B J Howard

Summary

Affiliation: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint The IAEA handbook on radionuclide transfer to wildlife
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 121:55-74. 2013
  2. ncbi request reprint The transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 98:177-90. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint The transfer of 239/240Pu to cow milk
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 98:191-204. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 83:275-95. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Radiostrontium contamination of soil and vegetation within the Semipalatinsk test site
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK
    Radiat Environ Biophys 43:285-92. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint A critical evaluation of the strategy project
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster University Campus, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry 109:63-7. 2004
  7. doi request reprint Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 100:263-73. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Long-term consequences for Northern Norway of a hypothetical release from the Kola nuclear power plant
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    Sci Total Environ 327:53-68. 2004
  9. doi request reprint Quantifying the transfer of radionuclides to food products from domestic farm animals
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue Bailrigg, Lancaster, UK
    J Environ Radioact 100:767-73. 2009
  10. doi request reprint Gastrointestinal fractional absorption of radionuclides in adult domestic ruminants
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, United Kingdom
    J Environ Radioact 100:1069-78. 2009

Detail Information

Publications38

  1. doi request reprint The IAEA handbook on radionuclide transfer to wildlife
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 121:55-74. 2013
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint The transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 98:177-90. 2007
    ..The rate of transfer of (35)S to milk of a further group of goats receiving (35)S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed...
  3. ncbi request reprint The transfer of 239/240Pu to cow milk
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 98:191-204. 2007
    ..We recommend for screening purposes an F(m) value of 1x10(-5)d l(-1) for Pu, with an order of magnitude lower value being appropriate for cows which are only exposed for one grazing season...
  4. ncbi request reprint The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 83:275-95. 2005
    ..The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed...
  5. ncbi request reprint Radiostrontium contamination of soil and vegetation within the Semipalatinsk test site
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK
    Radiat Environ Biophys 43:285-92. 2004
    ..A comparison of relative activity concentrations in soil and vegetation suggests that the transfer of (90)Sr to vegetation on the STS is high compared to that of (137)Cs and plutonium...
  6. ncbi request reprint A critical evaluation of the strategy project
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster University Campus, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry 109:63-7. 2004
    ..The outputs of the project are described and critically evaluated...
  7. doi request reprint Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 100:263-73. 2009
    ..Many data gaps remain...
  8. ncbi request reprint Long-term consequences for Northern Norway of a hypothetical release from the Kola nuclear power plant
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    Sci Total Environ 327:53-68. 2004
    ..The results show the need for an effective emergency response, with appropriate countermeasures, should an accident of the scale considered in this paper occur at the KNPP...
  9. doi request reprint Quantifying the transfer of radionuclides to food products from domestic farm animals
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue Bailrigg, Lancaster, UK
    J Environ Radioact 100:767-73. 2009
    ..However, transfer coefficients will continue to be used as few studies currently report CR values or give data from which they can be estimated...
  10. doi request reprint Gastrointestinal fractional absorption of radionuclides in adult domestic ruminants
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, United Kingdom
    J Environ Radioact 100:1069-78. 2009
    ..The values for domestic ruminants are compared with those derived by the International Commission for Radiological Protection for adult humans...
  11. doi request reprint Protection of the environment from ionising radiation in a regulatory context--an overview of the PROTECT coordinated action project
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Radiol Prot 30:195-214. 2010
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Estimation of critical loads for radiocaesium in Fennoscandia and Northwest Russia
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Merlewood Research Station, Grange Over Sands, Cumbria, UK
    J Environ Radioact 60:209-20. 2002
    ..An example of the potential application of the method for emergency preparedness is given for the Chernobyl accident...
  13. ncbi request reprint Countermeasures for animal products: a review of effectiveness and potential usefulness after an accident
    B J Howard
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Merlewood, Grange Over Sands, Cumbria, LA11 6JU, UK
    J Environ Radioact 56:115-37. 2001
    ..Evaluation of these factors has shown that some previously recommended countermeasures are unlikely to be feasible...
  14. ncbi request reprint Self-help countermeasure strategies for populations living within contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange Over Sands, Cumbria LA11 6JU, UK
    J Environ Radioact 56:215-39. 2001
    ..Evidence to suggest that the transfer of radiocaesium to cow milk is considerably higher in the FSU than within western Europe and North America is discussed...
  15. doi request reprint Estimating the exposure of small mammals at three sites within the Chernobyl exclusion zone--a test application of the ERICA Tool
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 99:1496-502. 2008
    ..Given the uncertainties of conducting a study such as this, the agreement observed between the TLD results and the predicted external dose rates gives confidence to the predictions of the ERICA Tool...
  16. doi request reprint Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: an international comparison of approaches
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Radiol Prot 30:341-73. 2010
    ..Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored...
  17. doi request reprint Observations of Fukushima fallout in Great Britain
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, United Kingdom
    J Environ Radioact 114:48-53. 2012
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint The transfer of radionuclides from saltmarsh vegetation to sheep tissues and milk
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 98:36-49. 2007
    ..A field study to determine the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in the milk of ewes grazing a saltmarsh close to Sellafield is also described...
  19. doi request reprint Inter-comparison of models to estimate radionuclide activity concentrations in non-human biota
