Merel Kindt

Summary

Affiliation: University of Amsterdam
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress after pregnancy loss: a prospective study
    Iris M Engelhard
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 41:67-78. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Treatment of PTSD: a comparison of imaginal exposure with and without imagery rescripting
    Arnoud Arntz
    Department of Clinical Psychological Science, University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:345-70. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 94:30-41. 2010
  4. pmc Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Research Priority Program Brain and Cognition, Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 9:e86462. 2014
  5. pmc Neural substrates of individual differences in human fear learning: evidence from concurrent fMRI, fear-potentiated startle, and US-expectancy data
    Sonja van Well
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12:499-512. 2012
  6. pmc Psychophysiological response patterns to affective film stimuli
    Marieke G N Bos
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e62661. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: a test of extinction as updating mechanism
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychol 92:43-50. 2013
  8. doi request reprint The influence of data-driven versus conceptually-driven processing on the development of PTSD-like symptoms
    Merel Kindt
    Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 39:546-57. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 12:256-8. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Perceptual and conceptual processing as predictors of treatment outcome in PTSD
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:491-506. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress after pregnancy loss: a prospective study
    Iris M Engelhard
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 41:67-78. 2003
    ..It also predicted chronic PTSD symptoms, and this relation was mediated by acute PTSD symptoms...
  2. ncbi request reprint Treatment of PTSD: a comparison of imaginal exposure with and without imagery rescripting
    Arnoud Arntz
    Department of Clinical Psychological Science, University of Maastricht, PO Box 616, NL 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:345-70. 2007
    ..Results suggest that the addition of rescripting to IE makes the treatment more acceptable for both patients and therapists, and leads to better effects on non-fear problems like anger and guilt...
  3. ncbi request reprint Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 94:30-41. 2010
    ..From a clinical and ethical perspective, disrupting reconsolidation points to promising interventions persistently erasing fear responses from trauma memory without affecting the actual recollection...
  4. pmc Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Research Priority Program Brain and Cognition, Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 9:e86462. 2014
    ....
  5. pmc Neural substrates of individual differences in human fear learning: evidence from concurrent fMRI, fear-potentiated startle, and US-expectancy data
    Sonja van Well
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12:499-512. 2012
    ..Our study provides the first evidence for the potential of examining startle potentiation in concurrent fMRI research on fear learning...
  6. pmc Psychophysiological response patterns to affective film stimuli
    Marieke G N Bos
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e62661. 2013
    ..We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding...
  7. doi request reprint Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: a test of extinction as updating mechanism
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychol 92:43-50. 2013
    ..These conflicting results ask for further critical testing given the potential impact on the field of emotional memory and its application to clinical practice...
  8. doi request reprint The influence of data-driven versus conceptually-driven processing on the development of PTSD-like symptoms
    Merel Kindt
    Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 39:546-57. 2008
    ..The data support the viability of the distinction between data-driven/conceptually-driven processing for the understanding of the development of PTSD...
  9. ncbi request reprint Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 12:256-8. 2009
    ..Disrupting the reconsolidation of fear memory opens up new avenues for providing a long-term cure for patients with emotional disorders...
  10. ncbi request reprint Perceptual and conceptual processing as predictors of treatment outcome in PTSD
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:491-506. 2007
    ..The results suggest that imaginal reliving during CBT is not crucial for symptom reduction, but it may promote conceptual processing, which in itself predicts a better treatment outcome...
  11. ncbi request reprint Dissociation related to subjective memory fragmentation and intrusions but not to objective memory disturbances
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36:43-59. 2005
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Interpretation bias for heart sensations in congenital heart disease and its relation to quality of life
    Petra A Karsdorp
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int J Behav Med 15:232-40. 2008
    ..Previous studies have shown that patients with congenital heart disease (ConHD) report a diminished health-related quality of life...
  13. pmc Stimulation of the noradrenergic system during memory formation impairs extinction learning but not the disruption of reconsolidation
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1204-15. 2012
    ..Given that the noradrenergic strengthening of fear memory impaired extinction learning but not the disruption of reconsolidation, our findings may have implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders...
  14. pmc False heart rate feedback and the perception of heart symptoms in patients with congenital heart disease and anxiety
    Petra A Karsdorp
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int J Behav Med 16:81-8. 2009
    ..In the present study, it was suggested that a combination of high trait anxiety and disease history increases the perception of heart symptoms...
  15. doi request reprint The effects of noradrenergic blockade on extinction in humans
    Marieke G N Bos
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychol 89:598-605. 2012
    ..These findings indicate that careful selection of timing parameters is essential to ensure that pharmacological agents interfere with the intended memory process to reduce fear...
  16. ncbi request reprint Preattentive processing of heart cues and the perception of heart symptoms in congenital heart disease
    Petra A Karsdorp
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 45:1893-902. 2007
    ..Preattentive processing of harmless heart cues may easily elicit overperception of heart symptoms in highly trait anxious patients with ConHD...
