Doekele G Stavenga

Summary

Affiliation: University of Groningen
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Ommatidial heterogeneity in the compound eye of the male small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora
    Xudong Qiu
    Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 22 2 Seto, Kanazawa Ku, Yokohama 236 0027, Japan
    Cell Tissue Res 307:371-9. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. I. Integrated facet lens and rhabdomere optics
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 189:1-17. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Colour in the eyes of insects
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 188:337-48. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Reflections on colourful ommatidia of butterfly eyes
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 205:1077-85. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Retinal regionalization and heterogeneity of butterfly eyes
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Naturwissenschaften 88:477-81. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. III. Dependence on the pupil mechanism in the blowfly Calliphora
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 190:115-29. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Visual acuity of fly photoreceptors in natural conditions--dependence on UV sensitizing pigment and light-controlling pupil
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 207:1703-13. 2004
  8. pmc Butterfly wing colours: scale beads make white pierid wings brighter
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 271:1577-84. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. II. Dependence on facet lens F-number and rhabdomere type in Drosophila
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 189:189-202. 2003
  10. pmc Sexual dichromatism of the damselfly Calopteryx japonica caused by a melanin-chitin multilayer in the male wing veins
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e49743. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint Ommatidial heterogeneity in the compound eye of the male small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora
    Xudong Qiu
    Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 22 2 Seto, Kanazawa Ku, Yokohama 236 0027, Japan
    Cell Tissue Res 307:371-9. 2002
    ..Type II ommatidia strongly fluoresce under ultra-violet and violet epi-illumination. The three types of ommatidia are randomly distributed. The ommatidial heterogeneity is presumably crucial for color discrimination...
  2. ncbi request reprint Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. I. Integrated facet lens and rhabdomere optics
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 189:1-17. 2003
    ..The angular sensitivity of fly photoreceptors is robust to defocus and largely wavelength independent for all except very slender rhabdomeres...
  3. ncbi request reprint Colour in the eyes of insects
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 188:337-48. 2002
    ..The tapetum in the eyes of butterflies probably enhances the spectral sensitivity of proximal long-wavelength photoreceptors. Pigment granules lining the rhabdom fine-tune the sensitivity spectra...
  4. ncbi request reprint Reflections on colourful ommatidia of butterfly eyes
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 205:1077-85. 2002
    ..Many butterfly species appear to have red-reflecting ommatidia, which is interpreted to indicate the presence of red-sensitive photoreceptors...
  5. ncbi request reprint Retinal regionalization and heterogeneity of butterfly eyes
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Naturwissenschaften 88:477-81. 2001
    ..Sometimes the eyeshine is locally uniform, but often it is heterogeneous. It is hypothesized that the regional characteristics as well as the local heterogeneity are adaptations that optimize spectral discrimination...
  6. ncbi request reprint Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. III. Dependence on the pupil mechanism in the blowfly Calliphora
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 190:115-29. 2004
    ..The geometrical size of the rhabdomere governs the angular sensitivity of fly photoreceptors in the dark-adapted state, but diffraction takes over in the fully light-adapted state...
  7. ncbi request reprint Visual acuity of fly photoreceptors in natural conditions--dependence on UV sensitizing pigment and light-controlling pupil
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 207:1703-13. 2004
    ..The sensitizing pigment does not play an appreciable role in modifying spatial acuity, neither in the dark- nor the light-adapted state, due to the dominant contribution of green light in natural light sources...
  8. pmc Butterfly wing colours: scale beads make white pierid wings brighter
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 271:1577-84. 2004
    ..The beads presumably cause the distinct matt-white colour of the wings of pierids and function to increase the reflectance amplitude. This will improve the visual discrimination between conspecific males and females...
  9. ncbi request reprint Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. II. Dependence on facet lens F-number and rhabdomere type in Drosophila
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 189:189-202. 2003
    ..The results are used to interpret the small F-number of Drosophila facet lenses. Presumably the small head puts a limit to the size of the facet lens and favors a short focal length...
  10. pmc Sexual dichromatism of the damselfly Calopteryx japonica caused by a melanin-chitin multilayer in the male wing veins
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e49743. 2012
    ..The obtained melanin refractive index data will be useful in optical studies on melanized tissues, especially where melanin is concentrated in layers, thus causing iridescence...
