B J Kullberg

Summary

Affiliation: Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. pmc Circulating lipoproteins are a crucial component of host defense against invasive Salmonella typhimurium infection
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e4237. 2009
  2. pmc Influence of genetic variations in TLR4 and TIRAP/Mal on the course of sepsis and pneumonia and cytokine release: an observational study in three cohorts
    Oliver Kumpf
    Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Management, HANSE Klinikum Stralsund, Grosse Parower Strasse 47 53, Stralsund 18435, Germany
    Crit Care 14:R103. 2010
  3. ncbi request reprint Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial
    B J Kullberg
    Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine 484, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre 541, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands
    Lancet 366:1435-42. 2005
  4. doi request reprint European expert opinion on the management of invasive candidiasis in adults
    B J Kullberg
    Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1-12. 2011
  5. ncbi request reprint [Dutch Health Council advice 'Vaccination against pneumococcal infections in elderly persons and immunocompromised adults']
    B J Kullberg
    Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, afd Algemeen Interne Geneeskunde huispost 541, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 148:871-4. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Design of efficacy trials of cytokines in combination with antifungal drugs
    Bart Jan Kullberg
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 39:S218-23. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Severe acute respiratory syndrome: lessons and uncertainties
    B J Kullberg
    Departments of Medicine, University Medical Centre St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 61:235-7. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint [Invasive zygomycosis: notably in diabetes mellitus and iron overload]
    B J Kullberg
    Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, Nijmeegs Universitair Centrum voor Infectieziekten, Nijmegen
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 151:2603-5. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-18 induces production of proinflammatory cytokines in mice: no intermediate role for the cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor family and interleukin-1beta
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 30:3057-60. 2000
  10. ncbi request reprint Lethal Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium endotoxemia is mediated through different pathways
    M G Netea
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Nijmegen University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 31:2529-38. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Circulating lipoproteins are a crucial component of host defense against invasive Salmonella typhimurium infection
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e4237. 2009
    ..Circulating lipoproteins improve the outcome of severe Gram-negative infections through neutralizing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), thus inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines...
  2. pmc Influence of genetic variations in TLR4 and TIRAP/Mal on the course of sepsis and pneumonia and cytokine release: an observational study in three cohorts
    Oliver Kumpf
    Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Management, HANSE Klinikum Stralsund, Grosse Parower Strasse 47 53, Stralsund 18435, Germany
    Crit Care 14:R103. 2010
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial
    B J Kullberg
    Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine 484, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre 541, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands
    Lancet 366:1435-42. 2005
    ..This multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority study compared voriconazole with a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for the treatment of candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients...
  4. doi request reprint European expert opinion on the management of invasive candidiasis in adults
    B J Kullberg
    Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1-12. 2011
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint [Dutch Health Council advice 'Vaccination against pneumococcal infections in elderly persons and immunocompromised adults']
    B J Kullberg
    Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, afd Algemeen Interne Geneeskunde huispost 541, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 148:871-4. 2004
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Design of efficacy trials of cytokines in combination with antifungal drugs
    Bart Jan Kullberg
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 39:S218-23. 2004
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Severe acute respiratory syndrome: lessons and uncertainties
    B J Kullberg
    Departments of Medicine, University Medical Centre St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 61:235-7. 2003
    ..The source of the outbreak and the exact modes of transmission are still subjects of research. Important lessons can be learned from the SARS outbreak about both the scientific and the public health approach to emerging pathogens...
  8. ncbi request reprint [Invasive zygomycosis: notably in diabetes mellitus and iron overload]
    B J Kullberg
    Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, Nijmeegs Universitair Centrum voor Infectieziekten, Nijmegen
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 151:2603-5. 2007
    ..Rapid diagnosis, reversal of the underlying predisposition and timely surgical debridement are the underlying principles of therapy for this disease...
  9. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-18 induces production of proinflammatory cytokines in mice: no intermediate role for the cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor family and interleukin-1beta
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 30:3057-60. 2000
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Lethal Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium endotoxemia is mediated through different pathways
    M G Netea
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Nijmegen University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 31:2529-38. 2001
    ..In conclusion, TNF and LT play a central role in the lethality due to E. coli LPS, whereas the lethal effects of S. typhimurium LPS are mediated through mechanisms also involving other cytokines such as IFN-gamma, IL-1 and IL-18...
