Hilton Whittle

Summary

Affiliation: Medical Research Council Laboratories
Country: The Gambia

Publications

  1. pmc Changes in viral load and HBsAg and HBeAg status with age in HBV chronic carriers in The Gambia
    Maimuna E Mendy
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Atlantic Boulevard, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Virol J 5:49. 2008
  2. pmc HTLV-1 in rural Guinea-Bissau: prevalence, incidence and a continued association with HIV between 1990 and 2007
    Carla van Tienen
    Medical Research Council, Fajara, The Gambia
    Retrovirology 7:50. 2010
  3. pmc Placental malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight
    Brigitte Walther
    MRC Laboratories, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, PO Box 273 Banjul, The Gambia
    Malar J 9:16. 2010
  4. pmc Observational study of vaccine efficacy 14 years after trial of hepatitis B vaccination in Gambian children
    Hilton Whittle
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, PO Box 273, Banjul, Gambia
    BMJ 325:569. 2002
  5. doi request reprint Two distinct epidemics: the rise of HIV-1 and decline of HIV-2 infection between 1990 and 2007 in rural Guinea-Bissau
    Carla van Tienen
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:640-7. 2010
  6. pmc Virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and in patients dually infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the Gambia and emergence of drug-resistant variants
    Sabelle Jallow
    Medical Research Council Laboratories MRC, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2200-8. 2009
  7. pmc Effects of antenatal and postnatal environments on CD4 T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG in healthy infants in the Gambia
    David J C Miles
    MRC Laboratories Gambia, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:995-1002. 2008
  8. pmc Maintenance of large subpopulations of differentiated CD8 T-cells two years after cytomegalovirus infection in Gambian infants
    David J C Miles
    MRC Laboratories Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 3:e2905. 2008
  9. pmc Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected Gambians
    Modou Jobarteh
    Medical Research Council, Fajara, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Virol J 7:230. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint No differences in cellular immune responses between asymptomatic HIV type 1- and type 2-infected Gambian patients
    Assan Jaye
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 189:498-505. 2004

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. pmc Changes in viral load and HBsAg and HBeAg status with age in HBV chronic carriers in The Gambia
    Maimuna E Mendy
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Atlantic Boulevard, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Virol J 5:49. 2008
    ..The aim of this study is to determine the natural course of HBV chronic infection, particularly in relation to sequential changes in serum HBV DNA levels and hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) antigen/hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) status by age...
  2. pmc HTLV-1 in rural Guinea-Bissau: prevalence, incidence and a continued association with HIV between 1990 and 2007
    Carla van Tienen
    Medical Research Council, Fajara, The Gambia
    Retrovirology 7:50. 2010
    ..In the current study, data from three cross-sectional community surveys performed in 1990, 1997 and 2007, were used to assess changes in HTLV-1 prevalence, incidence and its associations with HIV-1 and HIV-2 and potential risk factors...
  3. pmc Placental malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight
    Brigitte Walther
    MRC Laboratories, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, PO Box 273 Banjul, The Gambia
    Malar J 9:16. 2010
    ..However, little is known about the possible direct impact of the specific disease processes occurring in PM on longer term outcomes such as subsequent retarded growth development independent of LBW...
  4. pmc Observational study of vaccine efficacy 14 years after trial of hepatitis B vaccination in Gambian children
    Hilton Whittle
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, PO Box 273, Banjul, Gambia
    BMJ 325:569. 2002
    ..To determine the duration of protection from hepatitis B vaccine given in infancy and early childhood...
  5. doi request reprint Two distinct epidemics: the rise of HIV-1 and decline of HIV-2 infection between 1990 and 2007 in rural Guinea-Bissau
    Carla van Tienen
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:640-7. 2010
    ..To assess changes in HIV incidence and prevalence in Caió, a rural area of Guinea-Bissau, between 1990 and 2007...
  6. pmc Virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and in patients dually infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the Gambia and emergence of drug-resistant variants
    Sabelle Jallow
    Medical Research Council Laboratories MRC, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2200-8. 2009
    ..However, the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains containing drug-resistant mutations can compromise the efficacy of this highly active ART...
  7. pmc Effects of antenatal and postnatal environments on CD4 T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG in healthy infants in the Gambia
    David J C Miles
    MRC Laboratories Gambia, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:995-1002. 2008
    ..We conclude that the prenatal and perinatal environments have a lasting effect on the response of infants to the BCG vaccine...