  17. doi request reprint Instructed extinction differentially affects the emotional and cognitive expression of associative fear memory
    Dieuwke Sevenster
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychophysiology 49:1426-35. 2012
    ..Although the manipulation facilitated extinction learning, it did not prevent the recovery of the startle response. The present findings are better explained by a dual- rather than a single-process account of fear learning...
  18. doi request reprint Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Learn Mem 18:357-66. 2011
    ..Our findings demonstrate that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations, although selective, undermines the generalization of fear, a key feature of anxiety disorders...
  19. doi request reprint Noradrenergic enhancement of associative fear memory in humans
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 96:263-71. 2011
    ..The present findings suggest that noradrenaline may play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders...
  20. doi request reprint Fear generalization in humans: impact of verbal instructions
    Bram Vervliet
    University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 48:38-43. 2010
    ..Hence, the same learning experience can have opposite effects in terms of fear generalization, depending on verbally transmitted information about the relative importance of individual stimulus features...
  21. ncbi request reprint Trained interpretive bias and anxiety
    Elske Salemink
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, P O Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 45:329-40. 2007
    ..Effects of trained interpretive bias on anxiety were only marginal and absent on anxiety vulnerability. It appears that interpretive bias can be trained reliably, but its effects on mood and vulnerability require further explanation...
  22. doi request reprint Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals
    Femke J Gazendam
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychol 92:342-52. 2013
    ..We conclude that high trait anxiety may be characterized by deficient safety learning which in turn may promote persistent and generalized fear responses...
  23. doi request reprint Retrieval per se is not sufficient to trigger reconsolidation of human fear memory
    Dieuwke Sevenster
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 97:338-45. 2012
    ..Second, mere retrieval of the fear memory is not sufficient to induce its labilization and reconsolidation...
  24. doi request reprint Fear generalization in humans: Impact of prior non-fearful experiences
    Bram Vervliet
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 48:1078-84. 2010
    ..The results show significantly less generalization in this group, suggesting that prior non-fearful experiences can protect against fear generalization. These results may inspire novel ways to prevent the development of clinical anxiety...
  25. doi request reprint Erasing fear for an imagined threat event
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:1769-79. 2012
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Psychological and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease: a meta-analysis
    Petra A Karsdorp
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Pediatr Psychol 32:527-41. 2007
    ..The aim of the present study was to systematically review this empirical body of literature...
  27. pmc High trait anxiety: a challenge for disrupting fear memory reconsolidation
    Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e75239. 2013
    ..Our finding clearly demonstrates that we cannot simply translate observations from fundamental research on fear reduction in the average organism to clinical practice...
  28. doi request reprint Interacting noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems shift human brain activation patterns during encoding
    Anda H van Stegeren
    University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Psychology, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 93:56-65. 2010
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Associative learning increases trial-by-trial similarity of BOLD-MRI patterns
    Renee M Visser
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 31:12021-8. 2011
    ..We conclude that trial-by-trial MVPA is a useful tool for examining how the human brain encodes relevant associations and forms new associative networks...
  30. doi request reprint Neural pattern similarity predicts long-term fear memory
    Renee M Visser
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Neurosci 16:388-90. 2013
    ..We found that the long-term behavioral expression of fear memory could be predicted from neural patterns at the time of learning...
  31. ncbi request reprint Prediction error governs pharmacologically induced amnesia for learned fear
    Dieuwke Sevenster
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 339:830-3. 2013
    ..Insight into the process of memory updating is crucial for understanding the optimal and boundary conditions on reconsolidation and provides a clear guide for the development of reconsolidation-based treatments...
  32. pmc Worrying affects associative fear learning: a startle fear conditioning study
    Femke J Gazendam
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e34882. 2012
    ..The implication of our findings is that they show how worry may contribute to the development of anxiety disorders by affecting associative fear learning...
  33. ncbi request reprint Salivary alpha amylase and cortisol responses to different stress tasks: impact of sex
    Anda H van Stegeren
    University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Psychology and Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int J Psychophysiol 69:33-40. 2008
    ..Men had higher sAA levels than women during the complete course of the study, but men and women were comparable in their responsivity to the tasks. No strong correlations between sAA and CORT responses were found...
  34. ncbi request reprint Time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of emotional memories
    Vanessa A van Ast
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Electronic address
    Biol Psychiatry 74:809-16. 2013
    ..Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent contextualization of emotional and neutral memories...
  35. ncbi request reprint Selective attention and threat: quick orienting versus slow disengagement and two versions of the dot probe task
    Elske Salemink
    Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, P O Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 45:607-15. 2007
    ..Concerning the relative merits of the two dot probe task versions, the results suggest that the detection task may be superior to the differentiation task. Implications for past and future research are discussed...
  36. pmc Individual Differences in Discriminatory Fear Learning under Conditions of Ambiguity: A Vulnerability Factor for Anxiety Disorders?
    Inna Arnaudova
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Front Psychol 4:298. 2013
    ..This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as GAD...
  37. doi request reprint What's wrong with fear conditioning?
    Tom Beckers
    University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Psychology, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychol 92:90-6. 2013
    ..We present preliminary data that illustrate these ideas and discuss the importance of response systems divergence in understanding individual differences in vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety...
