Eelko Hak

Summary

Affiliation: University Medical Center Utrecht
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. pmc Clinical effectiveness of conventional influenza vaccination in asthmatic children
    A J Smits
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, The Netherlands
    Epidemiol Infect 128:205-11. 2002
  2. ncbi Effectiveness of a co-ordinated nation-wide programme to improve influenza immunisation rates in The Netherlands
    E Hak
    Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Scand J Prim Health Care 18:237-41. 2000
  3. ncbi Do recommended high-risk adults benefit from a first influenza vaccination?
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, HP 6 139, P O Box 85060, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 24:2799-802. 2006
  4. ncbi Clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in persons younger than 65 years with high-risk medical conditions: the PRISMA study
    Eelko Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Arch Intern Med 165:274-80. 2005
  5. ncbi A nested case-control study of influenza vaccination was a cost-effective alternative to a full cohort analysis
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85060, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Clin Epidemiol 57:875-80. 2004
  6. ncbi Is asthma in 2-12 year-old children associated with physician-attended recurrent upper respiratory tract infections?
    Eelko Hak
    Julius Center for Health Science and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Epidemiol 18:899-902. 2003
  7. ncbi Conventional influenza vaccination is not associated with complications in working-age patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Am J Epidemiol 157:692-700. 2003
  8. ncbi Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, P O Box 85060, 3508 AB, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 21:1719-24. 2003
  9. pmc Confounding by indication in non-experimental evaluation of vaccine effectiveness: the example of prevention of influenza complications
    E Hak
    Julius Centre for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands
    J Epidemiol Community Health 56:951-5. 2002
  10. ncbi Influenza vaccinations: who needs them and when?
    Eelko Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Drugs 62:2413-20. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. pmc Clinical effectiveness of conventional influenza vaccination in asthmatic children
    A J Smits
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, The Netherlands
    Epidemiol Infect 128:205-11. 2002
    ..Influenza vaccination may reduce morbidity in asthmatic infants and pre-school children. However, larger, preferably experimental, studies are needed to establish the benefits of vaccination, notably in older asthmatic children...
  2. ncbi Effectiveness of a co-ordinated nation-wide programme to improve influenza immunisation rates in The Netherlands
    E Hak
    Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Scand J Prim Health Care 18:237-41. 2000
    ..To assess t he effectiveness of a nation-widemultifaceted intervention programme involving general practitioners (GPs) on influenza immunisation practice...
  3. ncbi Do recommended high-risk adults benefit from a first influenza vaccination?
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, HP 6 139, P O Box 85060, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 24:2799-802. 2006
    ..The corresponding figure in persons who were vaccinated before was 85% (95% CI: 36-96%). Adult persons with high-risk medical conditions can substantially benefit from a first and repeat influenza vaccination prior to an epidemic...
  4. ncbi Clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in persons younger than 65 years with high-risk medical conditions: the PRISMA study
    Eelko Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Arch Intern Med 165:274-80. 2005
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in persons recommended for vaccination of any age during an epidemic...
  5. ncbi A nested case-control study of influenza vaccination was a cost-effective alternative to a full cohort analysis
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85060, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Clin Epidemiol 57:875-80. 2004
    ..We compared relative and absolute estimates of associations in an influenza vaccine study using both designs...
  6. ncbi Is asthma in 2-12 year-old children associated with physician-attended recurrent upper respiratory tract infections?
    Eelko Hak
    Julius Center for Health Science and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Epidemiol 18:899-902. 2003
    ..5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-6.1). As a consequence, antibiotic prescriptions and referrals to hospitals occurred more frequently among asthmatics than controls...
  7. ncbi Conventional influenza vaccination is not associated with complications in working-age patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Am J Epidemiol 157:692-700. 2003
    ..07, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.96; pooled odds ratio = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.80). Because influenza vaccination appeared not to be associated with a clinically relevant reduction in severe morbidity, other measures need to be explored...
  8. ncbi Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, P O Box 85060, 3508 AB, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 21:1719-24. 2003
    ..7%) elderly with co-morbidity and 25,527 (34.1%) healthy elderly had been included. The mortality rate was 5.2 per 1000 and 2035 non-fatal outcome events were recorded (incidence rate 27.2/1000)...
