Robert Clarke

Summary

Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Effects of B-vitamins on plasma homocysteine concentrations and on risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10:32-9. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to cognitive impairment and anaemia in the setting of voluntary fortification in the UK
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Br J Nutr 100:1054-9. 2008
  3. ncbi request reprint Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and CHD in older men: Whitehall study of London civil servants
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit CTSU, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX37LF, UK
    Br J Nutr 102:279-84. 2009
  4. ncbi request reprint The exon 1-8C/G SNP in the PSMA6 gene contributes only a small amount to the burden of myocardial infarction in 6946 cases and 2720 controls from a United Kingdom population
    Derrick A Bennett
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Hum Genet 16:480-6. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:1384-91. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Genetic variants associated with Lp(a) lipoprotein level and coronary disease
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 361:2518-28. 2009
  7. pmc The joint effects of apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol on risk: 3510 cases of acute myocardial infarction and 9805 controls
    Sarah Parish
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Eur Heart J 30:2137-46. 2009
  8. pmc Impact of common genetic variation on response to simvastatin therapy among 18 705 participants in the Heart Protection Study
    Jemma C Hopewell
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur Heart J 34:982-92. 2013
  9. pmc Homocysteine and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of MTHFR case-control studies, avoiding publication bias
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    PLoS Med 9:e1001177. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Lipoprotein(a) genetic variants associated with coronary and peripheral vascular disease but not with stroke risk in the Heart Protection Study
    Jemma C Hopewell
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4:68-73. 2011

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Effects of B-vitamins on plasma homocysteine concentrations and on risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10:32-9. 2007
    ..Dietary supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 lowers blood homocysteine concentrations, but it is not known if this reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke...
  2. ncbi request reprint Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to cognitive impairment and anaemia in the setting of voluntary fortification in the UK
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Br J Nutr 100:1054-9. 2008
    ..88)). There was no evidence of modification by high folate status of the associations of low B12 with anaemia or cognitive impairment in the setting of voluntary fortification, but periodic surveys are needed to monitor fortification...
  3. ncbi request reprint Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and CHD in older men: Whitehall study of London civil servants
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit CTSU, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX37LF, UK
    Br J Nutr 102:279-84. 2009
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint The exon 1-8C/G SNP in the PSMA6 gene contributes only a small amount to the burden of myocardial infarction in 6946 cases and 2720 controls from a United Kingdom population
    Derrick A Bennett
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Hum Genet 16:480-6. 2008
    ..However, given the rarity of this variant in Caucasians, the attributable risk of rs1048990 for MI is unlikely to be great in western populations...
  5. ncbi request reprint Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:1384-91. 2007
    ..Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline...
  6. ncbi request reprint Genetic variants associated with Lp(a) lipoprotein level and coronary disease
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 361:2518-28. 2009
    ..The genetic determinants of the Lp(a) lipoprotein level and their relevance for the risk of coronary disease are incompletely understood...
  7. pmc The joint effects of apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol on risk: 3510 cases of acute myocardial infarction and 9805 controls
    Sarah Parish
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Eur Heart J 30:2137-46. 2009
    ..The interdependence of these four risk factors is unclear...
  8. pmc Impact of common genetic variation on response to simvastatin therapy among 18 705 participants in the Heart Protection Study
    Jemma C Hopewell
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur Heart J 34:982-92. 2013
    ..This study of 18 705 individuals aims to identify genetic variants related to the lipid response to simvastatin and assess their impact on vascular risk response...
  9. pmc Homocysteine and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of MTHFR case-control studies, avoiding publication bias
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    PLoS Med 9:e1001177. 2012
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Lipoprotein(a) genetic variants associated with coronary and peripheral vascular disease but not with stroke risk in the Heart Protection Study
    Jemma C Hopewell
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4:68-73. 2011
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Facts and recommendations about total homocysteine determinations: an expert opinion
    Helga Refsum
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, UK
    Clin Chem 50:3-32. 2004
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Homocysteine and vascular disease: review of published results of the homocysteine-lowering trials
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Oxford, UK
    J Inherit Metab Dis 34:83-91. 2011
    ..However, available evidence does not support the routine use of B vitamins to prevent cardiovascular disease...