  11. pmc Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis
    Bodo D Wilts
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen 9747AG, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 279:2524-30. 2012
    ..While the close-distance colourful shininess of E. imperialis may facilitate intersexual recognition, the diffuse green reflectance of the elytra when seen at long-distance provides cryptic camouflage...
  12. doi request reprint Glass scales on the wing of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon act as thin film polarizing reflectors
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen, NL9747AG, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 215:657-62. 2012
    ..Imaging scatterometry of single, isolated glass scales demonstrated that the reflected light can be strongly polarized, indicating that they function as polarizing reflectors...
  13. ncbi request reprint Analyzing the reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye with Voronoi diagrams
    Kurt J A Vanhoutte
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci Methods 131:195-203. 2003
    ..We provide two typical examples to demonstrate that the developed technique may be a powerful tool to characterize in vivo the heterogeneity of butterfly eyes and to study the dynamic control of the light flux by the pupil mechanism...
  14. ncbi request reprint Visual pigment spectra of the comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, derived from in vivo epi-illumination microspectrophotometry
    Kurt J A Vanhoutte
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 191:461-73. 2005
    ..A UV rhodopsin with metarhodopsin absorbing maximally at 467 nm was revealed, and evidence for a blue rhodopsin was obtained indirectly...
  15. pmc Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling
    Bodo D Wilts
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, NL 9747AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:4363-8. 2014
    ..The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system. ..
  16. doi request reprint Kingfisher feathers--colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 214:3960-7. 2011
    ..This can be directly understood with thin film modelling, assuming a somewhat variable cortex thickness. The cortex reflectance appears to be small but not negligible with respect to the pigmentary and structural barb reflectance...
  17. pmc Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies: curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales
    Primoz Pirih
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 197:987-97. 2011
    ..The restricted spatial visibility of iridescence presumably plays a role in intraspecific signalling...
  18. pmc Spectral reflectance properties of iridescent pierid butterfly wings
    Bodo D Wilts
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 197:693-702. 2011
    ..The spectral properties of the pigmentary and structural colourations are presumably tuned to the spectral sensitivities of the butterflies' photoreceptors...
  19. pmc Hemispherical Brillouin zone imaging of a diamond-type biological photonic crystal
    Bodo D Wilts
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J R Soc Interface 9:1609-14. 2012
    ..imperialis are structurally optimized for high reflectance and may thus be well suited for use as a template for producing novel photonic devices, e.g. through biomimicry or direct infiltration from dielectric material...
  20. doi request reprint Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy
    Hein L Leertouwer
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Opt Express 19:24061-6. 2011
    ..517 and B = 8.80·10(3) nm(2) for the butterfly chitin and A = 1.532 and B = 5.89·10(3) nm(2) for the bird keratin...
  21. pmc An expanded set of photoreceptors in the Eastern Pale Clouded Yellow butterfly, Colias erate
    Primoz Pirih
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 196:501-17. 2010
    ..We found a 20-fold variation of sensitivity within the cells of one green class, implying possible photoreceptor subfunctionalisation. We propose an allocation scheme of the receptor classes into the three ventral ommatidial types...
  22. pmc On visual pigment templates and the spectral shape of invertebrate rhodopsins and metarhodopsins
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 196:869-78. 2010
    ..However, the best fitting template spectrum slightly deviates from the experimental spectra near the peak and in the long-wavelength tail. Improved formulae for fitting the fly metarhodopsin spectra are proposed...
  23. pmc Photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of the Small White butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora interpreted with optical modeling
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 197:373-85. 2011
    ..The models serve to explain the photoreceptor spectral sensitivities as well as the eye shine...
  24. doi request reprint Butterfly wing colors: glass scales of Graphium sarpedon cause polarized iridescence and enhance blue/green pigment coloration of the wing membrane
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Physics Chemistry Building, Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, 9747 AG, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 213:1731-9. 2010
    ..A few ventral forewing patches have diffusely scattering, white scales that also enhance the blue/green wing coloration when observed from the dorsal side...
  25. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of ninaC proteins (p132 and p174) on light-activated currents and pupil mechanism in Drosophila photoreceptors
    C A Hofstee
    Department of Biophysics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Vis Neurosci 13:897-906. 1996
    ..The diverse phenotypes observed may suggest multiple roles calmodulin distribution for controlling response termination and regulating pigment migration in Drosophila photoreceptors...