  11. ncbi request reprint Recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects against acute disseminated Candida albicans infection in nonneutropenic mice
    B J Kullberg
    Department of Medicine, Catholic University Nijmegen and University Hospital, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 177:175-81. 1998
    ..These results indicate that rG-CSF enhances host resistance to disseminated candidiasis in nonneutropenic mice through activation of granulocytes and their recruitment to the site of infection...
  12. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of Candida lung abscesses by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
    C P Bleeker-Rovers
    Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 11:493-5. 2005
    ..It was concluded that FDG-PET is a promising new imaging technique that enables early identification of sites of disseminated candidiasis, and that this technique can be used in the evaluation of therapy...
  13. pmc Hyperlipoproteinemia enhances susceptibility to acute disseminated Candida albicans infection in low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient mice
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Infect Immun 65:2663-7. 1997
    ..This latter phenomenon was probably due to increased binding of yeast cells to macrophages of LDLR-/- mice. These data suggest that hyperlipoproteinemia is deleterious in systemic candidiasis...
  14. ncbi request reprint Endocarditis: effects of routine echocardiography during Gram-positive bacteraemia
    F J Vos
    Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 69:335-40. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a regime including routine echocardiography results in better outcome...
  15. pmc Safety and tolerability of voriconazole in patients with baseline renal insufficiency and candidemia
    A M L Oude Lashof
    Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center and Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity N4i, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3133-7. 2012
    ..Intravenous voriconazole formulated with SBECD was effective in patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency and candidemia and was associated with less acute renal toxicity than amphotericin B/fluconazole...
  16. pmc Milder clinical hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome phenotype is associated with partial interleukin-17 deficiency
    F L van de Veerdonk
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Exp Immunol 159:57-64. 2010
    ..These data demonstrate that defective IL-17 production in response to specific pathogens can differ between patients with HIES and that the extent of the defective Th17 response determines their clinical phenotype...
  17. pmc Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management
    P E Verweij
    Departments of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 37:1186-9. 1999
    ..Decline of the galactomannan antigen titer in the CSF during treatment with intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin B and intravenous voriconazole corresponded with the clinical response to treatment...
  18. doi request reprint Crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced release of interleukin 1 beta by mononuclear cells through a caspase 1-mediated process
    E J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Centre St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Ann Rheum Dis 68:273-8. 2009
    ..In the present study we have investigated whether production of proinflammatory cytokines by crystals was exacerbated during costimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands...
  19. doi request reprint Interleukin-18 resistance in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
    G R C Zilverschoon
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:1407-14. 2008
    ..Paradoxically, concentrations of circulating IL-18 in obese subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes are increased. The objective of this study is to provide an explanation for this paradox...
  20. ncbi request reprint [Optimizing the antibiotics policy in The Netherlands. VIII. Revised SWAB guidelines for antimicrobial therapy in adults with community-acquired pneumonia]
    J A Schouten
    Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, Nijmeegs Universitair Centrum voor Infectieziekten, afd Algemeen Interne Geneeskunde, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 149:2495-500. 2005
    ..Empirical therapy should be replaced with pathogen-directed therapy if the causative agent is identified...
  21. pmc Non-adherence to antimicrobial treatment guidelines results in more broad-spectrum but not more appropriate therapy
    L B J van der Velden
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein zuid 10, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:1561-8. 2012
    ..This did not result in a higher rate of susceptibility of the isolated pathogens to the prescribed empirical therapy...
  22. ncbi request reprint Candida-specific interferon-gamma deficiency and toll-like receptor polymorphisms in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
    C A A van der Graaf
    Department of Internal Medicine 541, University Medical Centre St Radboud, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 61:365-9. 2003
    ..These data support the hypothesis that deficient IFNgamma production is involved in the pathogenesis of CMC, whereas a role for genetic polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 is not obvious in these patients...
  23. ncbi request reprint Recognition of fungal pathogens by Toll-like receptors
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein 8, P O Box 9101, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:672-6. 2004
    ..These new data have substantially increased our knowledge of the recognition of fungal pathogens, and the study of TLRs remains one of the most active areas of research in the field of fungal infections...
