not reflect the functional (killing) activity in vitro...
  92. ncbi request reprint Natural and vaccine-induced immunity and immunologic memory to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in young adults
    David Goldblatt
    Immunobiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, Public Health Laboratory Service, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 185:397-400. 2002
    ....
  93. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and immunologic memory of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in premature infants
    Clare L Collins
    St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:966-8. 2005
    ..K. routine immunization schedule in 1999. This study is the first to describe both persistence of antibody and evidence for induction of immune memory using meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in preterm infants...
  94. pmc Induction of protective serum meningococcal bactericidal and diphtheria-neutralizing antibodies and mucosal immunoglobulin A in volunteers by nasal insufflations of the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C polysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine mixed with
    Zhiming Huo
    St George s Vaccine Institute, London, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 73:8256-65. 2005
    ..Simple nasal insufflation of existing MCP-CRM197 conjugate vaccines in chitosan offers an inexpensive but effective needle-free prime and boost against serogroup C N. meningitidis and diphtheria...
  95. ncbi request reprint Mucosal immunity in healthy adults after parenteral vaccination with outer-membrane vesicles from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B
    Victoria Davenport
    Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 198:731-40. 2008
    ..This natural immunity is associated with mucosal and systemic T cell memory. Whether parenteral Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) vaccination influences natural mucosal immunity is unknown...
  96. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and induction of immunological memory of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preterm UK infants
    Jens U Ruggeberg
    Division of Child Health and Vaccine Institute, St George s University of London, London, UK, and Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of General Paediatrics, University Children s Hospital, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Vaccine 25:264-71. 2007
    ..Antibody concentrations wane over the first year of life in both preterm and term infants and booster vaccination is therefore likely to be important...
  97. pmc A prospective study of etiology of childhood acute bacterial meningitis, Turkey
    Mehmet Ceyhan
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1089-96. 2008
    ..This study highlights the emergence of serogroup W-135 disease in Turkey and concludes that vaccines to prevent meningococcal disease in this region must provide reliable protection against this serogroup...
  98. ncbi request reprint From genomics to surveillance, prevention and control: new challenges for the African meningitis belt
    Jean Michel Alonso
    Institut Pasteur, National Reference Centre for Meningococci, Neisseiria Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine, Paris, France
    Vaccine 24:4279-84. 2006