  9. pmc Confounding by indication in non-experimental evaluation of vaccine effectiveness: the example of prevention of influenza complications
    E Hak
    Julius Centre for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands
    J Epidemiol Community Health 56:951-5. 2002
    ..Only if the investigator is able to show that confounding by indication is sufficiently controlled for, results of a non-experimental study may be of use to direct an evidence based vaccine policy...
  10. ncbi Influenza vaccinations: who needs them and when?
    Eelko Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Drugs 62:2413-20. 2002
    ..Furthermore, adequately powered studies should be conducted to demonstrate possible effectiveness of vaccination in reducing post-influenza complications among older children and working-age adults...
  11. doi Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococcal serotype 19A strains
    Elske J M van Gils
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    JAMA 304:1099-106. 2010
    ..Because spontaneous fluctuations in time and antibiotic selective pressure may have induced this serotype 19A increase, controlled studies are needed to assess the role of PCV-7...
  12. doi Effects of influenza plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination versus influenza vaccination alone in preventing respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Angelique G S C Jansen
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Pediatr 153:764-70. 2008
    ..To evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination with or without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children...
  13. pmc Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after start of vaccination program, the Netherlands
    Judith Spijkerman
    University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:584-91. 2011
    ..PCV7 serotypes were largely replaced by non-PCV7 serotypes. Disappearance of PCV7 serotypes in parents suggests strong transmission reduction through vaccination...
  14. ncbi Risk of recurrent acute lower urinary tract infections and prescription pattern of antibiotics in women with and without diabetes in primary care
    Kees J Gorter
    Department of General Practice, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 27:379-85. 2010
    ..Women with diabetes have an increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially recurrences. Aim. To investigate diabetes characteristics associated with the risk of recurrent lower UTIs and the antibiotic prescription pattern...
  15. pmc Effect of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a randomised controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e20229. 2011
    ..Because of the reported negative association of vaccine serotype pneumococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx, we explored the effect of PCV7 on nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. aureus in children and parents...
  16. doi Decline in influenza-associated mortality among Dutch elderly following the introduction of a nationwide vaccination program
    Angelique G S C Jansen
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 26:5567-74. 2008
    ..In conclusion, routine influenza vaccination among Dutch elderly was associated with a significant decrease in influenza-associated mortality, notably in those aged 65-69 years...
  17. pmc Effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2 years after its introduction, the Netherlands
    Gerwin D Rodenburg
    Wilhelmina Children s Hospital University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:816-23. 2010
    ..IPD rates did not change for other age groups. In the Netherlands, PCV-7 offered high protection against vaccine-serotype IPD in vaccinated children, but increases of non-vaccine-serotype IPD reduced net vaccine benefits...
  18. pmc Prediction of complicated lower respiratory tract infections in older patients with diabetes
    Leonie M A J Venmans
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Br J Gen Pract 58:564-8. 2008
    ..Patients with diabetes have an elevated risk of developing complicated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). However, up until now, GPs have not had the tools to assess individual risks...
  19. pmc Prognosis of primary care patients aged 80 years and older with lower respiratory tract infection
    Christiana van de Nadort
    Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Br J Gen Pract 59:e110-5. 2009
    ..Predictors for a complicated course of a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) episode among patients aged > or =80 years are unknown...
  20. doi Effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage with Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in a randomized controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 29:7595-8. 2011
    ..influenzae and 68% for M. catarrhalis at the age of 18 months. Reduced dose (CRM197) schedules induced a slight reduction in overall pneumococcal carriage but no increases in the presence of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis...
  21. doi Rate-difference method proved satisfactory in estimating the influenza burden in primary care visits
    Angelique G S C Jansen
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, P O Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Clin Epidemiol 61:803-12. 2008
    ..To compare different methods to estimate the disease burden of influenza, using influenza and respiratory syncytial virus-(RSV) associated primary care data as an example...
  22. doi Adverse reactions to simultaneous influenza and pneumococcal conjugate vaccinations in children: randomized double-blind controlled trial
    Angelique G S C Jansen
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 19:552-8. 2008
    ..Local and systemic reactions were more prevalent (30% and 10% more) in the IV + PV group compared with the IV + plac and HepB + plac group. These results are important for designing future vaccination schedules...