  24. ncbi request reprint Use of fluconazole in daily practice: still room for improvement
    S Natsch
    Department of General Internal Medicine, University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:303-10. 2001
    ..However, important issues for improvement could be identified, such as increasing the dosage and duration of treatment in cases of serious infections, and withholding treatment from patients with colonization rather than infection...
  25. doi request reprint Adjunctive immunotherapy with recombinant cytokines for the treatment of disseminated candidiasis
    F L van de Veerdonk
    Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, and Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:112-9. 2012
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint An open multicentre comparative study of the efficacy, safety and tolerance of fluconazole and itraconazole in the treatment of cancer patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis
    A M L Oude Lashof
    Nijmegen University Medical Center, St Radboud and Nijmegen University, Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Cancer 40:1314-9. 2004
    ..This study has shown that in patients with cancer and oropharyngeal candidiasis, fluconazole has a significantly better clinical and mycological cure rate compared with itraconazole...
  27. ncbi request reprint Quality of antibiotic use for lower respiratory tract infections at hospitals: (how) can we measure it?
    J A Schouten
    Centre for Quality of Care Research, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 41:450-60. 2005
    ..This set should also be applicable in practice...
  28. ncbi request reprint Autophagy is redundant for the host defense against systemic Candida albicans infections
    S P Smeekens
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 8, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 33:711-22. 2014
    ..Based on these complementary in vitro and in vivo studies, it can be concluded that autophagy is redundant for the host response against systemic infections with C. albicans. ..
  29. ncbi request reprint Reduced adrenal response and increased mortality after systemic Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in interleukin-6-deficient mice
    F H van Enckevort
    Department of Endocrinology 531, Nijmegen University Medical Center, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur Cytokine Netw 12:581-6. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the reduced adrenal response may be an explanation for the strong inflammatory response with higher TNF-alpha plasma levels in IL-6-/- mice...
  30. doi request reprint Serial and panel analyses of biomarkers do not improve the prediction of bacteremia compared to one procalcitonin measurement
    M Tromp
    Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity N4i, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands
    J Infect 65:292-301. 2012
    ..We evaluated the value of a single biomarker, biomarker panels, biomarkers combined with clinical signs of sepsis, and serial determinations of biomarkers in the prediction of bacteremia in patients with sepsis...
  31. pmc The impact of caspase-12 on susceptibility to candidemia
    D C Rosentul
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, internal postal code 463, P O Box 9101, Geert Grooteplein 8, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:277-80. 2012
    ..Although the functional CASPASE-12 allele has been suggested to increase susceptibility to bacterial sepsis, this could not be confirmed in our larger cohort of fungal sepsis patients...
  32. ncbi request reprint Severely impaired IL-12/IL-18/IFNgamma axis in patients with hyper IgE syndrome
    M G Netea
    Radboud University Medical Centre and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Invest 35:718-21. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether activation of the interleukin-12/interleukin-18/interferon-gamma axis, known to be crucial for the activation of cellular immune responses, is impaired in patients with HIES...
  33. ncbi request reprint [Improved diagnostics in invasive aspergillosis and systematic monitoring in patients at high risk of infection]
    P E Verweij
    Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, Nijmeegs Universitair Centrum voor Infectieziekten, Postbus 91o1, 6500 HB, Nijmegen
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 149:561-7. 2005
    ..The pre-emptive management strategy which combines monitoring of patients for surrogate markers with a HRCT scan appears to be a promising approach to the early identification and treatment of patients with invasive aspergillosis...
  34. ncbi request reprint Role of the dual interaction of fungal pathogens with pattern recognition receptors in the activation and modulation of host defence
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Geert Grooteplein 8, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:404-9. 2006
    ..Thus, signals mediated by recognition receptors are not only beneficial to the host, but in certain situations can be used by pathogenic fungi to escape immune recognition and promote infection...
  35. ncbi request reprint Q fever in the Netherlands from 2007 to 2010
    C E Delsing
    Department of Internal Medicine Radboud Expertise Centre for Q fever, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 68:382-7. 2010
    ..Finally, the latest data on clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of Q fever in the Netherlands are reviewed...
