Richard A Armstrong

Summary

Affiliation: Aston University
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Laminar degeneration of the frontal and temporal cortex in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID): a study original using alpha-internexin immunohistochemistry
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 25:209-15. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Hippocampal pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): a quantitative study of 8 cases
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, BE 7ET, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 28:46-53. 2009
  3. ncbi request reprint Plaques and tangles and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom
    Folia Neuropathol 44:1-11. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Curr Neurovasc Res 3:289-94. 2006
  5. doi request reprint Visual signs and symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Clin Exp Optom 94:150-60. 2011
  6. ncbi request reprint Multiple system atrophy (MSA): topographic distribution of the alpha-synuclein-associated pathological changes
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 12:356-62. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in frontal and temporal cortex in 8 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 28:350-7. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Clustering and periodicity of neurofibrillary tangles in the upper and lower cortical laminae in Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 46:26-31. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Dispersion of prion protein deposits around blood vessels in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 48:150-8. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint On the 'classification' of neurodegenerative disorders: discrete entities, overlap or continuum?
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 50:201-8. 2012

Detail Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Laminar degeneration of the frontal and temporal cortex in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID): a study original using alpha-internexin immunohistochemistry
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 25:209-15. 2006
    ..To determine the laminar distribution of the pathological changes in the frontal and temporal lobe in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID)...
  2. ncbi request reprint Hippocampal pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): a quantitative study of 8 cases
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, BE 7ET, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 28:46-53. 2009
    ..To quantify the neuronal and glial cell pathology in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) of 8 cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
  3. ncbi request reprint Plaques and tangles and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom
    Folia Neuropathol 44:1-11. 2006
    ..It was concluded that SP and NFT are not closely related to the developing dementia in AD, arise as relatively independent lesions, and may be the products of a degenerative process rather than being their cause...
  4. ncbi request reprint Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Curr Neurovasc Res 3:289-94. 2006
    ..This aggregation could result from diffusion of proteins from blood vessels or from overloading the system of perivascular clearance from the brain...
  5. doi request reprint Visual signs and symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Clin Exp Optom 94:150-60. 2011
    ..As primary eye-care practitioners, optometrists should be able to identify the visual problems of patients with this disorder and be expected to work with patients and their carers to manage their visual welfare...
  6. ncbi request reprint Multiple system atrophy (MSA): topographic distribution of the alpha-synuclein-associated pathological changes
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 12:356-62. 2006
    ..The data suggest that the GCI represent the primary change in MSA and the neuronal pathology develops secondary to the glial pathology...
  7. ncbi request reprint Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in frontal and temporal cortex in 8 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 28:350-7. 2009
    ..To determine the laminar distribution of the pathological changes in the cerebral cortex in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
  8. ncbi request reprint Clustering and periodicity of neurofibrillary tangles in the upper and lower cortical laminae in Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 46:26-31. 2008
    ..The clustering patterns of the NFT are consistent with their formation in relation to the FF and FB cortico-cortical pathways. In most gyri, NFT clusters appeared to develop independently in the upper and lower laminae...
  9. ncbi request reprint Dispersion of prion protein deposits around blood vessels in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 48:150-8. 2010
    ..However, the distribution of the prion deposits in vCJD is more likely to reflect molecular 'chaperones' diffusing from vessels and promoting the aggregation of pre-existing PrP(sc) in the vicinity of the vessels to form florid deposits...
  10. ncbi request reprint On the 'classification' of neurodegenerative disorders: discrete entities, overlap or continuum?
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 50:201-8. 2012
    ..objective classification, classification for convenience (a 'dissection'), or analysis as a continuum...
  11. ncbi request reprint The microbiology of the eye
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 20:429-41. 2000
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Spatial relationships between diffuse prion protein deposits and neuronal perikarya in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 51:18-25. 2013
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint What causes alzheimer's disease?
    R A Armstrong
    Dr R A Armstrong, Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK, Phone 0121 204 4102, Fax 0121 204 4048, E mail
    Folia Neuropathol 51:169-88. 2013
    ..Aβ and tau spread through the brain via cell to cell transfer along anatomical pathways, variation in the pathways of spread leading to the disease heterogeneity characteristic of AD. ..