  23. doi Effect of reduced-dose schedules with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in children: a randomized controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    JAMA 302:159-67. 2009
    ..The effects of reduced-dose schedules of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) on pneumococcal carriage in children are largely unknown, although highly relevant in the context of subsequent herd effects...
  24. ncbi Short-term effects of an educational program on health-seeking behavior for infections in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled intervention trial in primary care
    Leonie M A J Venmans
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Diabetes Care 31:402-7. 2008
    ....
  25. ncbi Is co-morbidity taken into account in the antibiotic management of elderly patients with acute bronchitis and COPD exacerbations?
    Jettie Bont
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 24:317-22. 2007
    ..Presently, it is unknown whether GPs adhere to these guidelines and target antibiotic treatment more often at patients with risk-elevating conditions...
  26. ncbi Sensitivity analyses to estimate the potential impact of unmeasured confounding in causal research
    Rolf H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Epidemiol 39:107-17. 2010
    ..Although several sensitivity analyses are available, these are used infrequently. This article is intended as a tutorial on sensitivity analyses, in which we discuss three methods to conduct sensitivity analysis...
  27. ncbi Primary care management of respiratory tract infections in Dutch preschool children
    Angelique G S C Jansen
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Scand J Prim Health Care 24:231-6. 2006
    ..To determine age-specific antibiotic prescription and referral rates in preschool children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care...
  28. doi Comparability of antibody response to a booster dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants primed with either 2 or 3 doses
    Gerwin D Rodenburg
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 28:1391-6. 2010
    ..0 microg/ml and >or=5.0 microg/ml) and 19F (>or=5.0 microg/ml). Surveillance studies are warranted for vaccine impact on 6B and 19F disease cases after reduced-dose PCV-7 schedules...
  29. ncbi Instrumental variables in influenza vaccination studies: mission impossible?!
    Rolf H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Value Health 13:132-7. 2010
    ..Theoretically, analyses using IVs to control for both observed and unobserved confounding may provide unbiased estimates of influenza vaccine effects. We assessed the usefulness of IV analysis in influenza vaccination studies...
  30. doi Acceptability and effects of an educational leaflet on infections in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized controlled trial in primary care
    Leonie M A J Venmans
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Prim Care Diabetes 1:135-42. 2007
    ....
  31. ncbi Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for hospitalization due to pneumonia or influenza or death during influenza epidemics among community-dwelling elderly persons
    Eelko Hak
    Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 189:450-8. 2004
    ....
  32. doi Invasive pneumococcal disease among adults: associations among serotypes, disease characteristics, and outcome
    Angelique G S C Jansen
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 49:e23-9. 2009
    ..The Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide capsule may be related to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) course...
  33. pmc A model-based assessment of oseltamivir prophylaxis strategies to prevent influenza in nursing homes
    Carline van den Dool
    University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1547-55. 2009
    ..Extension of prophylaxis to healthcare workers offered little additional protection to patients...
  34. ncbi Beta-blockers may reduce mortality and risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Frans H Rutten
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85060, Stratenum 6 101, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Arch Intern Med 170:880-7. 2010
    ..We assessed the long-term effect of beta-blocker use on survival and exacerbations in patients with COPD...
  35. ncbi Prediction of complicated urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes: a questionnaire study in primary care
    Leonie M A J Venmans
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, P O 85500, 3508 6A Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Epidemiol 22:49-54. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to assess predictors for a complicated course of UTIs in DM2 patients in primary care...
  36. doi Pooling of confounders did not induce residual confounding in influenza vaccination studies
    Rolf H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann Epidemiol 19:432-6. 2009
    ..It has been suggested, however, that the pooling of confounders induces residual confounding, although empirical evidence is scarce. We set out to study the effects of combining several confounders into classes of co-morbidity...
  37. doi Beliefs on mandatory influenza vaccination of health care workers in nursing homes: a questionnaire study from the Netherlands
    Ingrid Looijmans-Van den Akker
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Am Geriatr Soc 57:2253-6. 2009
    ....
  38. ncbi Trends in doctor consultations, antibiotic prescription, and specialist referrals for otitis media in children: 1995-2003
    Astrid I O Plasschaert
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Pediatrics 117:1879-86. 2006
    ..Reported trends regarding the incidence of otitis media and antibiotic prescription rates are inconsistent...