  36. ncbi request reprint Two cases of subcutaneous Scedosporium apiospermum infection treated with voriconazole
    F Bosma
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 9:750-3. 2003
    ..apiospermum, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting showed that the patients' strains were genotypically unrelated, we considered a common nosocomial source of S. apiospermum to be unlikely...
  37. ncbi request reprint Acellular components of Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulate cytokine production in human blood mononuclear cells
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 30:541-9. 2000
    ..In conclusion, acellular components of C. pneumoniae are a potent stimulus for cytokine production, and this mechanism may have an important role in the inflammatory aspects of atherogenesis...
  38. ncbi request reprint Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Invest 37:737-41. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue...
  39. ncbi request reprint Complicating infectious foci in patients with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus species bacteraemia
    M L H Cuijpers
    Department of Internal Medicine, 463, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:105-13. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Increased susceptibility of TNF-alpha lymphotoxin-alpha double knockout mice to systemic candidiasis through impaired recruitment of neutrophils and phagocytosis of Candida albicans
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 163:1498-505. 1999
    ..albicans...
  41. ncbi request reprint Chronic yersiniosis due to defects in the TLR5 and NOD2 recognition pathways
    M G Netea
    Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 68:310-5. 2010
    ..In conclusion, we describe a patient in whom specific defects in the TLR5 and NOD2 recognition pathways led to chronic yersiniosis...
  42. ncbi request reprint NOD2 3020insC mutation and the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease: impaired IL-1beta production points to a loss-of-function phenotype
    M G Netea
    Departments of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 63:305-8. 2005
    ..e. a gain of function. In previous papers we proposed the former, since we could show decreased cytokine production with a net proinflammatory status after exposure to muramyl dipeptide (MDP)...
  43. ncbi request reprint [Amphotericin B: the end of an era]
    A M L Oude Lashof
    Universitair Medisch Centrum St Radboud, Nijmeegs Universitair Centrum voor Infectieziekten, afd Algemeen Interne Geneeskunde AIG 541, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 148:1665-8. 2004
    ..The current armamentarium of azoles and echinocandins for the treatment of invasive mycoses has only left a very minor role for both conventional and lipid-associated amphotericin B in the treatment of a few specific, rare mycoses...
  44. doi request reprint Circulating galectin-3 in infections and non-infectious inflammatory diseases
    J ten Oever
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 32:1605-10. 2013
    ..Although galectin-3 does not discriminate between bacterial and Candida sepsis, the sequential use of CRP and galectin-3 in distinguishing infectious diseases from non-infectious inflammation may be superior to CRP alone...
  45. ncbi request reprint Revised SWAB guidelines for antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia
    J A Schouten
    Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 63:323-35. 2005
    ..The Legionella urine antigen test plays an important role in decisions on the choice of initial antibiotic treatment...
  46. ncbi request reprint Duration of antifungal treatment and development of delayed complications in patients with candidaemia
    A M L Oude Lashof
    Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen University Medical Centre St Radboud, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:43-8. 2003
    ..This suggests that treatment of 2 weeks or less may be sufficient, provided the initial response to therapy is favourable...
  47. ncbi request reprint Defective interferon-gamma production in patients with hairy cell leukaemia
    M G Netea
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 66:340-34. 2008
    ..Although several abnormalities of T-cell populations have been described in HCL, the effector mechanism responsible for the increased susceptibility to infections is not known...
  48. ncbi request reprint Recognition of pathogenic microorganisms by Toll-like receptors
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, The Netherlands
    Drugs Today (Barc) 42:99-105. 2006
    ..These new data have substantially increased our knowledge of the recognition of microbial pathogens, and this remains one of the most active areas of research in the field of infectious diseases...
  49. ncbi request reprint Recurrent erysipelas despite antibiotic prophylaxis: an analysis from case studies
    J B Koster
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, and Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 65:89-94. 2007
    ..A substantial proportion of patients experience recurrences of erysipelas, and this may be a reason to install prophylactic antibiotic treatment. Despite such prophylaxis, further recurrences are occasionally encountered...
  50. pmc Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice are protected against lethal endotoxemia and severe gram-negative infections
    M G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Invest 97:1366-72. 1996
    ..At least part of this protection is achieved through decreased in vivo production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in spite of increased cytokine production capacity...