  26. pmc Light dependence of calcium and membrane potential measured in blowfly photoreceptors in vivo
    J Oberwinkler
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Gen Physiol 112:113-24. 1998
    ..The percentage of the Ca2+ influx that is buffered gradually decreases with increasing Ca2+ concentrations; at cytosolic Ca2+ concentration levels above 10 microM, buffering becomes minimal...
  27. pmc Polarized iridescence of the multilayered elytra of the Japanese jewel beetle, Chrysochroa fulgidissima
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:709-23. 2011
    ..The extreme polarized iridescence exhibited by the elytra of the jewel beetle may have a function in intraspecific recognition...
  28. pmc Metarhodopsin control by arrestin, light-filtering screening pigments, and visual pigment turnover in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 197:227-41. 2011
    ..A simple model for the visual pigment-arrestin cycle is used to illustrate the dependence of the visual pigment population states on light intensity, arrestin levels and pigment turnover...
  29. ncbi request reprint Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies
    Marco A Giraldo
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Arthropod Struct Dev 37:118-28. 2008
    ....
  30. pmc Imaging scatterometry and microspectrophotometry of lycaenid butterfly wing scales with perforated multilayers
    Bodo D Wilts
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J R Soc Interface 6:S185-92. 2009
    ..The width of the reflectance spectra, measured with a microspectrophotometer, decreased with the degree of perforation, in agreement with the calculations based on multilayer theory...
  31. ncbi request reprint Imaging scatterometry of butterfly wing scales
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Opt Express 17:193-202. 2009
    ..The instrument's performance is illustrated by measurements of the scattering profiles of the blue-iridescent dorsal wing scales of the nymphalid Morpho aega and the matte-green ventral wing scales of the lycaenid Callophrys rubi...
  32. pmc Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales
    M A Giraldo
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 194:201-7. 2008
    ..The green-yellow scales of Urania fulgens backscatter light in a narrow spatial angle, because of a multilayer structure in the scale body...
  33. pmc Calcium imaging demonstrates colocalization of calcium influx and extrusion in fly photoreceptors
    J Oberwinkler
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8578-83. 2000
    ..This is functionally significant because it ensures rapid dark adaptation...
  34. ncbi request reprint Opsin cDNA sequences of a UV and green rhodopsin of the satyrine butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    K J A Vanhoutte
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32:1383-90. 2002
    ..Whereas three LW absorbing rhodopsins were identified in the papilionid butterflies, only one green opsin was found in B. anynana...
  35. ncbi request reprint Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings
    B Wijnen
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Insect Physiol 53:1206-17. 2007
    ..The evolution of pierid wing coloration is discussed...
  36. ncbi request reprint Calcium transients in the rhabdomeres of dark- and light-adapted fly photoreceptor cells
    J Oberwinkler
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 20:1701-9. 2000
    ..The kinetics and absolute values of the free calcium concentration found to occur in the rhabdomere are suitable to mediate the fast feedback signals known to act on the fly phototransduction cascade...
  37. pmc Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 278:2098-104. 2011
    ..The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display...
  38. ncbi request reprint The colouration toolkit of the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor: thin films, papiliochromes, and melanin
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 9747, AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 200:547-61. 2014
    ..philenor are blue-green iridescent. At oblique illumination, the light reflected by the male's dorsal hindwings can be highly polarised, which may have a function in intersexual signalling. ..
  39. ncbi request reprint Coloration principles of nymphaline butterflies - thin films, melanin, ommochromes and wing scale stacking
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 217:2171-80. 2014
    ..The colours observed locally on the wing are also due to the degree of scale stacking. Thin films, tuned pigments and combinations of stacked scales together determine the wing coloration of nymphaline butterflies. ..
  40. ncbi request reprint Iridescent flowers? Contribution of surface structures to optical signaling
    Casper J van der Kooi
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG, Groningen, the Netherlands Plant Physiology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, NL 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
    New Phytol 203:667-73. 2014
    ..Pigmentary rather than structural coloration determines the optical appearance of flowers. Therefore, the hypothesized signaling by flowers with striated surfaces to attract potential pollinators presently seems untenable. ..