  8. pmc Maintenance of large subpopulations of differentiated CD8 T-cells two years after cytomegalovirus infection in Gambian infants
    David J C Miles
    MRC Laboratories Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 3:e2905. 2008
    ....
  9. pmc Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected Gambians
    Modou Jobarteh
    Medical Research Council, Fajara, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Virol J 7:230. 2010
    ..The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, while both HIV and HBV are endemic in this area...
  10. ncbi request reprint No differences in cellular immune responses between asymptomatic HIV type 1- and type 2-infected Gambian patients
    Assan Jaye
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 189:498-505. 2004
    ..Contrary to widely held views, our results suggest that nonprogression in HIV-2 infection may not be due to more vigorous immune responses...
  11. ncbi request reprint Is HIV-2- induced AIDS different from HIV-1-associated AIDS? Data from a West African clinic
    Euridice Martinez-Steele
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    AIDS 21:317-24. 2007
    ..Although AIDS is less frequent following HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection, it is unclear whether the clinical picture and clinical course of AIDS are similar in the two infections...
  12. pmc Cytomegalovirus infection induces T-cell differentiation without impairing antigen-specific responses in Gambian infants
    David J C Miles
    Medical Research Council Laboratories Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
    Immunology 124:388-400. 2008
    ....
  13. pmc Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village
    Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
    MRC Laboratories Fajara, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Retrovirology 7:46. 2010
    ..There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects...
  14. doi request reprint Mycobacterial T cell responses in HIV-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression
    Abdulrahman S Hammond
    Bacterial and Viral Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
    J Infect Dis 197:295-9. 2008
    ..This may reflect early signs of reactivation, reinfection, or a restricted, inefficient immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  15. doi request reprint Declining trend of serological syphilis among genitourinary medicine patients in the Gambia, West Africa
    Jan A C Hontelez
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Sex Transm Dis 36:745-9. 2009
    ..In this study we analyzed trends in serological syphilis prevalence at a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in The Gambia...
  16. doi request reprint Delaying bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination from birth to 4 1/2 months of age reduces postvaccination Th1 and IL-17 responses but leads to comparable mycobacterial responses at 9 months of age
    Sarah Burl
    Medical Research Council United Kingdom, The Gambia, Fajara, The Gambia, West Africa
    J Immunol 185:2620-8. 2010
    ..The evidence did not suggest that mycobacterial specific naturally occurring Tregs accounted for this attenuated immunogenicity...
  17. pmc Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants
    Beth Holder
    MRC Laboratories Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 5:e14013. 2010
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Survival of HIV-1 and HIV-2 perinatally infected children in The Gambia
    Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    AIDS 17:2389-94. 2003
    ....
  19. pmc Placental malaria is associated with attenuated CD4 T-cell responses to tuberculin PPD 12 months after BCG vaccination
    Brigitte Walther
    MRC Laboratories Gambia, PO Box 273, Banjul, Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 12:6. 2012
    ..As malaria has powerful immunomodulatory effects, we tested the hypothesis that PM predicts reduced T-cell responses to vaccine challenge...
  20. ncbi request reprint Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality
    Koya Ariyoshi
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 188:1648-51. 2003
    ..59 for each log10 increase in HTLV-I provirus copies (P=.038). There is no enhancing effect of HTLV-I coinfection on HIV-2 disease, but high HTLV-I provirus loads may contribute to mortality...
  21. pmc Application of real-time PCR to quantify hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic carriers in The Gambia
    Maimuna E Mendy
    Medical Research Council, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Virol J 3:23. 2006
    ..The study aimed at developing a real-time quantitative PCR assay to monitor HBV serum virus load of chronic carriers enrolled in therapeutic trials...
  22. pmc Development and evaluation of an oligonucleotide ligation assay for detection of drug resistance-associated mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pol gene
    Sabelle Jallow
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1565-71. 2007
    ..In conclusion, we have developed a simple, easy-to-use, and economical assay for genotyping of drug resistance in HIV-2 that is more sustainable for use in resource-poor settings than is consensus sequencing...
  23. doi request reprint HIV-2 capsids distinguish high and low virus load patients in a West African community cohort
    Clayton O Onyango
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Atlantic Road, PO Box 273, The Gambia
    Vaccine 28:B60-7. 2010
    ..These results provide new insights into HIV-2 pathogenesis...