  51. ncbi request reprint Internal medicine residents' knowledge about sepsis: effects of a teaching intervention
    M Tromp
    Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity N4i, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 67:312-5. 2009
    ..0001 compared with test 1), resulting in a mean score of 7.6 +/- 1.1. Our single teaching intervention resulted in improved and sustained knowledge on the assessment of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of sepsis...
  52. ncbi request reprint Adherence to local hospital guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: a multicentre audit in Dutch hospitals
    M E E van Kasteren
    Department of Internal Medicine 541, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, and Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:1389-96. 2003
    ..To study the adherence to local hospital guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery, and explore reasons for non-adherence...
  53. ncbi request reprint Toll-like receptor-4 Asp299Gly polymorphism does not influence progression of atherosclerosis in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia
    M G Netea
    University Medical Center, St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Invest 34:94-9. 2004
    ..We have investigated whether the presence of the Asp299Gly polymorphism in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) has a similar protective effect, and whether it influences the effects of HMG-CoA reductase treatment...
  54. ncbi request reprint Q fever in the Netherlands: a concise overview and implications of the largest ongoing outbreak
    C E Delsing
    Department of General Internal Medicine and Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neth J Med 66:365-7. 2008
    ..Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia has to take possible Q fever into account, and the high incidence of Q fever endocarditis and other manifestations of chronic Q fever require a specific diagnostic and therapeutic approach...
  55. ncbi request reprint FDG-PET for imaging of non-osseous infection and inflammation
    F J Vos
    Department of Internal Medicine, Nijmegen Medical Centre, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 50:121-30. 2006
    ..More data on the utility of FDG-PET to monitor the response to treatment will be available in near future. Early reports on FDG-PET during treatment follow-up in large vessel vasculitis already showed promising..
  56. ncbi request reprint Selecting outcome parameters in studies aimed at improving rational use of antibiotics - practical considerations
    S Natsch
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Pharm Ther 28:475-8. 2003
    ..The essential point is the appropriate choice of outcome measure for the study. Examples drawn from the field of quality of use of antimicrobial drugs are discussed...
  57. ncbi request reprint CD40/CD40 ligand interactions in the host defense against disseminated Candida albicans infection: the role of macrophage-derived nitric oxide
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 32:1455-63. 2002
    ..In conclusion, absence of CD40/CD40L interactions results in increased susceptibility to disseminated infection with C. albicans through decreased NO-dependent killing of Candida by macrophages...
  58. ncbi request reprint Aspergillus fumigatus evades immune recognition during germination through loss of toll-like receptor-4-mediated signal transduction
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine 541, University Medical Center St Radboud, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 188:320-6. 2003
    ..Therefore, phenotypic switching during germination may be an important escape mechanism of A. fumigatus that results in counteracting the host defense...
  59. pmc Selective regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by interleukin-18 and interleukin-12 on human monocytes
    Rogier J L Stuyt
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Immunology 110:329-34. 2003
    ..In conclusion, IL-18 selectively up-regulates the expression of ICAM-1 on monocytes, and this contributes to the proinflammatory effects of this cytokine...
  60. ncbi request reprint Does the shape of lipid A determine the interaction of LPS with Toll-like receptors?
    Mihai G Netea
    Dept of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Geert Grooteplein 8, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Immunol 23:135-9. 2002
    ..Strictly cylindrical LPS molecules (e.g. the lipid A precursor Ia or from Rhodobacter sphaeroides) have antagonistic properties at the level of TLRs...
  61. ncbi request reprint Differential role of IL-18 and IL-12 in the host defense against disseminated Candida albicans infection
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 33:3409-17. 2003
    ..In conclusion, the anticandidal effects of endogenous IL-18 are mediated late during the infection by assuring a proper IFN-gamma response and promoting the infiltration of the site of infection by monocytes...
  62. ncbi request reprint An integrated model of the recognition of Candida albicans by the innate immune system
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine and Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:67-78. 2008
    ..In this Review, we use the fungal pathogen Candida albicans as a model for the complex interaction that exists between the host pattern-recognition systems and invading microbial pathogens...
