Cees de Graaf

Summary

Affiliation: Wageningen University
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Regulation of appetite in frail persons
    Wija A van Staveren
    Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2 P O Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Clin Geriatr Med 18:675-84. 2002
  2. doi request reprint Trustworthy satiety claims are good for science and society. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands
    Appetite 57:778-83; discussion 784-90. 2011
  3. doi request reprint Texture and satiation: the role of oro-sensory exposure time
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 107:496-501. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint Food acceptability in field studies with US army men and women: relationship with food intake and food choice after repeated exposures
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, Wageningen 6700 EV, The Netherlands
    Appetite 44:23-31. 2005
  5. doi request reprint Why liquid energy results in overconsumption
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Nutr Soc 70:162-70. 2011
  6. ncbi request reprint Effects of snacks on energy intake: an evolutionary perspective
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Appetite 47:18-23. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint A comparison between liking ratings obtained under laboratory and field conditions: the role of choice
    Cees de Graaf
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 44:15-22. 2005
  8. doi request reprint Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice
    Dieuwerke P Bolhuis
    Product Design and Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 58:48-55. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Satiation due to equally palatable sweet and savory meals does not differ in normal weight young adults
    Sanne Griffioen-Roose
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Nutr 139:2093-8. 2009
  10. doi request reprint Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety
    Sanne Griffioen-Roose
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 59:1-8. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi request reprint Regulation of appetite in frail persons
    Wija A van Staveren
    Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2 P O Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Clin Geriatr Med 18:675-84. 2002
    ..Carefully controlled studies, however, have shown favorable results with interventions that stimulate appetite in, frail elderly people...
  2. doi request reprint Trustworthy satiety claims are good for science and society. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands
    Appetite 57:778-83; discussion 784-90. 2011
    ..The development of the psycho-biological knowledge to achieve this is good for science. The lawmaker should provide the frame of reference for trustworthy satiety claims. It is then up to the consumer to decide the value of these claims...
  3. doi request reprint Texture and satiation: the role of oro-sensory exposure time
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 107:496-501. 2012
    ..This may make our obesogenic food supply more satiating, and may lead to a lower energy intake...
  4. ncbi request reprint Food acceptability in field studies with US army men and women: relationship with food intake and food choice after repeated exposures
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, Wageningen 6700 EV, The Netherlands
    Appetite 44:23-31. 2005
    ..However, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients between acceptability ratings and food intake suggest that environmental factors also have an important role in determining intake and choice...
  5. doi request reprint Why liquid energy results in overconsumption
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Nutr Soc 70:162-70. 2011
    ..Foods that are eaten quickly may impair this association, and may therefore lead to overconsumption of energy, and ultimately to weight gain...
  6. ncbi request reprint Effects of snacks on energy intake: an evolutionary perspective
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Appetite 47:18-23. 2006
    ..This is particularly true for energy-containing drinks, which provide calories in liquid form. It is concluded that snack consumption may contribute to a positive energy balance...
  7. ncbi request reprint A comparison between liking ratings obtained under laboratory and field conditions: the role of choice
    Cees de Graaf
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 44:15-22. 2005
    ..It is important to pay more attention to experimental variables that may improve the validity of sensory laboratory tests...
  8. doi request reprint Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice
    Dieuwerke P Bolhuis
    Product Design and Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 58:48-55. 2012
    ..In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice...
  9. doi request reprint Satiation due to equally palatable sweet and savory meals does not differ in normal weight young adults
    Sanne Griffioen-Roose
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Nutr 139:2093-8. 2009
    ..Homogeneous meals with a sweet or savory taste, similar in palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition, do not differ in their influence on satiation in normal weight young adults...
  10. doi request reprint Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety
    Sanne Griffioen-Roose
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 59:1-8. 2012
    ..Taste of a 24-h diet has no effect on macronutrient appetite...