  14. ncbi request reprint Do beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome grow according to the log-normal model?
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neurosci Lett 261:97-100. 1999
    ..However, Abeta deposits grow to a larger size in DS compared with AD which may reflect differences in the mechanism of Abeta formation...
  15. pmc Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in sporadic and variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Department of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Patholog Res Int 2011:236346. 2010
    ..The data suggest that the pattern of cortical degeneration is different in sCJD and vCJD which may reflect differences in aetiology and the subsequent spread of prion pathology within the brain...
  16. pmc Neuropathological changes in striate and extrastriate visual cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Ophthalmol 1:119-25. 2007
    ..These data suggest that the short cortico-cortical connections between B17 and B18 and the pathways to subcortical visual areas are compromised in vCJD...
  17. pmc The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: a reevaluation of the "amyloid cascade hypothesis"
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Int J Alzheimers Dis 2011:630865. 2011
    ..A modification to the ACH is proposed which may better explain the pathogenesis of AD, especially of late-onset cases of the disease...
  18. pmc Factors determining disease duration in Alzheimer's disease: a postmortem study of 103 cases using the kaplan-meier estimator and cox regression
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Biomed Res Int 2014:623487. 2014
    ..In addition, degree of neuropathology did not influence survival, but spread of SP/NFT pathology into the frontal lobe, hippocampus, and basal forebrain was associated with longer disease duration. ..
  19. pmc Visual symptoms in Parkinson's disease
    R A Armstrong
    Department of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Parkinsons Dis 2011:908306. 2011
    ..If visual problems are present, they can have an important effect on the quality of life of the patient, which can be improved by accurate diagnosis and where possible, correction of such defects...
  20. pmc A quantitative study of α-synuclein pathology in fifteen cases of dementia associated with Parkinson disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    J Neural Transm 121:171-81. 2014
    ....
  21. pmc Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy: a quantitative study using polynomial curve fitting
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 39:335-47. 2013
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint A quantitative study of abnormally enlarged neurons in cognitively normal brain and neurodegenerative disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Clin Neuropathol 32:128-33. 2013
    ..0 may be a useful morphological criterion for defining AEN, and (2) AEN were most numerous in PiD and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and least abundant in AD and in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
  23. doi request reprint Spatial patterns of the tau pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Neurol Sci 34:337-44. 2013
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Statistical guidelines for the analysis of data obtained from one or both eyes
    Richard A Armstrong
    Ophthalmic Research Group, School of Life and Health Sciences, School of Optometry, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 33:7-14. 2013
    ..Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (OPO), Optometry and Vision Science (OVS), Clinical and Experimental Optometry (CEO) during the period 2009-2012...
  25. pmc Different molecular pathologies result in similar spatial patterns of cellular inclusions in neurodegenerative disease: a comparative study of eight disorders
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    J Neural Transm 119:1551-60. 2012
    ..Hence, treatments designed to protect the cortex from neurodegeneration may be applicable across several different disorders...
  26. doi request reprint Visual signs and symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Clin Exp Optom 95:621-30. 2012
    ..As primary eye-care practitioners, optometrists should be able to work with patients with DLB and their carers to manage their visual welfare...
  27. ncbi request reprint Size frequency distributions of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits: a comparative study of four neurodegenerative disorders
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 50:240-9. 2012
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in cognitively normal brain, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease: a study using principal components analysis
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 50:130-9. 2012
    ..Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype was not associated with variation in Aβ deposition between cases. PCA may be a useful method of studying the pathological interface between closely related neurodegenerative disorders...
  29. pmc A quantitative study of the neuropathology of 32 sporadic and familial cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 38:25-38. 2012
    ..To further characterize the neuropathology of the heterogeneous molecular disorder frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP)...
  30. pmc Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae
    Edward Hurrell
    School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 9:146. 2009
    ..Enterobacter sakazakii) and other Enterobacteriaceae, and whether their presence was influenced by the feeding regime...