  63. ncbi request reprint Role of TLR1 and TLR6 in the host defense against disseminated candidiasis
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52:118-23. 2008
    ..In conclusion, TLR6 is involved in the recognition of C. albicans and modulates the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, but this results in a mild phenotype with a normal susceptibility of TLR6-/- mice to Candida infection...
  64. pmc Treatment of intra-abdominal abscesses caused by Candida albicans with antifungal agents and recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
    Alieke G Vonk
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3688-93. 2003
    ..In contrast, addition of rmG-CSF therapy to antifungal treatment might further enhance the beneficial effect of the antifungal agent...
  65. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans blastoconidia by neutrophils and macrophages: a comparison of different microbiological test systems
    Alieke G Vonk
    Department of Medicine 541, Division of General Internal Medicine, Nijmegen University Medical Center, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Microbiol Methods 49:55-62. 2002
    ....
  66. pmc Immune recognition of Candida albicans beta-glucan by dectin-1
    Neil A R Gow
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 196:1565-71. 2007
    ..albicans was independent of the recognition of beta-glucans by dectin-1. In conclusion, C. albicans induces production of monocyte-derived and T cell-derived cytokines through distinct pathways dependent on or independent of dectin-1...
  67. pmc Endoplasmic reticulum alpha-glycosidases of Candida albicans are required for N glycosylation, cell wall integrity, and normal host-fungus interaction
    Hector M Mora-Montes
    Instituto de Investigacion en Biologia Experimental, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apartado Postal 187, Guanajuato, Gto CP 36000, Mexico
    Eukaryot Cell 6:2184-93. 2007
    ..Therefore, N-oligosaccharide processing by ER glycosidases is required for cell wall integrity and for host-fungus interactions...
  68. ncbi request reprint Salmonella septicemia in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: association with decreased interferon-gamma production and Toll-like receptor 4 expression
    Mihai G Netea
    University Medical Center St Radboud, and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Arthritis Rheum 48:1853-7. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms involved in the increased susceptibility of anti-TNF-treated patients to intracellular microorganisms...
  69. ncbi request reprint The role of endogenous interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the production of interferon-gamma induced by Candida albicans in human whole-blood cultures
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:963-70. 2002
    ..Blocking the biologic activities of IL-18, IL-12, and IL-1beta in patients (e.g., for treatment of autoimmune diseases) may result in increased susceptibility to C. albicans infection...
  70. ncbi request reprint The role of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host defense against disseminated candidiasis
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 185:1483-9. 2002
    ..In conclusion, TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to C. albicans infection, and this is associated with impaired chemokine expression and neutrophil recruitment...
  71. pmc Role of interleukin-18 in host defense against disseminated Candida albicans infection
    Rogier J L Stuyt
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Infect Immun 70:3284-6. 2002
    ..There was no effect on the organ load with Candida when gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-deficient mice were treated with anti-IL-18 antibodies, suggesting that the protective effect of IL-18 is mediated through endogenous IFN-gamma...
  72. ncbi request reprint Native LDL potentiate TNF alpha and IL-8 production by human mononuclear cells
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Geert Grooteplein 8, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands Biochemistry, University Medical Center St Radboud, Geert Grooteplein 8, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Lipid Res 43:1065-71. 2002
    ..This may represent an important pathogenetic mechanism in atherogenesis induced by hyperlipoproteinemia...
  73. ncbi request reprint Delayed clearance of intraabdominal abscesses caused by Candida albicans in tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and lymphotoxin-alpha-deficient mice
    Alieke G Vonk
    Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases and Department of Medicine, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 186:1815-22. 2002
    ..In conclusion, TNF and LT are critical to the stimulation of effector cells that leads to elimination of Candida from abscesses...
  74. ncbi request reprint Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-induced IFN-gamma in whole human blood: the role of endogenous IL-18, IL-12, IL-1, and TNF
    Rogier J L Stuyt
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA
    Cytokine 21:65-73. 2003
    ..In conclusion, S. epidermidis stimulates IFN-gamma which is IL-18, IL-12 and TNF-dependent, but IL-1 independent...