  11. doi request reprint Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation
    Pascalle L G Weijzen
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Br J Nutr 102:1091-7. 2009
    ..This suggests that intake of sweet drinks is stimulated by (metabolic) reward value and inhibited by sensory satiation. This underpins the importance of SSS for meal termination...
  12. ncbi request reprint Effect of family-style meals on energy intake and risk of malnutrition in dutch nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial
    Kristel A N D Nijs
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 61:935-42. 2006
    ..Extrapolation to the nursing home setting may lead to less malnutrition among the residents. Therefore, we investigate the effect of family-style meals on energy intake and the risk of malnutrition in Dutch nursing home residents...
  13. pmc Consumption with large sip sizes increases food intake and leads to underestimation of the amount consumed
    Dieuwerke P Bolhuis
    Product Design and Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e53288. 2013
    ..This effect may be disturbed when people are distracted...
  14. doi request reprint Malnutrition and mealtime ambiance in nursing homes
    Kristel Nijs
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    J Am Med Dir Assoc 10:226-9. 2009
    ..One important stimulus, which can be modulated easily, is the meal ambiance. This article deals with the theory or mechanism behind this meal ambiance stimulus, discusses some study results, and makes practical recommendations...
  15. doi request reprint Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance
    Annet C Hoek
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University Bode 62, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 56:662-73. 2011
    ..In order to make meat substitutes more attractive to meat consumers, we would not recommend to focus on communication of ethical arguments, but to significantly improve the sensory quality and resemblance to meat...
  16. pmc Protein status elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences
    Sanne Griffioen-Roose
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:32-8. 2012
    ..Protein is an indispensable component within the human diet. It is unclear, however, whether behavioral strategies exist to avoid shortages...
  17. ncbi request reprint Decreases in fasting leptin and insulin concentrations after acute energy restriction and subsequent compensation in food intake
    Monica Mars
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:570-7. 2005
    ..Several studies have found an association between this decrease and subjective appetite; however, no solid data are available on the acute decrease in fasting leptin concentration and subsequent caloric compensation...
  18. doi request reprint Measuring food reward and the transfer effect of sensory specific satiety
    Sanne Griffioen-Roose
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Appetite 55:648-55. 2010
    ..This transfer effect was not equipotent for sweet and savory tastes. It appears that in young, healthy adults, savory taste has a stronger modulating effect on subsequent food choice than sweet...
  19. doi request reprint No effect on intake and liking of soup enhanced with mono-sodium glutamate and celery powder among elderly people with olfactory and/or gustatory loss
    Natasja H Essed
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 60:143-54. 2009
    ..Enhancing flavors to increase intake and liking may not be a uniform approach due to the heterogeneity in chemosensory losses among elderly people...
  20. doi request reprint Texture, not flavor, determines expected satiation of dairy products
    Pleunie S Hogenkamp
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, PO Box 557, NL 6700 AN, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 57:635-41. 2011
    ..001) and Experiment 2 (r=0.54; p<0.001). Expected satiation of dairy products increased consistently with increasing thickness; flavor characteristics or means of consumption as tested did not change expected satiation effects...
  21. doi request reprint Effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup similar in palatability and on salt preference after consumption
    Dieuwerke P Bolhuis
    Product Design and Quality Management, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, Bode 30, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Chem Senses 35:789-99. 2010
    ..During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption...
  22. ncbi request reprint No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home elderly
    Natasja H Essed
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 48:29-36. 2007
    ..More research is needed to determine the efficacy of flavor enhancement on intake and nutritional status...
  23. ncbi request reprint Identification of nutrition communication styles and strategies: a qualitative study among Dutch GPs
    Sonja M E van Dillen
    Communication Management, Wageningen University, P O Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Patient Educ Couns 63:74-83. 2006
    ..Another aim is to provide a hypothetical model for nutrition communication style, including psycho-social and socio-demographic variables...
  24. ncbi request reprint Fruit consumption of boys (8--11 years) is related to preferences for sour taste
    Djin Gie Liem
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Taste and Smell Centre, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 46:93-6. 2006
    ..In girls, the optimal balance between sweet and sour taste seems to be of less importance; their consumption of fruit may be more influenced by their parents, availability and health related motives...