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    Radiat Environ Biophys 47:491-514. 2008
    ..There is a clear need to focus efforts and provide authoritative compilations of those data which are available...
  20. ncbi request reprint Development of an approach to estimating mid- to long-term critical loads for radiocaesium contamination of cow milk in western Europe
    S M Wright
    Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Cumbria, UK
    Sci Total Environ 221:75-87. 1998
    ..Potential problems and deficiencies affecting the estimation of parameter values are discussed...
  21. doi request reprint Derivation of transfer parameters for use within the ERICA Tool and the default concentration ratios for terrestrial biota
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 99:1393-407. 2008
    ..The approaches taken for selecting the remaining values are described. These included, for example, assuming values for similar reference organisms and/or biogeochemically similar elements, and various simple modelling approaches...
  22. ncbi request reprint Estimating radionuclide transfer to wild species--data requirements and availability for terrestrial ecosystems
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Radiol Prot 24:A89-103. 2004
    ..Furthermore, there is a need to validate the various methodologies to enable their use with confidence. The requirements of improving our ability to predict radionuclide transfer to wild species are discussed and recommendations made...
  23. ncbi request reprint Factors contributing to radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks in west Cumbria (United Kingdom)
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 98:50-68. 2007
    ..However, the factors are too site specific to be able to generalise the findings to other farms within the restricted areas of the UK...
  24. ncbi request reprint Radiocaesium activity concentrations in the fruit-bodies of macrofungi in Great Britain and an assessment of dietary intake habits
    C L Barnett
    Institute of Terrestrial Ecology ITE, Merlewood Research Station, Grange Over Sands, Cumbria, UK
    Sci Total Environ 231:67-83. 1999
    ..However, the results of this study demonstrate that, in the event of any future accidental release of radiocaesium, the potential ingestion dose received from the consumption of wild fungi would need to be considered...
  25. ncbi request reprint The transfer of radiocaesium to ewes through a breeding cycle--an illustration of the pitfalls of the transfer coefficient
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
    J Environ Radioact 98:24-35. 2007
    ..A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter...
  26. ncbi request reprint A simple method for the estimation of the bioavailability of radiocaesium from herbage contaminated by adherent soil
    N A Beresford
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Merlewood, Grange Over Sands, Cumbria, UK
    J Environ Radioact 63:77-84. 2002
    ..The use of this technique would negate the need for detailed measurements of the amount of soil adhering to sampled vegetation and soil-specific radiocaesium bioavailability assessments...
  27. ncbi request reprint Inter-comparison of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota
    J Vives i Batlle
    Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, UK
    Radiat Environ Biophys 46:349-73. 2007
    ..The intercomparison demonstrated that all participating approaches to biota dose calculation are reasonably comparable, despite a range of different assumptions being made...
  28. ncbi request reprint Identifying optimal agricultural countermeasure strategies for a hypothetical contamination scenario using the strategy model
    G Cox
    Division of Agricultural and Environmental Science, School of Bioscience, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    J Environ Radioact 83:383-97. 2005
    ..The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented...
  29. ncbi request reprint Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption
    S Fesenko
    International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna, Austria
    J Environ Radioact 98:85-103. 2007
    ..Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna]...
  30. ncbi request reprint Temporal and spatial prediction of radiocaesium transfer to food products
    A G Gillett
    School of Life and Environmental Science, University of Nottingham, UK
    Radiat Environ Biophys 40:227-35. 2001
    ..When vulnerability is assessed using flux the spatial pattern is more complex and depends upon food product...
  31. ncbi request reprint Radioactive contamination in the Arctic--sources, dose assessment and potential risks
    P Strand
    Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, 0sterås
    J Environ Radioact 60:5-21. 2002
    ..It is important to foster a close association between risk assessment and practical programmes for the purposes of improving monitoring, formulating response strategies and implementing action plans...
  32. ncbi request reprint Current contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr of the inhabited part of the Techa river basin in the Urals
    V N Shutov
    Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St Petersburg, Russia
    J Environ Radioact 61:91-109. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned
    S V Fesenko
    International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna, Austria
    J Radiol Prot 26:351-9. 2006
    ..This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience...
  34. ncbi request reprint Radiocaesium in lynx in relation to ground deposition and diet
    B Ahman
    Reindeer Husbandry Unit Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7023, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
    Radiat Environ Biophys 43:119-26. 2004
    ..The study shows that the accumulation of radiocaesium in predators, especially predators of reindeer, makes them more vulnerable to high radiocaesium deposition than most other wild species...
  35. ncbi request reprint Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland
    M A Sigurgeirsson
    Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS 150 Reykjavik, Iceland
    J Environ Radioact 79:39-53. 2005
    ..However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils...
  36. ncbi request reprint Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk
    S Fesenko
    International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna, Austria
    J Environ Radioact 98:104-36. 2007
    ..The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer...
  37. ncbi request reprint Prediction of spatial variation in global fallout of 137Cs using precipitation
    S E Palsson
    Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudarárstíg 10, IS 150 Reykjavik, Iceland
    Sci Total Environ 367:745-56. 2006
    ..This deposition map was then successfully validated (r2=0.85) for sites where 137Cs deposition was measured; the associated uncertainty in predictions was also estimated...
  38. ncbi request reprint Radiostrontium uptake by plants from different soil types in Kazakhstan
    A Savinkov
    The Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan SRAI, 480544, Gvardeiski, Kazakhstan
    Sci Total Environ 373:324-33. 2007
    ..Tag values range from 0.6 to 11.9 m2 kg-1x10(-3) over all measurements. The transfer of 90Sr to plants from the Kazakh soils was low compared to previously reported data and to that given from literature reviews...