  41. doi request reprint Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures
    Jan Tinbergen
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 216:4358-64. 2013
    ..The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors. ..
  42. pmc One rhodopsin per photoreceptor: Iro-C genes break the rule
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS Biol 6:e115. 2008
  43. pmc Sexual dichroism and pigment localization in the wing scales of Pieris rapae butterflies
    M A Giraldo
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 274:97-102. 2007
    ..r. crucivora. Consequently, P. r. crucivora exhibits a strong sexual dichroism that is absent in P. r. rapae...
  44. ncbi request reprint Calcium homeostasis in photoreceptor cells of Drosophila mutants inaC and trp studied with the pupil mechanism
    C A Hofstee
    Department of Biophysics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Vis Neurosci 13:257-63. 1996
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Partial coherence and other optical delicacies of lepidopteran superposition eyes
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 209:1904-13. 2006
    ..The transmittance of the superposition aperture of moths and skippers is improved by the corneal nipple arrays of the facet lenses, but quantitative assessment shows that the effect is minor...
  46. pmc Does Ca2+ reach millimolar concentrations after single photon absorption in Drosophila photoreceptor microvilli?
    M Postma
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biophys J 77:1811-23. 1999
    ..These very high concentrations show that the microvilli of fly photoreceptors are unique structures in which the Ca2+ signaling is even more extreme than in calcium concentration microdomains very close to Ca2+ channels...
  47. pmc Oil droplets of bird eyes: microlenses acting as spectral filters
    Doekele G Stavenga
    Computational Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369:20130041. 2014
    ..The spectral filtering causes narrow-band photoreceptor spectral sensitivities, which are well suited for spectral discrimination, especially in birds that have feathers coloured by carotenoid pigments. ..
  48. ncbi request reprint Dioptrics of the facet lenses of male blowflies Calliphora and Chrysomyia
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Biophysics, State University, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Comp Physiol A 166:365-71. 1990
    ..40 and 1.43, with the lowest values in the largest lenses. 4. The F-number calculated from the experimental data ranges from 1.5 to 2.2. It is argued that the range of effective F-numbers is 2.1-2.4...
  49. pmc Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies
    D G Stavenga
    Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 273:661-7. 2006
    ..A similar evolutionary development can be noticed for the tapetum of the ommatidia of lepidopteran eyes. It is most elaborate in moth-eyes, but strongly reduced in most diurnal butterflies and absent in papilionids...
  50. ncbi request reprint Spectral organization of ommatidia in flower-visiting insects
    Motohiro Wakakuwa
    Laboratory of Neuroethology, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies Sokendai, Hayama, Japan
    Photochem Photobiol 83:27-34. 2007
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Absence of eye shine and tapetum in the heterogeneous eye of Anthocharis butterflies (Pieridae)
    Shin Ya Takemura
    Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 22 2 Seto, Yokohama 236 0027, Japan
    J Exp Biol 210:3075-81. 2007
    ..Anatomical investigations also revealed that, considering rhabdom shape, peri-rhabdomal pigment clusters and autofluorescence, the ommatidia can be divided in at least two different types, which are randomly distributed in the retina...
  52. ncbi request reprint A unique visual pigment expressed in green, red and deep-red receptors in the eye of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora
    Motohiro Wakakuwa
    Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236 0027, Japan
    J Exp Biol 207:2803-10. 2004
    ..The peak absorbance of the two spectral filters appears to be approximately 1 (PR) and 2 (DR)...
  53. ncbi request reprint Coexpression of two visual pigments in a photoreceptor causes an abnormally broad spectral sensitivity in the eye of the butterfly Papilio xuthus
    Kentaro Arikawa
    Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236 0027, Japan
    J Neurosci 23:4527-32. 2003
    ..This work provides the first compelling evidence that multiple visual pigments participate in phototransduction in single invertebrate photoreceptors...
  54. ncbi request reprint Sexual dimorphism of short-wavelength photoreceptors in the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora
    Kentaro Arikawa
    Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236 0027, Japan
    J Neurosci 25:5935-42. 2005
    ..The narrow-band spectral sensitivity of the male dB photoreceptors probably evolved to improve the discrimination of the different wing colors of male and female P. rapae crucivora in the short-wavelength region of the spectrum...