  25. doi request reprint Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables
    Victoire W T de Wild
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, 6703 HD Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 64:89-96. 2013
    ..This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL...
  26. doi request reprint Taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed foods
    Mirre Viskaal van Dongen
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Br J Nutr 108:140-7. 2012
    ..In highly processed foods, however, the ability to sense nutrient content based on taste seems limited...
  27. doi request reprint Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake
    Mirre Viskaal-van Dongen
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 56:25-31. 2011
    ..Considering the current food supply, where many foods have a high eating rate, long-term effects of eating rate on energy balance should be investigated...
  28. doi request reprint The effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety
    Sanne Griffioen-Roose
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Br J Nutr 106:779-88. 2011
    ..This appears to be mostly determined by taste, whereby savoury taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. The results of the LFPQ provided insight into underlying processes...
  29. doi request reprint Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake
    Anne G M Wijlens
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:2226-32. 2012
    ..Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake...
  30. ncbi request reprint The effect of repeated exposure to fruit drinks on intake, pleasantness and boredom in young and elderly adults
    Natasja H Essed
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 89:335-41. 2006
    ..05, p=0.01 and r=-0.07, p=0.007, respectively) and boredom increased (r=0.12, p<0.001). In conclusion, elderly women experienced no increased boredom whereas young women did...
  31. doi request reprint Parental child-feeding strategies in relation to Dutch children's fruit and vegetable intake
    Gertrude G Zeinstra
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Public Health Nutr 13:787-96. 2010
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake
    Cees de Graaf
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Endocrinol 6:290-3. 2010
    ..Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake...
  33. ncbi request reprint Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure
    Djin Gie Liem
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Taste and Smell Centre, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 83:421-9. 2004
    ..Future research is needed to investigate whether the changed preferences for sweet taste are stable over time and how these changed taste preferences are related to a change in the consumption of sugar rich foods...
  34. doi request reprint Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones
    Nicolien Zijlstra
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 97:68-75. 2009
    ..The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro-intestinal hormones CCK-8, ghrelin and GLP-1 after a fixed preload of a liquid and semi-solid product similar in energy- and macronutrient composition...
  35. ncbi request reprint Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents
    Djin Gie Liem
    Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen Taste and Smell Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 43:235-45. 2004
    ..These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules...
  36. doi request reprint Hidden fat facilitates passive overconsumption
    Mirre Viskaal-van Dongen
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Nutr 139:394-9. 2009
    ..In the presence of visible fats, energy intake was lower than in the presence of hidden fats, suggesting that hidden fats may contribute to overconsumption. Appropriate sensory signals may be important in preventing overconsumption...
  37. pmc Effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents: cluster randomised controlled trial
    Kristel A N D Nijs
    Wageningen University, Division of Human Nutrition, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands
    BMJ 332:1180-4. 2006
    ..To assess the effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents without dementia...
  38. ncbi request reprint Exploration of possible correlates of nutrition awareness and the relationship with nutrition-related behaviours: results of a consumer study
    Sonja M E van Dillen
    Communication Management, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Public Health Nutr 11:478-85. 2008
    ..To unravel the concept of nutrition awareness, as it relates to risky personal nutrition-related behaviours, and to assess the sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of nutrition awareness...
  39. doi request reprint The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation
    Anne J Wanders
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Br J Nutr 109:1330-7. 2013
    ..We concluded that the addition of 5 g/100 g alginate (i.e. gel-forming fibre) to a low-fibre cookie results in earlier satiation. This effect might be due to an increased oral exposure time...
  40. doi request reprint Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior
    Pascalle L G Weijzen
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Nutr Educ Behav 40:311-6. 2008
    ..To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice...