  75. ncbi request reprint Sepsis--theory and therapies
    Mihai G Netea
    N Engl J Med 348:1600-2; author reply 1600-2. 2003
  76. ncbi request reprint Proinflammatory cytokines and sepsis syndrome: not enough, or too much of a good thing?
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine 541, University Medical Center St Radboud, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Immunol 24:254-8. 2003
  77. ncbi request reprint Non-LPS components of Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulate cytokine production through Toll-like receptor 2-dependent pathways
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 32:1188-95. 2002
    ..pneumoniae stimulates cytokine production in a serum-dependent manner, but independently of complement, MBL and LBP. C. pneumoniae induces the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1beta through TLR2, but not TLR4 and CD14...
  78. ncbi request reprint Divergent effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha on lethal endotoxemia and infection with live Salmonella typhimurium in mice
    Edi Dharmana
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
    Eur Cytokine Netw 13:104-9. 2002
    ..typhimurium LPS and on the infection of mice with live Salmonella microorganisms, and suggest caution when extrapolating results obtained in the lethal endotoxemia model to bacteremia in patients...
  79. doi request reprint Redundant role of TLR9 for anti-Candida host defense
    Frank Leo van de Veerdonk
    Immunobiology 213:613-20. 2008
    ..albicans. However, the cytokine defect in TLR9-/- mice is compensated by alternative pathways, and the TLR9-dependent pathway seems to be redundant in the disseminated candidiasis model in mice...
  80. pmc Crohn's disease patients homozygous for the 3020insC NOD2 mutation have a defective NOD2/TLR4 cross-tolerance to intestinal stimuli
    Bart Jan Kullberg
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Immunology 123:600-5. 2008
    ..In conclusion, we propose the absence of NOD2/TLR4 cross-tolerance as a central mechanism for the increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease in individuals with NOD2 mutations...
  81. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is recognized by Toll-like receptors and NOD2
    Gerben Ferwerda
    Department of Internal Medicine and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 8, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Leukoc Biol 82:1011-8. 2007
    ..paratuberculosis. These results demonstrate that TLR2, TLR4, and NOD2 are involved in the recognition of M. paratuberculosis by the innate immune system...
  82. pmc Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) is not involved in the pattern recognition of Candida albicans
    Chantal A A Van der Graaf
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:423-5. 2006
    ..Candida-induced cytokine production in individuals with Nod2 polymorphisms was unaffected. We conclude that Nod2 is unlikely to play an important role in the recognition of Candida albicans...
  83. ncbi request reprint Impaired dendritic cell function in Crohn's disease patients with NOD2 3020insC mutation
    Matthijs Kramer
    Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Leukoc Biol 79:860-6. 2006
    ..These data indicate that the NOD2fs mutation results in a loss-of-function phenotype in human myeloid DC and imply decreased immune regulation by IL-10 as a possible mechanism for this mutation in CD...
  84. ncbi request reprint Influence of endogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines on neutrophil-mediated damage of Candida albicans pseudohyphae, quantified in a modified tetrazolium dye assay
    Alieke G Vonk
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands
    Med Mycol 43:551-7. 2005
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Recombinant interleukin-18 protects against disseminated Candida albicans infection in mice
    Rogier J L Stuyt
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 189:1524-7. 2004
    ..albicans in rIL-18-treated mice. In conclusion, rIL-18 improves outcome of disseminated candidiasis in mice and may prove useful as adjuvant immunotherapy of fungal infections...
  86. ncbi request reprint Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringing specificity to the innate-immune system
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen University, The Netherlands
    J Leukoc Biol 75:749-55. 2004
    ..Finally, the crucial role of TLRs for the host defense against infections has been strengthened recently by the description of patients partially defective in the TLR-activation pathways...
  87. ncbi request reprint Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulates IFN-gamma synthesis through MyD88-dependent, TLR2- and TLR4-independent induction of IL-18 release
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 173:1477-82. 2004
    ..Most interestingly, C. pneumoniae is also a potent inducer of IL-18 production through pathways independent of TLR2 and TLR4...
  88. pmc Differential cytokine production and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways by Candida albicans blastoconidia and hyphae
    Chantal A A Van der Graaf
    Department of Medicine 541, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Infect Immun 73:7458-64. 2005
    ..TLR4-mediated proinflammatory signals are lost during germination of Candida blastoconidia into hyphae. Phenotypic switching during germination may be an important escape mechanism of C. albicans, resulting in counteracting host defense...