  39. ncbi Clinical effectiveness of first and repeat influenza vaccination in adult and elderly diabetic patients
    Ingrid Looijmans-Van den Akker
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Diabetes Care 29:1771-6. 2006
    ..We assessed the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in adults with diabetes and specifically examined potential modification of effect by age and prior influenza vaccine uptake...
  40. pmc Prognostic factors for influenza-associated hospitalization and death during an epidemic
    E Hak
    Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Epidemiol Infect 126:261-8. 2001
    ..Several non-modifiable determinants can be used to ensure targeting additional preventive or therapeutic measures at the most vulnerable segment of the vaccine target group...
  41. ncbi Patterns of resolution of chest radiograph abnormalities in adults hospitalized with severe community-acquired pneumonia
    Anke H W Bruns
    Division of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 45:983-91. 2007
    ....
  42. doi A clinical prediction rule for detecting major depressive disorder in primary care: the PREDICT-NL study
    Nicolaas P A Zuithoff
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 26:241-50. 2009
    ..Major depressive disorder often remains unrecognized in primary care...
  43. doi Determinants of non-compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in the community-dwelling elderly
    Wim Opstelten
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 27:192-6. 2009
    ..Uptake of HZ vaccination was rather low and more data on (cost-)effectiveness might encourage GPs to offer HZ vaccination to their patients...
  44. ncbi Impact of rapid detection of viral and atypical bacterial pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction for patients with lower respiratory tract infection
    Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
    Division of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1438-44. 2005
    ..Diagnostic yields, feasibility, and costs of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens in the routine diagnostic work-up for LRTI were determined...
  45. doi Poor quality of reporting confounding bias in observational intervention studies: a systematic review
    Rolf H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann Epidemiol 18:746-51. 2008
    ..To systematically review observational studies on medical interventions to determine the quality of reporting of confounding...
  46. pmc The effects of influenza vaccination of health care workers in nursing homes: insights from a mathematical model
    Carline van den Dool
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS Med 5:e200. 2008
    ..Therefore, we use a mathematical model to estimate the effects of HCW vaccination in different scenarios and to identify a herd immunity threshold in a nursing home department...
  47. ncbi Increased risk of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
    L M A J Muller
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 41:281-8. 2005
    ..We intended to determine the relative risks of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and DM2, respectively)...
  48. ncbi Modelling the health-economic impact of the next influenza pandemic in The Netherlands
    E Hak
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, P O Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 24:6756-60. 2006
    ..The burden is highest in adults aged 20 to 64 years. If minimizing the total mortality and sustaining highest net economic returns is the objective, this group needs to be targeted in interventions...
  49. doi Initiation of antipsychotic treatment by general practitioners. a case-control study
    Geartsje Boonstra
    University Medical Centre Utrecht UMCU, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience RMI, Department of Adult Psychiatry and Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Heidelberglaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Eval Clin Pract 17:12-7. 2011
    ....
  50. ncbi Is treatment of atrial fibrillation in primary care based on thromboembolic risk assessment?
    Frans H Rutten
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 20:16-21. 2003
    ..Although practice studies have shown underutilization of antithrombotics, it is not clear whether physicians make use of thromboembolic risk stratification in their treatment decisions, as recommended in current guidelines...
  51. ncbi Incidence of GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections according to age, gender and high-risk co-morbidity: the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 23:291-4. 2006
    ..Figures on GP-diagnosed respiratory tract infections (RTI) are outdated because of demographic changes and increase in co-morbid conditions, respiratory vaccination programmes and change in illness behaviour...
  52. ncbi A prediction rule for elderly primary-care patients with lower respiratory tract infections
    J Bont
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, PO Box 85060, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 29:969-75. 2007
    ..Future studies should assess whether information on signs and symptoms can further improve this prediction rule...
  53. ncbi Prevalence of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Leon, Nicaragua
    Carlijn E L Hoekstra
    Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:522-5. 2006
    ..0-0.3). The higher proportion of women infected with syphilis than found in earlier studies suggests that sexually transmitted diseases are circulating in the general population and highlights the increasing importance of HIV prevention...