  41. doi request reprint Short-term oral exposure to white wine transiently lowers serum free fatty acids
    Michel M Joosten
    TNO Quality of Life, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Appetite 55:124-9. 2010
    ..In conclusion, short-term oral white wine exposure substantially and temporarily decreases FFA concentrations suggesting a cephalic phase response of alcohol. This effect occurred regardless of BMI...
  42. ncbi request reprint Biomarkers of satiation and satiety
    Cees de Graaf
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:946-61. 2004
    ..These ingredients may help consumers to maintain their energy intake at a level consistent with a healthy body weight...
  43. ncbi request reprint Sour taste preferences of children relate to preference for novel and intense stimuli
    Djin Gie Liem
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Taste and Smell Centre, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Chem Senses 29:713-20. 2004
    ..Further research is needed to investigate how these findings can be implemented in the promotion of sour-tasting food such as fruit...
  44. ncbi request reprint Leptin responsiveness to energy restriction: genetic variation in the leptin receptor gene
    Monica Mars
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Obes Res 12:442-4. 2004
    ..96). No effect of the assessed polymorphisms in the LEPR gene on the acute decline in leptin after energy restriction was observed. Power calculations are provided for future studies on the leptin responsiveness to energy restriction...
  45. ncbi request reprint Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers
    Annet C Hoek
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P O Box 8129, Bode 62, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appetite 42:265-72. 2004
    ..The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods...
  46. doi request reprint Use of satiety peptides in assessing the satiating capacity of foods
    Monica Mars
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, PO Box 557, NL 6700 AN, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 105:483-8. 2012
    ..The effects of CCK are likely to be in the physiological range and therefore may have an individual contribution to a difference in satiating capacity between foods...
  47. ncbi request reprint Understanding nutrition communication between health professionals and consumers: development of a model for nutrition awareness based on qualitative consumer research
    Sonja M E van Dillen
    Communication and Innovation Studies, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:1065S-1072S. 2003
    ..Consumers have been exposed to nutrition information from a variety of sources, including the family doctor. They are often not aware of their own risk behavior regarding nutrition...
  48. ncbi request reprint Ghrelin response to carbohydrate-enriched breakfast is related to insulin
    Wendy A M Blom
    Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:367-75. 2005
    ..Ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. Little is known about how ghrelin concentrations are modified by dietary factors...
  49. ncbi request reprint Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories
    Paul A M Smeets
    Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:1011-6. 2005
    ..Previously, we found a prolonged dose-dependent decrease in the hypothalamic functional magnetic resonance imaging signal after ingestion of a glucose solution...
  50. ncbi request reprint Sensory-specific satiety in obese and normal-weight women
    Harriëtte M Snoek
    Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:823-31. 2004
    ..Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity...
  51. ncbi request reprint Alpha-lactalbumin combined with a regular diet increases plasma Trp-LNAA ratio
    Joline W J Beulens
    Department of Clinical Nutrition and Diets, Numico Research BV, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 81:585-93. 2004
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Fasting ghrelin does not predict food intake after short-term energy restriction
    Wendy A M Blom
    TNO Quality of Life, Business Centre Nutrition, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:838-46. 2006
    ..To study the role of ghrelin as a hunger signal during energy restriction and to test the hypothesis that changes in fasting leptin concentrations during energy restriction are associated with changes in fasting ghrelin concentrations...
  53. ncbi request reprint Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
    Paul A M Smeets
    Image Sciences Institute and the Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:1297-305. 2006
    ..A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten...
  54. ncbi request reprint Functional MRI of human hypothalamic responses following glucose ingestion
    Paul A M Smeets
    Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 24:363-8. 2005
    ..No effect was found in the lower hypothalamus. We suggest a possible relation between the observed hypothalamic response and changes in the blood insulin concentration...
  55. ncbi request reprint Development of the ETOC: a European test of olfactory capabilities
    Thierry Thomas-Danguin
    Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5020, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69366 Lyon, France
    Rhinology 41:142-51. 2003
    ..A retest session showed that the less easy (and final) version of the ETOC is also highly reliable...