  31. ncbi request reprint Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): a quantitative study of the pathological changes in cortical and subcortical regions of eight cases
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    J Neural Transm 114:1569-77. 2007
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Density and cross-sectional areas of axons in the olfactory tract in control subjects and Alzheimer's disease: an image analysis study
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Neurol Sci 29:23-7. 2008
    ..Using an image analysis system to determine whether there is loss of axons in the olfactory tract (OT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  33. doi request reprint A quantitative study of the pathological changes in the cerebellum in 15 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 35:36-45. 2009
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Spatial correlations between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits and blood vessels in familial Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 46:241-8. 2008
    ..It was concluded that both Abeta deposit morphology and AD subtype determine spatial correlations with blood vessels in AD...
  35. doi request reprint Visual signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Exp Optom 91:129-38. 2008
    ..Although not central to PD, visual signs and symptoms can be an important though obscure aspect of the disease and should not be overlooked...
  36. pmc Size frequency distribution of the beta-amyloid (abeta) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies with associated Alzheimer's disease pathology
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Neurol Sci 30:471-7. 2009
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint What determines the molecular composition of abnormal protein aggregates in neurodegenerative disease?
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathology 28:351-65. 2008
    ..These findings are discussed in relation to diagnosis and to studies of to disease pathogenesis...
  38. ncbi request reprint Spatial correlations between the vacuolation, prion protein (PrPsc) deposits and the cerebral blood vessels in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Curr Neurovasc Res 6:239-45. 2009
    ..The aggregated form of PrP(sc) then enhances cell death and may encourages the development of vacuolation in the vicinity of the blood vessels...
  39. ncbi request reprint Spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 49:153-61. 2011
    ....
  40. pmc Spatial patterns of FUS-immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID)
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    J Neural Transm 118:1651-7. 2011
    ....
  41. pmc Spatial patterns of TDP-43 neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) in fifteen cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP)
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Neurol Sci 32:653-9. 2011
    ..The spatial pattern of the NCI was similar to that of neuronal inclusions in other neurodegenerative diseases and may reflect a common pattern of degeneration involving the cortico-cortical projections...
  42. doi request reprint Statistical guidelines for clinical studies of human vision
    Richard A Armstrong
    Ophthalmic Research Group, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 31:123-36. 2011
    ..Where relevant, examples of correct statistical practice are given with reference to recently published articles in the optometric and ophthalmic literature...
  43. ncbi request reprint Review paper. Quantitative methods in neuropathology
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 48:217-30. 2010
    ..Finally, the statistical methods available for studying the degree of spatial correlation between pathological lesions and neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels are described...
  44. pmc A morphometric study of the spatial patterns of TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with progranulin (GRN) mutation
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Histol Histopathol 26:185-90. 2011
    ..The clusters of NCI and NII were not spatially correlated. The data suggest degeneration of the cortico-cortical and cortico-hippocampal pathways in FTLD-TDP with GRN mutation, the NCI and NII affecting different clusters of neurons...
  45. ncbi request reprint Density and spatial pattern of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in corticobasal degeneration
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 49:14-20. 2011
    ....
  46. pmc The spectrum and severity of FUS-immunoreactive inclusions in the frontal and temporal lobes of ten cases of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Acta Neuropathol 121:219-28. 2011
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint A spatial pattern analysis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition in the temporal lobe in Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 48:67-74. 2010
    ..Large-scale clustering may reflect the aggregation of deposits in the depths of the sulci and the coalescence of smaller clusters...
  48. pmc Analysis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition in the temporal lobe in Alzheimer's disease using Fourier (spectral) analysis
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 36:248-57. 2010
    ..To determine the spatial pattern of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition throughout the temporal lobe in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  49. ncbi request reprint The molecular biology of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 47:289-99. 2009
    ..Such a conclusion has implications both for the diagnosis of AD and in studies of disease pathogenesis...
  50. ncbi request reprint The interface between Alzheimer's disease, normal aging, and related disorders
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Curr Aging Sci 1:122-32. 2008
    ....