  89. ncbi request reprint Human dendritic cells are less potent at killing Candida albicans than both monocytes and macrophages
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Microbes Infect 6:985-9. 2004
    ..albicans hyphae. Effective handling of large numbers of C. albicans is the prime task of the innate immune system consisting of large numbers of neutrophils and monocytes...
  90. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice exhibit an increased susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis
    Alieke G Vonk
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Med Mycol 42:341-8. 2004
    ..This study suggests that lipoproteins play a significant role in host defense against candidiasis...
  91. pmc Effect of recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with or without fluoroquinolone therapy on mixed-infection abscesses in mice
    Lorna E T Stearne
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, P O Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3668-75. 2005
    ..In conclusion, the addition of G-CSF to a fluoroquinolone is not advisable since, depending on the virulence of the E. coli strains, this might detrimentally influence the outcome of therapy...
  92. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-18 does not modulate the acute-phase response
    Rogier J L Stuyt
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Endotoxin Res 11:85-8. 2005
    ..In conclusion, rIL-18 is not able to induce a febrile response in rabbits and does not modulate the acute-phase response in mice...
  93. ncbi request reprint Functional consequences of the Asp299Gly Toll-like receptor-4 polymorphism
    Chantal van der Graaf
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Cytokine 30:264-8. 2005
    ..In addition, this is the first study to demonstrate that even homozygosity for the Asp299Gly mutation does not confer hyporesponsiveness to stimulation with TLR4 stimuli...
  94. ncbi request reprint Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile polymorphisms are a risk factor for Candida bloodstream infection
    Chantal A A Van der Graaf
    Department of Internal Medicine 463, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur Cytokine Netw 17:29-34. 2006
    ..These findings show that the TLR4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile polymorphisms are associated with an increased susceptibility to Candida bloodstream infections, and an increased production of IL-10 is probably involved in this effect...
  95. ncbi request reprint Endogenous interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are crucial for host defense against disseminated candidiasis
    Alieke G Vonk
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 193:1419-26. 2006
    ..It is, however, unknown whether they provide protection through similar mechanisms. We investigated the effect of endogenous IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta on disseminated C. albicans infection...
  96. pmc Bartonella quintana lipopolysaccharide is a natural antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4
    Calin Popa
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands
    Infect Immun 75:4831-7. 2007
    ..Because of the role of TLR4 in inflammation, B. quintana LPS may prove useful as a potent anti-TLR4 agent with therapeutic potential in both infections and autoimmune inflammation...
  97. ncbi request reprint Recognition of fungal pathogens by toll-like receptors
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Curr Pharm Des 12:4195-201. 2006
    ..These recent developments provide crucial information for understanding the mechanisms of fungal recognition by cells of the immune system, and provide hope for designing new therapeutical approaches to fungal infections...
  98. ncbi request reprint Host defence against disseminated Candida albicans infection and implications for antifungal immunotherapy
    Alieke G Vonk
    Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Medicine 463, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 6:891-903. 2006
    ..Here, the authors review the chronological events in the pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis that aid in predicting the impact of existing immunotherapy and the development of future immunomodulating strategies...
  99. ncbi request reprint Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 modulates specific TLR pathways for the induction of cytokine release
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 174:6518-23. 2005
    ..Thus, interaction between NOD2 and specific TLR pathways may represent an important modulatory mechanism of innate immune responses...
  100. ncbi request reprint Deficiency of interleukin-18 in mice leads to hyperphagia, obesity and insulin resistance
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Internal Medicine and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Geert Grooteplein 8, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nat Med 12:650-6. 2006
    ..In addition, rIL-18 reversed hyperglycemia in Il18-/- mice through activation of STAT3 phosphorylation. These findings indicate a new role of IL-18 in the homeostasis of energy intake and insulin sensitivity...
  101. pmc Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Invest 116:1642-50. 2006
    ..We concluded that recognition of C. albicans by monocytes/macrophages is mediated by 3 recognition systems of differing importance, each of which senses specific layers of the C. albicans cell wall...