  13. ncbi request reprint Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in later life
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit Division of Clinical Geratology University Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Age Ageing 33:34-41. 2004
    ..to examine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency in later life in representative samples of the elderly population in the United Kingdom...
  14. doi request reprint No impact of KIF6 genotype on vascular risk and statin response among 18,348 randomized patients in the heart protection study
    Jemma C Hopewell
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Am Coll Cardiol 57:2000-7. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to test the effects of the KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) on vascular risk and response to statin therapy in 18,348 participants from the Heart Protection Study...
  15. doi request reprint Vitamin D and risk of death from vascular and non-vascular causes in the Whitehall study and meta-analyses of 12,000 deaths
    Joseph Tomson
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Eur Heart J 34:1365-74. 2013
    ..To examine the independent relevance of plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] for vascular and non-vascular mortality...
  16. ncbi request reprint Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths
    Sarah Lewington
    CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Lancet 370:1829-39. 2007
    ..This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol at baseline, to determine the joint relevance of these two risk factors...
  17. ncbi request reprint Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Clin Chem 53:963-70. 2007
    ..Concentrations of this active component, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12)...
  18. ncbi request reprint Homocysteine and coronary heart disease
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Semin Vasc Med 2:391-9. 2002
    ..Large-scale clinical trials of folic acid-based vitamin supplements are currently in progress to test whether lowering blood homocysteine levels can reduce the risks of CHD and stroke...
  19. ncbi request reprint B-vitamins and prevention of dementia
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, Richard Doll Building, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 67:75-81. 2008
    ..The principal investigators of such trials have agreed to combine individual-participant data from their trials after their separate publication...
  20. ncbi request reprint Biomarkers of inflammation predict both vascular and non-vascular mortality in older men
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Richard Doll Building, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Eur Heart J 29:800-9. 2008
    ..To compare the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers and lipids for vascular and non-vascular mortality in older men...
  21. ncbi request reprint Absence of relationship between MTTP haplotypes and longevity
    Matt J Neville
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, UK
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62:202-5. 2007
    ..However, the association of MTTP with longevity has been contested in a large German collection of nonagenarians and centenarians...
  22. ncbi request reprint Screening for vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in older persons
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:1241-7. 2003
    ..Folate deficiency also results in elevated tHcy. Measurement of these metabolites can be used to screen for functional vitamin B-12 or folate deficiency...
  23. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility to coronary artery disease and diabetes is encoded by distinct, tightly linked SNPs in the ANRIL locus on chromosome 9p
    Helen M Broadbent
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 17:806-14. 2008
    ..A large antisense non-coding RNA gene (ANRIL) collocates with the high-risk haplotype, is expressed in tissues and cell types that are affected by atherosclerosis and is a prime candidate gene for the chromosome 9p CAD locus...
  24. ncbi request reprint Survival in relation to angina symptoms and diagnosis among men aged 70-90 years: the Whitehall Study
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 14:280-6. 2007
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Cholesterol, coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of published evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials
    Rachel Huxley
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Semin Vasc Med 2:315-23. 2002
    ..8 mmol/l (that is by 10 to 15%), with four fifths of this reduction being in LDL cholesterol...
  26. ncbi request reprint Homocysteine, B-vitamins, and the risk of cardiovascular disease
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England
    Semin Vasc Med 5:75-6. 2005
  27. ncbi request reprint Regression dilution bias in blood total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure in the Glostrup and Framingham prospective studies
    Sarah Lewington
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, UK
    J Cardiovasc Risk 10:143-8. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of regression dilution bias for HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and blood pressure after varying intervals of follow-up in two prospective cohort studies...