  51. pmc Neuropathological heterogeneity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy: a quantitative study of 94 cases using principal components analysis
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    J Neural Transm 117:227-39. 2010
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint A quantitative study of the pathological changes in the cortical white matter in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 29:390-6. 2010
    ..to quantify cortical white matter pathology in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and to correlate white and grey matter pathologies...
  53. ncbi request reprint A quantitative study of the pathological changes in white matter in multiple system atrophy
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathology 27:221-7. 2007
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Clustering of cerebral cortical lesions in patients with corticobasal degeneration
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neurosci Lett 268:5-8. 1999
    ..The regular periodicity of the cerebral cortical lesions is consistent with the degeneration of the cortico-cortical projections in CBD...
  55. ncbi request reprint The spatial patterns of prion protein deposits in cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Acta Neuropathol 104:665-9. 2002
    ..In addition, different factors could be involved in the development of the deposits with and without a condensed core...
  56. ncbi request reprint Are pathological lesions in neurodegenerative disorders the cause or the effect of the degeneration?
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Neuropathology 22:133-46. 2002
    ..Such a conclusion has implications both for the classification of neurodegenerative disorders and for studies of disease pathogenesis...
  57. ncbi request reprint Spatial patterns of the vacuolation in subcortical white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 21:284-8. 2002
    ..To study the spatial patterns of the vacuolation ("spongiform change") in the subcortical white matter in the "classical" form of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)...
  58. ncbi request reprint Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in the cerebral cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 40:165-71. 2002
    ..These patterns of laminar distribution suggest that the process of cortical degeneration may be distinctly different in vCJD compared with sCJD...
  59. ncbi request reprint Pathological changes in the primary visual cortex (area V1) in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Optom Vis Sci 80:298-304. 2003
    ..To determine the degree of pathological change in the primary visual cortex (area V1) in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease...
  60. ncbi request reprint Quantifying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders: quantitative measurements, sampling strategies and data analysis
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Histopathology 42:521-9. 2003
    ..These methods are illustrated with reference to particular problems in the pathological diagnosis of AD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
  61. ncbi request reprint Does the neuropathology of human patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease reflect haematogenous spread of the disease?
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK
    Neurosci Lett 348:37-40. 2003
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Differences in the density and spatial distribution of florid and diffuse plaques in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 22:209-14. 2003
    ..To determine whether in cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the florid-type plaques are derived from the diffuse plaques or whether the 2 plaque types develop independently...
  63. ncbi request reprint Quantification of vacuolation ("spongiform change"), surviving neurones and prion protein deposition in eleven cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 28:129-35. 2002
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Beta-amyloid plaques: stages in life history or independent origin?
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 9:227-38. 1998
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Spatial correlations between the vacuolation, prion protein deposits, and surviving neurons in the cerebral cortex in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Neuropathology 21:266-71. 2001
    ..Differences in the pattern of correlation may reflect the developmental stage of the pathology in particular cortical areas...
  66. ncbi request reprint The spatial pattern of the vacuolation in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neurosci Lett 281:187-90. 2000
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Analysis of spatial patterns in histological sections of brain tissue using a method based on regression
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    J Neurosci Methods 95:39-45. 2000
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Beta-amyloid deposition in the temporal lobe of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies: comparison with non-demented cases and Alzheimer's disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 11:187-92. 2000
    ..These results suggest that pure DLB and AD are distinct disorders which can coexist in some patients. However, the Abeta pathology of DLB/AD cases is not identical to that observed in patients with AD alone...
  69. ncbi request reprint Neuropathological heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease: a study of 80 cases using principal components analysis
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Neuropathology 20:31-7. 2000
    ..A major factor determining this variation in late-onset cases was ApoE genotype with accelerated rates of spread of the pathology in patients expressing allele epsilon4...
  70. ncbi request reprint Clustering of Pick bodies in the dentate gyrus in Pick's disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Neuropathology 20:170-5. 2000
    ..Clustering of PB may reflect a primary degenerative process within the granule cells or the degeneration of pathways that project to the dentate gyrus...