  54. ncbi Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among the elderly
    R H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, P O Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 34:56-62. 2009
    ..After taking unmeasured confounding into account, influenza vaccination is still associated with substantial reduction in mortality risk...
  55. doi Which determinants should be targeted to increase influenza vaccination uptake among health care workers in nursing homes?
    I Looijmans-Van den Akker
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 27:4724-30. 2009
    ..To further increase influenza vaccine uptake, implementation programs should target these determinants...
  56. ncbi Prognostic factors for early clinical failure in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia
    M Hoogewerf
    Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:1097-104. 2006
    ..Patients who failed to respond had a higher 28-day mortality rate and a longer hospital stay. It was concluded that routine clinical and biochemical information can be used to predict early clinical failure in patients with severe CAP...
  57. ncbi Rationale and design of the prevention of respiratory infections and management in children (PRIMAKid) study: a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness and costs of combined influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in pre-school children with recur
    Y Schonbeck
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 23:4906-14. 2005
    ..Primary outcome is number of febrile RTIs. Other outcomes include duration and severity of RTI episodes, medical consumption, safety and costs...
  58. doi Attitude of Dutch hospital personnel towards influenza vaccination
    C van den Dool
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 26:1297-302. 2008
    ..Physicians were more likely than nurses and other staff to have a positive intention. Education is needed to convince hospital personnel about influenza vaccination...
  59. ncbi Confounding in publications of observational intervention studies
    Rolf H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Universiteitsweg 100, STR 6 118, 3584 GC, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Epidemiol 22:413-5. 2007
    ..This study shows only 9% of all papers on observational intervention studies published in peer-reviewed medical journals mention any of the terms (confounding, adjustment, or bias) indicating appreciation of confounding...
  60. ncbi Oral decontamination with chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia
    Mirelle Koeman
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, and Department of Internal Medicine and Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1348-55. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that oral decontamination with either chlorhexidine (CHX, 2%) or CHX/colistin (CHX/COL, 2%/2%) would reduce and postpone development of VAP, and oral and endotracheal colonization...
  61. doi Symptoms of influenza virus infection in hospitalized patients
    C van den Dool
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Str 6 131, University Medical Center Utrecht, P O Box 85 500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:314-9. 2008
    ..During influenza outbreaks, fever and cough are the most accurate symptoms in predicting influenza virus infection in the community...
  62. ncbi Modeling the effects of influenza vaccination of health care workers in hospital departments
    C van den Dool
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 27:6261-7. 2009
    ..Therefore, it seems justified to extend the recommendations for HCW vaccination, based on results in the long-term care setting, to short-term care settings as well...
  63. doi Usefulness of consecutive C-reactive protein measurements in follow-up of severe community-acquired pneumonia
    A H W Bruns
    Dept of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 32:726-32. 2008
    ..A delayed normalisation of C-reactive protein levels is associated with a higher risk of having received inappropriate antibiotic treatment...
  64. ncbi Effects of a multi-faceted program to increase influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers in nursing homes: A cluster randomised controlled trial
    I Looijmans-Van den Akker
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, HP 6 131, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 28:5086-92. 2010
    ..To take full advantage of this measure, either the program should be adjusted and implemented over a longer time period or mandatory influenza vaccination should be considered...
  65. ncbi Negative attitude of highly educated parents and health care workers towards future vaccinations in the Dutch childhood vaccination program
    E Hak
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, HP Str 6 131, P O Box 85060, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 23:3103-7. 2005
    ..It is unknown whether further expansion of the Dutch childhood vaccination program with other vaccines will be accepted and whom should be targeted in educational strategies...
  66. ncbi Influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus-associated mortality and hospitalisations
    A G S C Jansen
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 30:1158-66. 2007
    ..The respiratory syncytial virus-associated burden was highest for young children but also substantial for the elderly...
  67. ncbi Prognostic factors for serious morbidity and mortality from community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections among the elderly in primary care
    E Hak
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 22:375-80. 2005
    ..Uncertainty about the prognosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) hinders optimal management in primary care...
  68. ncbi Introducing a pneumococcal vaccine to an existing influenza immunization program: vaccination rates and predictors of noncompliance
    W Opstelten
    Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Center, Location Stratenum, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Am J Med 111:474-9. 2001
    ..A wider diversity of patient characteristics and attitudes was present when neither vaccination was received...