  38. pmc Blocking mineralocorticoid receptors prior to retrieval reduces contextual fear memory in mice
    Ming Zhou
    Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e26220. 2011
    ..We tested here whether blockade of MRs or GRs during retrieval also affects subsequent expression of fear memory...
  39. ncbi request reprint Trauma processing and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands M
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36:69-76. 2005
  40. ncbi request reprint Contextual control of human fear associations in a renewal paradigm
    Marieke Effting
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 45:2002-18. 2007
    ..In contrast to the model, the findings suggest that in humans not only extinction learning, but also fear acquisition is controlled by its current context...
  41. ncbi request reprint Compulsive perseveration: empirical criticism on the mood-as-input model
    Marcel van den Hout
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 45:1221-30. 2007
    ..The findings raise questions about the validity of the paradigm as a model of OC perseveration...
  42. doi request reprint Effects of positive interpretive bias modification in highly anxious individuals
    Elske Salemink
    Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Anxiety Disord 23:676-83. 2009
    ..No effects were observed on social anxiety and stress vulnerability. The mixed pattern of findings renders them rather inconclusive, leaving interpretations of the potential therapeutic merits of CBM-I open for future research...
  43. doi request reprint How does Cognitive Bias Modification affect anxiety? Mediation analyses and experimental data
    Elske Salemink
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Behav Cogn Psychother 38:59-66. 2010
    ..A crucial assumption is that the effect of the procedure on anxiety is mediated by change in interpretive bias rather than being a direct effect of the procedure. Surprisingly, this had not previously been tested...
  44. doi request reprint Cortisol mediates the effects of stress on the contextual dependency of memories
    Vanessa A van Ast
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Clinical Psychology, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Electronic address
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 41:97-110. 2014
    ..Thus, there seems to be a specific role for cortisol in the integration of a central memory into its surrounding context. ..
  45. ncbi request reprint Stress-induced heart symptoms and perceptual biases in patients with congenital heart disease
    Petra A Karsdorp
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int J Cardiol 114:352-7. 2007
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that the combination of ConHD and high trait anxiety increases the perception of heart symptoms during acute stress...
  46. ncbi request reprint Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory
    Marieke G N Bos
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Amsterdam Brain and Cognition Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 46:102-13. 2014
    ..This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. ..
  47. ncbi request reprint Phenomenological validity of an OCD-memory model and the remember/know distinction
    Marcel van den Hout
    Maastricht University, Postbus 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 41:369-78. 2003
    ..The latter does not reduce distrust but rather increases distrust and the patient may get trapped in a spiral of mutually reinforcing checking behavior and memory distrust...
  48. ncbi request reprint Dissociation and memory fragmentation: experimental effects on meta-memory but not on actual memory performance
    Merel Kindt
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 41:167-78. 2003
    ..The present findings suggest that the claim that dissociation induces memory fragmentation may have to be confined to meta-memory. Implications of this divergence between actual memory and meta-memory are discussed...
  49. ncbi request reprint Emotional memory is perceptual
    Arnoud Arntz
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, P O Box 616, NL 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36:19-34. 2005
    ..This might be related to the prominent position of perceptual memories in traumatic memory, manifest in intrusions, nightmares and reliving experiences...
  50. ncbi request reprint Cognitive mechanisms and posttraumatic stress disorder: clinical and analogue research
    Iris M Engelhard
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36:1-2. 2005
  51. ncbi request reprint Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children
    Mattijn Morren
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 35:3-20. 2004
    ..High levels of anxiety and depression were significantly associated with the tendency to rely on anxiety-response information, but only in the case of safety scripts...
  52. ncbi request reprint Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the paradoxical effects of perseverative behaviour on experienced uncertainty
    Marcel van den Hout
    Utrecht University, Postbus 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 35:165-81. 2004
    ..The experimental preparation may be used as a model for OCD checking. The study suggests that repeated checking is sufficient to cause paradoxical effects on memory trust and that repeated checking is a counterproductive safety strategy...
  53. ncbi request reprint Instructed neutralization, spontaneous neutralization and prevented neutralization after an obsession-like thought
    Marcel van den Hout
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, NL 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 33:177-89. 2002
    ..Yet, contrary to expectation, this increase in anxiety did not discriminate the "neutralization prevention" group from the other two groups. Limitations of the paradigm as a model for clinical obsessions are discussed...
  54. ncbi request reprint Repeated checking causes memory distrust
    Marcel van den Hout
    Department of Medical, Clinical and Experimental Psychology, University of Maastricht, P O Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands
    Behav Res Ther 41:301-16. 2003
    ..OCD checking may be motivated by the wish to reduce uncertainty, but checking appears to be a counter-productive safety strategy. Rather than reducing doubt, checking fosters doubt and ironically increases meta-memory problems...
  55. ncbi request reprint Trained interpretive bias: validity and effects on anxiety
    Elske Salemink
    Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, P O Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:212-24. 2007
    ..Moreover, evidence was found for effects of biased interpretations on anxiety. This demonstrates the viability of the present paradigm, which has implications for clinical practice...