  71. ncbi request reprint The spatial patterns of prion protein deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: comparison with beta-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, B4 7ET, Birmingham, UK
    Neurosci Lett 298:53-6. 2001
    ..Furthermore, spread of the pathology along these pathways may be a pathogenic feature common to CJD and AD...
  72. ncbi request reprint What does the study of the spatial patterns of pathological lesions tell us about the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders?
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathology 21:1-12. 2001
    ..e. aggregation into clusters that are regularly distributed in the tissue). The pathogenic implications of spatial pattern analysis are discussed with reference to the individual disorders and to studies of neurodegeneration as a whole...
  73. ncbi request reprint Quantification of the vacuolation (spongiform change) and prion protein deposition in 11 patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Acta Neuropathol 102:591-6. 2001
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint A quantitative study of the pathological changes in cortical neurons in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathology 23:181-7. 2003
    ..The data suggest significant neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex in sCJD in areas without significant PrP deposition and a further phase of neuronal degeneration associated with the appearance of PrP deposits...
  75. ncbi request reprint Measuring the degree of spatial correlation between histological features in thin sections of brain tissue
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Neuropathology 23:245-53. 2003
    ..In addition, the use of correlation matrices and stepwise multiple regression methods are described. The advantages and limitations of each method are reviewed and possible future developments discussed...
  76. ncbi request reprint Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and vision
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Clin Exp Optom 89:3-9. 2006
    ..The presence of these cells in the cornea has raised the possibility of transmission between patients via optical devices that contact the eye. Although such transmission is theoretically possible it remains highly improbable...
  77. ncbi request reprint Topography of alpha-internexin-positive neuronal aggregates in 10 patients with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Eur J Neurol 13:528-32. 2006
    ..The corticostriate projection appears to have little effect on the cortical topography of the inclusions...
  78. ncbi request reprint Size frequency distributions of the florid prion protein aggregates in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease follow a power-law function
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, and National CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Neurol Sci 27:104-9. 2006
    ..Processes of aggregation/disaggregation may be more important than surface diffusion in the pathogenesis of the florid plaques. By contrast, surface diffusion may be a more significant factor in the development of the diffuse plaques...
  79. ncbi request reprint Clustering and spatial correlations of the neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, astrocytic plaques and ballooned neurons in corticobasal degeneration
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    J Neural Transm 116:1103-10. 2009
    ..The data suggest the following: (1) degeneration of the cortico-cortical pathways in CBD, (2) clusters of NCI and BN may affect different anatomical pathways and (3) BN may develop after the NCI in the PHG...
  80. ncbi request reprint Laminar distribution of beta-amyloid deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies and in Alzheimer's disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 21:175-81. 2006
    ..These results suggest that Abeta pathology in DLB/AD may not simply represent the presence of associated AD...
  81. ncbi request reprint Spatial topography of the neurofibrillary tangles in cortical and subcortical regions in progressive supranuclear palsy
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 13:50-4. 2007
    ..To study the topography of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in cortical and subcortical areas in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
  82. ncbi request reprint Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID): an alpha-internexin immunohistochemical study
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    J Neural Transm 114:451-6. 2007
    ..Hence, cortical degeneration in NIFID appears to be topographically organized and may affect the cortico-cortical projections, the clusters of NCI and SN developing within the same vertical columns of cells...
  83. ncbi request reprint Is there a spatial association between senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease?
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 43:133-8. 2005
    ..To test the hypothesis that the clusters of senile plaques (SP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are spatially associated as predicted by the 'Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis'...
  84. ncbi request reprint Multiple system atrophy: laminar distribution of the pathological changes in frontal and temporal neocortex--a study in ten patients
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Neuropathol 24:230-5. 2005
    ..To determine the distribution of the pathological changes in the neocortex in multiple-system atrophy (MSA)...
  85. ncbi request reprint Overlap between neurodegenerative disorders
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathology 25:111-24. 2005
    ....