  69. doi Incidence and antibiotic prescription rates for common infections in patients with diabetes in primary care over the years 1995 to 2003
    L M A J Venmans
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Infect Dis 13:e344-51. 2009
    ..To assess changes in incidence and in antibiotic prescription rates for infections of the lower respiratory tract (LRTI) and urinary tract (UTI) in patients with diabetes (DM) over the years 1995 to 2003...
  70. ncbi No intention to comply with influenza and pneumococcal vaccination: behavioural determinants among smokers and non-smokers
    I Looijmans-Van den Akker
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Prev Med 45:380-5. 2007
    ..Smoking increases the risk for influenza and pneumococcal disease, but vaccination uptake is lower among smokers than non-smokers. We therefore aimed to determine reasons for not complying with vaccination among smokers and non-smokers...
  71. ncbi Quantifying the potential role of unmeasured confounders: the example of influenza vaccination
    R H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Epidemiol 37:1422-9. 2008
    ....
  72. doi A clinical prediction rule for urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care
    L M A J Venmans
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Epidemiol Infect 137:166-72. 2009
    ..8%. For men these figures were 0.8 and 7.1 for a cut-off score of 2 and 4, respectively. Simple variables can be used for the risk stratification of patients...
  73. ncbi How good is the evidence for the recommended empirical antimicrobial treatment of patients hospitalized because of community-acquired pneumonia? A systematic review
    J J Oosterheert
    Division of Medicine, Department of Acute Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:555-63. 2003
    ..We evaluated whether treatment with a beta-lactam plus macrolide or quinolone monotherapy is truly superior to beta-lactam treatment alone...
  74. doi Quantitative assessment of unobserved confounding is mandatory in nonrandomized intervention studies
    R H H Groenwold
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Clin Epidemiol 62:22-8. 2009
    ..Our objective was to review methods to control for observed confounding, as well as unobserved confounding..
  75. pmc Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease: association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?
    A G S C Jansen
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Epidemiol Infect 136:1448-54. 2008
    ..Although no causal relationship may be inferred from these data, they support a role for influenza virus and RSV in the pathogenesis of IPD and MD...
  76. ncbi Increased risk of early virological failure in non-European HIV-1-infected patients in a Dutch cohort on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    J B van den Berg
    Department of Acute Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands
    HIV Med 6:299-306. 2005
    ..To compare early and late responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in European and non-European HIV-1 infected patients in a Dutch cohort...
  77. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use and protection against pneumonia in patients with diabetes
    Ewoudt M W van de Garde
    Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht The Netherlands
    J Hypertens 25:235-9. 2007
    ..Because of the high risk of pneumonia in patients with diabetes, we aimed to assess the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use on the occurrence of pneumonia in a general population of patients with diabetes...
  78. ncbi Uptake of influenza vaccination in Dutch nursing home personnel following national recommendations
    Ingrid Looijmans-Van den Akker
    J Am Geriatr Soc 55:1486-7. 2007
  79. doi Predicting death in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective validation study reevaluating the CRB-65 severity assessment tool
    Jettie Bont
    Arch Intern Med 168:1465-8. 2008
  80. ncbi Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in the community-dwelling elderly
    Kristin L Nichol
    Medicine Service and Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55417, USA
    N Engl J Med 357:1373-81. 2007
    ..This study examined the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in seniors over the long term while addressing potential bias and residual confounding in the results...
  81. ncbi Influence of high-risk medical conditions on the effectiveness of influenza vaccination among elderly members of 3 large managed-care organizations
    Eelko Hak
    HealthPartners Research Foundation, Bloomington, IN, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:370-7. 2002
    ..4- to 4.7-fold higher among high-risk than among healthy elderly persons. All elderly individuals may substantially benefit from vaccination. However, the impact of influenza is greater in persons with high-risk medical conditions...
  82. ncbi Benefits of influenza vaccine in US elderly--appreciating issues of confounding bias and precision
    Eelko Hak
    Int J Epidemiol 35:800-2; author reply 799-800. 2006
  83. ncbi Pneumococcal vaccination in older adults
    Eelko Hak
    N Engl J Med 349:712-4; author reply 712-4. 2003