  28. pmc Shared genetic susceptibility to ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease: a genome-wide analysis of common variants
    Martin Dichgans
    From the Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, Klinikum der Universitat Munchen, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munich, Germany M D, R Malik Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology SyNergy, Munich, Germany M D Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik I R K, and Institut für integrative und experimentelle Genomik J E, Universitat zu Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany Universitätsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lubeck, Germany I R K Department of Neurology and Center for Human Genetic Research J R, and Cardiology Division C J O D, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA J R Program in Medical and Population Genetics J R, and Program in Medical and Population Genetics S K, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit R C, J C H, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics H W, M Farrall, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine M Farrall, and Stroke Prevention Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience P M R, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland S G, G T, U T
    Stroke 45:24-36. 2014
    ..Ischemic stroke (IS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) share several risk factors and each has a substantial heritability. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to evaluate the extent of shared genetic determination of the two diseases...
  29. ncbi request reprint Homocysteine-lowering trials for prevention of heart disease and stroke
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England
    Semin Vasc Med 5:215-22. 2005
    ..A metaanalysis of these trials should have adequate power to determine whether homocysteine-lowering vitamin supplements can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease...
  30. pmc Lymphotoxin-alpha gene and risk of myocardial infarction in 6,928 cases and 2,712 controls in the ISIS case-control study
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, Old Road Campus, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 2:e107. 2006
    ..Overall, these studies provide reliable evidence that these common polymorphisms for the LTA gene are not strongly associated with susceptibility to coronary disease...
  31. ncbi request reprint Antioxidant vitamins and risk of cardiovascular disease. Review of large-scale randomised trials
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 16:411-5. 2002
    ..The results of these trials have been disappointing and failed to confirm any protective effect of these vitamins for either cancer or for cardiovascular disease...
  32. pmc Use of drug treatment for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in urban and rural communities of China: China Kadoorie Biobank Study of 0.5 million people
    YiPing Chen
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit CTSU, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Electronic address
    Int J Cardiol 172:88-95. 2014
    ..Relatively little is known about the use of medication for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in China, and the relevance to it of socioeconomic, lifestyle and health-related factors...
  33. ncbi request reprint Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults
    Celeste A de Jager
    Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing and University Department of Pharmacology, Oxford, UK
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 18:318-24. 2003
    ..The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assessment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone...
  34. ncbi request reprint Effect of vitamins and aspirin on markers of platelet activation, oxidative stress and homocysteine in people at high risk of dementia
    Robert Clarke
    J Intern Med 254:67-75. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Bread cofortified with folic acid and vitamin B-12 improves the folate and vitamin B-12 status of healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial
    Renate M Winkels
    Top Institute of Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:348-55. 2008
    ..Cofortification of flour with folic acid and vitamin B-12 could simultaneously improve folate and vitamin B-12 status...
  36. ncbi request reprint Plasma homocysteine, but not folate or vitamin B-12, predicts mortality in older people in the United Kingdom
    Alan D Dangour
    Centre for Ageing and Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    J Nutr 138:1121-8. 2008
    ..Our results extend previously reported associations of homocysteine with mortality, and the absence of associations of folate and vitamin B-12 with mortality, to the older population...
  37. ncbi request reprint Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the risk of dementia
    Robert Clarke
    Am J Clin Nutr 85:329-30. 2007
  38. ncbi request reprint Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Simone J Eussen
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:361-70. 2006
    ..Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, evidence from randomized trials of the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive function is limited and inconclusive...
  39. ncbi request reprint Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia
    Robert Clarke
    N Engl J Med 354:2817-9. 2006
  40. ncbi request reprint Homocysteine and cardiovascular risk: considering the evidence in the context of study design, folate fortification, and statistical power
    Per Magne Ueland
    Clin Chem 53:807-9. 2007
  41. ncbi request reprint The association of betaine, homocysteine and related metabolites with cognitive function in Dutch elderly people
    Simone J P M Eussen
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Br J Nutr 98:960-8. 2007
    ..There was a tendency of participants with the largest increases in betaine concentrations to show the greatest improvement in memory function...