  86. ncbi request reprint Spatial pattern of prion protein deposits in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Neuropathology 21:19-24. 2001
    ..In addition, the data suggest that there are similarities in the pathogenesis of extracellular protein deposits in prion disease and in AD...
  87. ncbi request reprint Measuring the spatial arrangement patterns of pathological lesions in histological sections of brain tissue
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom
    Folia Neuropathol 44:229-37. 2006
    ..The usefulness of these methods in elucidating the pathogenesis of protein aggregates in neurodegenerative disease is discussed...
  88. ncbi request reprint A quantitative study of the pathological changes in ten patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Neural Transm 111:485-95. 2004
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in the cerebellar cortex in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Folia Neuropathol 41:183-9. 2003
    ..In addition, there is evidence that the pathological changes may spread across the different laminae of the cerebellar cortex...
  90. ncbi request reprint Spatial patterns of alpha-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 19:109-12. 2004
    ..These spatial patterns contrast with those reported for filamentous neuronal inclusions in the tauopathies and alpha-synucleinopathies...
  91. ncbi request reprint Methods of studying the planar distribution of objects in histological sections of brain tissue
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    J Microsc 221:153-8. 2006
    ..The usefulness of these methods in understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is discussed...
  92. ncbi request reprint Spatial correlation between the vacuolation, prion protein, deposition and surviving neurons in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Neural Transm 110:1303-11. 2003
    ....
  93. ncbi request reprint Size frequency distributions of abnormal protein deposits in Alzheimer's disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Richard A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK R A Armstrong aston ac uk
    Folia Neuropathol 45:108-14. 2007
    ..Surface diffusion may be particularly important in determining the growth of the diffuse PrPsc deposits. In addition, there are factors limiting the maximum size of the A beta and florid PrPsc deposits...
  94. ncbi request reprint First-line therapy with latanoprost 0.005% results in improved ocular circulation in newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma patients: a prospective, 6-month, open-label study
    D Gherghel
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, UK
    Eye (Lond) 22:363-9. 2008
    ..To evaluate the effect of latanoprost 0.005% on the optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal circulation of newly diagnosed and previously untreated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients...
  95. ncbi request reprint Size frequency distribution of prion protein (PrP) aggregates in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Neural Transm 112:1565-73. 2005
    ..It was concluded that the growth of the PrP aggregates in vCJD does not strictly follow a log-normal model, diffuse plaques growing to within a more restricted size range and florid plaques to larger sizes than predicted...
  96. ncbi request reprint Visual function and subjective quality of life compared in subjects with acquired macular disease
    C A Hazel
    Vision Sciences Research Institute, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:1309-15. 2000
    ..To determine the objective measures of visual function that are most relevant to subjective quality of vision and perceived reading ability in patients with acquired macular disease...
  97. ncbi request reprint Neuropathological changes in ten cases of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID): a study using alpha-internexin immunohistochemistry and principal components analysis (PCA)
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Neural Transm 113:1207-15. 2006
    ....
  98. pmc Correlation between visual function and visual ability in patients with uveitis
    A M Gardiner
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 86:993-6. 2002
    ..To investigate the correlation between tests of visual function and perceived visual ability recorded with a quality of life questionnaire for patients with uveitis...
  99. ncbi request reprint A quantitative analysis of optic nerve axons in elderly control subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease
    Anila B Syed
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom
    Folia Neuropathol 43:1-6. 2005
    ..To study the density and cross-sectional area of axons in the optic nerve in elderly control subjects and in cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using an image analysis system...
  100. ncbi request reprint The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry
    R A Armstrong
    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 22:248-56. 2002
    ..In addition, the problems of non-conformity to the statistical model and determination of the number of replications are considered...
  101. ncbi request reprint Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in the temporal lobe of patients with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease
    Nigel J Cairns
    Departments of Neurology, Pathology, and Immunology, Washington University of St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Neuropathology 25:298-303. 2005
    ..The glial cell reaction may be a response to the loss of neurons rather than to the appearance of the NI or SN...