  24. ncbi request reprint Virological and immunological response to Combivir and emergence of drug resistance mutations in a cohort of HIV-2 patients in The Gambia
    Sabelle Jallow
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    AIDS 20:1455-8. 2006
  25. doi request reprint Presence of a multidrug-resistance mutation in an HIV-2 variant infecting a treatment-naive individual in Caio, Guinea Bissau
    Sabelle Jallow
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1790-3. 2009
    ..Finding this mutation among a drug-naive population presents an important public health issue that needs to be addressed for treatment to be effective...
  26. pmc Emergence of HBV resistance to lamivudine (3TC) in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in The Gambia, West Africa
    Balint Stewart
    Medical Research Council, Fajara, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
    BMC Res Notes 4:561. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  27. pmc Cytomegalovirus infection in Gambian infants leads to profound CD8 T-cell differentiation
    David J C Miles
    MRC Laboratories Gambia, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Virol 81:5766-76. 2007
    ....
  28. pmc Natural killer cell function is well preserved in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection but similar to that of HIV-1 infection when CD4 T-cell counts fall
    Samuel Victor Nuvor
    MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Virol 80:2529-38. 2006
    ..Enhancement of these functions may be important in immune-based therapy to control HIV disease...
  29. doi request reprint CD4(+) T cell responses to cytomegalovirus in early life: a prospective birth cohort study
    David J C Miles
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 197:658-62. 2008
    ..By 12 months after diagnosis, viremia was rarely detectable, indicating that CMV was controlled despite the slow development of CMV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses...
  30. doi request reprint Envelope protein variability among HBV-Infected asymptomatic carriers and immunized children with breakthrough infections
    Maimuna Mendy
    Medical Research Council, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Med Virol 80:1537-46. 2008
    ..Further investigation is required to determine the cause of these breakthrough infections and whether they contribute to the establishment of the carrier state...
  31. pmc Partially randomized, non-blinded trial of DNA and MVA therapeutic vaccines based on hepatitis B virus surface protein for chronic HBV infection
    James S Cavenaugh
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 6:e14626. 2011
    ..HBs) vaccine, followed by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA.HBs), encoding the surface antigen of HBV as therapy for chronic HBV. A secondary goal was to characterize the immune responses...
  32. ncbi request reprint Influence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin on antibody and cytokine responses to human neonatal vaccination
    Martin O C Ota
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Immunol 168:919-25. 2002
    ..These results demonstrate that BCG influences the immune response to unrelated Ags in early life, likely through its influence on the maturation of dendritic cells...
  33. doi request reprint The effect of placental malaria infection on cord blood and maternal immunoregulatory responses at birth
    Katie L Flanagan
    MRC Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Eur J Immunol 40:1062-72. 2010
    ..The findings might explain some of the adverse effects on the health of babies born to women with PM...
  34. ncbi request reprint No observed effect of GB virus C coinfection on disease progression in a cohort of African woman infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2
    Steve Kaye
    MRC Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 40:876-8. 2005
    ..No association between GBV-C and HIV plasma virus loads or CD4 cell count was observed...
  35. pmc Observational study of vaccine efficacy 24 years after the start of hepatitis B vaccination in two Gambian villages: no need for a booster dose
    Maimuna Mendy
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, The Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e58029. 2013
    ..To determine the duration of protection from hepatitis B vaccine given in infancy and early childhood and asses risk factors for HBV infection and chronic infection...
  36. pmc Immunological impact of an additional early measles vaccine in Gambian children: responses to a boost at 3 years
    Jainaba Njie-Jobe
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, Gambia
    Vaccine 30:2543-50. 2012
    ..Measles vaccine in early infancy followed by a dose at 9 months of age protects against measles and enhances child survival through non-specific effects. Little is known of immune responses in the short or long term after booster doses...
  37. pmc A Gambian infant with fever and an unexpected blood film
    Stephen Howie
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, Gambia
    PLoS Med 3:e355. 2006
  38. ncbi request reprint Plasma viral load, CD4 cell percentage, HLA and survival of HIV-1, HIV-2, and dually infected Gambian patients
    Abraham S Alabi
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
    AIDS 17:1513-20. 2003
    ..To examine baseline plasma viral loads according to the CD4 cell percentage (CD4%) in HIV-1, HIV-2 and dually infected patients (HIV-D), and to relate these measurements to survival...