  42. ncbi request reprint Cause-specific mortality in old age in relation to body mass index in middle age and in old age: follow-up of the Whitehall cohort of male civil servants
    Elizabeth Breeze
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 35:169-78. 2006
    ..The relevance of body mass index (BMI) to cause-specific mortality in old age is uncertain...
  43. ncbi request reprint Commentary: an updated review of the published studies of homocysteine and cardiovascular disease
    Robert Clarke
    Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England
    Int J Epidemiol 31:70-1. 2002
  44. ncbi request reprint MTHFR 677C-->T polymorphism and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis
    Mariska Klerk
    Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    JAMA 288:2023-31. 2002
    ..The MTHFR 677C-->T polymorphism is a genetic alteration in an enzyme involved in folate metabolism that causes elevated homocysteine concentrations, but its relevance to risk of CHD is uncertain...
  45. ncbi request reprint Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies
    Sarah Lewington
    Lancet 360:1903-13. 2002
    ..The age-specific relevance of blood pressure to cause-specific mortality is best assessed by collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from the separate prospective studies...
  46. ncbi request reprint B vitamins for the prevention of vascular disease: insufficient evidence to justify treatment
    Colin Baigent
    JAMA 298:1212-4. 2007
  47. ncbi request reprint Folic acid and reduction of plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response study
    Floor V A van Oort
    Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Wageningen, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:1318-23. 2003
    ..The minimum dose of folic acid required for maximal reduction of homocysteine concentrations is not yet known reliably...
  48. ncbi request reprint Clinical relevance of low serum vitamin B12 concentrations in older people: the Banbury B12 study
    Harold Hin
    Hightown Surgery, Hightown Gardens, Banbury, UK
    Age Ageing 35:416-22. 2006
    ..low vitamin B12 concentrations are common in older people, but the clinical relevance of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the absence of anaemia is uncertain...
  49. ncbi request reprint Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial
    Simone J P M Eussen
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Arch Intern Med 165:1167-72. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk
    Bruce J Trock
    Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 98:459-71. 2006
    ..Thus, rigorous evaluation of available epidemiologic data is necessary before appropriate recommendations can be made, especially for women at high risk of breast cancer or those who have survived the disease...
  51. ncbi request reprint Incident dementia and blood pressure lowering in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial cognitive function assessment (HYVET-COG): a double-blind, placebo controlled trial
    Ruth Peters
    Care of the Elderly, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 7:683-9. 2008
    ..The Hypertension in the Very Elderly trial (HYVET) was designed to assess the risks and benefits of treatment of hypertension in elderly patients and included an assessment of cognitive function...
  52. ncbi request reprint Interactions among polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes and serum total homocysteine concentrations in a healthy elderly population
    Angela M Devlin
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:708-13. 2006
    ..Homocysteine concentrations are influenced by vitamin status and genetics, especially several polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes...
  53. ncbi request reprint Homocysteine, silent brain infarcts, and white matter lesions: The Rotterdam Scan Study
    Sarah E Vermeer
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Ann Neurol 51:285-9. 2002
    ..16-1.58). We concluded that total homocysteine levels are associated with silent brain infarcts and white matter lesions independent of each other and of other cardiovascular risk factors...
  54. ncbi request reprint Combined effects of systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol on cardiovascular disease risk
    Sarah Lewington
    Circulation 112:3373-4. 2005
  55. ncbi request reprint Betaine concentration as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine concentrations and the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations
    Alida Melse-Boonstra
    Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences and the Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:1378-82. 2005
    ..The relevance of betaine as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) is not known, nor is it known how the 2 remethylation pathways are interrelated...