  39. doi request reprint Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines
    Katie L Flanagan
    MRC Laboratories, PO Box 273, Fajara, Gambia
    Vaccine 29:2349-54. 2011
    ..Herein we describe the contents of the meeting and the establishment of the 'Optimmunize' network aimed at raising awareness of this important issue among the wider scientific community...
  40. ncbi request reprint Variation in Toll-like receptor 4 and susceptibility to group A meningococcal meningitis in Gambian children
    Angela Allen
    Medical Research Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:1018-9. 2003
  41. pmc An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia
    Martin W Weber
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Bull World Health Organ 80:562-8. 2002
    ..To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country...
  42. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis B immunisation induces higher antibody and memory Th2 responses in new-borns than in adults
    Martin O C Ota
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, P O Box 273, Banjul, Gambia
    Vaccine 22:511-9. 2004
    ..At 1 year, the infant memory response to HBs Ag was characterised by higher Th2 responses than those of adults. We conclude that neonatal antibody and T cell responses to hepatitis B vaccine differ from those induced in adults...
  43. ncbi request reprint Is HIV-2-induced AIDS different from HIV-1-associated AIDS?
    Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
    AIDS 22:791-2. 2008
  44. ncbi request reprint CD8+ T cell responses to human immunodeficiency viruses type 2 (HIV-2) and type 1 (HIV-1) gag proteins are distinguishable by magnitude and breadth but not cellular phenotype
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    MRC Human Immunology Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 35:1445-53. 2005
    ..Immune control of HIV-2 does not appear to be related to the frequency of perforin-expressing virus-specific CD8(+) T cells...
  45. ncbi request reprint Low level viremia and high CD4% predict normal survival in a cohort of HIV type-2-infected villagers
    Neil Berry
    Department of Virology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1167-73. 2002
    ..In conclusion, baseline HIV-2 RNA levels predicted a normal survival for the majority, with low and stable levels of plasma viremia characterizing HIV-2 infections in this rural West African community...
  46. ncbi request reprint Greater CD8+ TCR heterogeneity and functional flexibility in HIV-2 compared to HIV-1 infection
    A Ross Lopes
    Institute of Hepatology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 171:307-16. 2003
    ..Furthermore, they have implications for HIV vaccine development, demonstrating an association between a polyclonal, virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response and an enhanced capacity to tolerate substitutions within T cell epitopes...
  47. pmc The natural history of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in adults in Africa: a literature review
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England
    Bull World Health Organ 82:462-9. 2004
    ..Prophylactic regimens and better treatments could have some effect on survival, but major improvements in life expectancy will require HAART...
  48. ncbi request reprint Quantitative association tests of immune responses to antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a study of twins in West Africa
    Amanda Wiart
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Twin Res 7:578-88. 2004
    ..These results yield a greater understanding of the genetic mechanisms that underlie the immune responses in tuberculosis and have implications for the design of therapeutic interventions...
  49. ncbi request reprint Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:560-4. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of HIV. They also have important implications for resource-poor settings where CD4 count and plasma viral load are unaffordable...
  50. ncbi request reprint Increased prevalence of HTLV-1 among HIV-2-infected women but not HIV-2-infected men in rural Guinea-Bissau
    Birgitta Holmgren
    Bandim Health Project, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Bissau, Guinea Bissau
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:342-50. 2002
    ..To assess the prevalence of HTLV infection and its association with HIV and other potential risk factors...
  51. pmc Robust Gag-specific T cell responses characterize viremia control in HIV-2 infection
    Aleksandra Leligdowicz
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Republic of The Gambia
    J Clin Invest 117:3067-74. 2007
    ..A better understanding of how HIV-2 infection is controlled may identify correlates of effective protective immunity essential for the design of HIV vaccines...
  52. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the dried blood spot filter paper technology and five testing strategies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in West Africa
    Ramu Sarge-Njie
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, UK
    Scand J Infect Dis 38:1050-6. 2006
    ..The monospecific ELISAs used in this study are no longer in production; currently available differentiating assays need to be tested. DBS are recommended for sentinel surveillance in Africa...
  53. ncbi request reprint Effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the immune response to Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine
    Birgitte R Diness
    Bandim Health Project, INDEPTH Network, Bissau, Guinea Bissau
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:1152-9. 2007
    ..Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given at birth in tuberculosis-endemic countries. Previous studies suggest that VAS may influence the immune response to vaccines...
  54. pmc Mature CD8(+) T lymphocyte response to viral infection during fetal life
    Arnaud Marchant
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 111:1747-55. 2003
    ..The finding of a mature and functional CD8(+) T cell response to HCMV suggests that the machinery required to prime such responses is in place during fetal life and could be used to immunize newborns against viral pathogens...
  55. doi request reprint Virological and immunological correlates of mother-to-child transmission of cytomegalovirus in The Gambia
    Steve Kaye
    MRC Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 197:1307-14. 2008
    ..We studied correlates of vertical transmission of CMV in The Gambia, where most children acquire CMV during the first year of life...
  56. ncbi request reprint Survival of previously measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children in an emergency situation: an unplanned study
    Peter Aaby
    Bandim Health Project, Bissau, Guinea Bissau
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:798-805. 2003
    ..However, these observations have not been based on randomized trials...
  57. ncbi request reprint The Gambia Liver Cancer Study: Infection with hepatitis B and C and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa
    Gregory D Kirk
    Viral Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Hepatology 39:211-9. 2004
    ..If HCV transmission is not perpetuated in future cohorts, focusing available resources on HB vaccination efforts could greatly ameliorate a major cause of cancer death in sub-Saharan Africa...
  58. pmc Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to adenoviral serotypes 5 and 35 in the adult populations of The Gambia, South Africa, and the United States
    Edward Nwanegbo
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania 15219, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:351-7. 2004
    ..Because of the ability of adenoviruses to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses, Ad35 with its low NAb prevalence appears to be an attractive candidate vector for gene therapy applications...
  59. pmc Development, evaluation, and validation of an oligonucleotide probe hybridization assay to subtype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG
    Harr F Njai
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1428-33. 2004
    ..Moreover, this technology can easily be applied in laboratories in developing countries...
  60. ncbi request reprint Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus: reanalysis of West African studies
    Peter Aaby
    Projecto de Saude de Bandim, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Apartado 861, Bissau, Guinea Bissau
    Lancet 361:2183-8. 2003
    ..We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio...
  61. ncbi request reprint Ser-249TP53 mutation in tumour and plasma DNA of hepatocellular carcinoma patients from a high incidence area in the Gambia, West Africa
    Katarzyna Szymanska
    International Agency for Research on Cancer and Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study, Lyon, France
    Int J Cancer 110:374-9. 2004
    ..g., eastern China: >50%). Moreover, our studies indicate that plasma is a convenient source of liver tumour-derived DNA, thus holding promise for earlier detection and diagnosis of cancer...
  62. ncbi request reprint A national DNA bank in The Gambia, West Africa, and genomic research in developing countries
    Giorgio Sirugo
    Nat Genet 36:785-6. 2004
  63. doi request reprint Effects of cryopreservation on CD4+ CD25+ T cells of HIV-1 infected individuals
    Anna C Seale
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Clin Lab Anal 22:153-8. 2008
    ..This finding suggests that studies of CD4+ CD25+ T cells should be carried out on fresh samples to avoid bias introduced by cryopreservation...
  64. ncbi request reprint Hepatocellular carcinoma and polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing and DNA repair enzymes in a population with aflatoxin exposure and hepatitis B virus endemicity
    Gregory D Kirk
    Viral Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:373-9. 2005
    ..7; 95% CI, 1.27-169). Our findings suggest that genetic modulation of carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair can alter susceptibility to HCC and that these effects may be modified by environmental factors...
  65. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: public health research priorities
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 10:295-9. 2005
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint 249(ser) TP53 mutation in plasma DNA, hepatitis B viral infection, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Gregory D Kirk
    Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study, Banjul
    Oncogene 24:5858-67. 2005
    ..6-3270). These results suggest a multiplicative effect on HCC risk resulting from the mutational effect of aflatoxin on TP53, as monitored by detection of plasma 249(ser), with concomitant chronic infection with HBV...
  67. ncbi request reprint Predominant influence of environmental determinants on the persistence and avidity maturation of antibody responses to vaccines in infants
    Arnaud Marchant
    Institute for Medical Immunology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium
    J Infect Dis 193:1598-605. 2006
    ..We previously reported that genetic factors control early antibody responses to vaccines in Gambian infants. For the present study, we evaluated the determinants of the memory phase of immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses...