E Ronald de Kloet

Summary

Affiliation: Leiden University
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Everything has rhythm: focus on glucocorticoid pulsatility
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Neuropharmacology Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 149:3241-3. 2008
  2. pmc Spatial learning of female mice: a role of the mineralocorticoid receptor during stress and the estrous cycle
    Judith P Ter Horst
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands
    Front Behav Neurosci 7:56. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Lifetime achievement from a brain-adrenal perspective: on the CRF-urocortin-glucocorticoid balance
    E R de Kloet
    Medical Pharmacology, LACDR, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leiden University, Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Electronic address
    J Chem Neuroanat 54:42-9. 2013
  4. ncbi request reprint Functional profile of the binary brain corticosteroid receptor system: mediating, multitasking, coordinating, integrating
    E R de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Electronic address
    Eur J Pharmacol 719:53-62. 2013
  5. doi request reprint From vasotocin to stress and cognition
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 626:18-26. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Signaling pathways in brain involved in predisposition and pathogenesis of stress-related disease: genetic and kinetic factors affecting the MR/GR balance
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1032:14-34. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint From the stalk to down under about brain glucocorticoid receptors, stress and development
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Neurochem Res 33:637-42. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Corticosteroid hormones in the central stress response: quick-and-slow
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Front Neuroendocrinol 29:268-72. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease
    E Ron de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:463-75. 2005
  10. doi request reprint Neuropharmacology of glucocorticoids: focus on emotion, cognition and cocaine
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 585:473-82. 2008

Detail Information

Publications139 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Everything has rhythm: focus on glucocorticoid pulsatility
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Neuropharmacology Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 149:3241-3. 2008
  2. pmc Spatial learning of female mice: a role of the mineralocorticoid receptor during stress and the estrous cycle
    Judith P Ter Horst
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands
    Front Behav Neurosci 7:56. 2013
    ..In conclusion, the results suggest that loss of MR interferes with performance of a spatial task especially when estrogen levels are high suggesting a strong interaction between stress and sex hormones...
  3. doi request reprint Lifetime achievement from a brain-adrenal perspective: on the CRF-urocortin-glucocorticoid balance
    E R de Kloet
    Medical Pharmacology, LACDR, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leiden University, Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Electronic address
    J Chem Neuroanat 54:42-9. 2013
    ..regulation between the CRF/CRF-1 and Ucn/CRF-2 receptor systems is being uncovered, leading inexorably to the question: how do the CRF/Ucn and glucocorticoid systems interact in multiple brain sites to maintain homeostasis and health? ..
  4. ncbi request reprint Functional profile of the binary brain corticosteroid receptor system: mediating, multitasking, coordinating, integrating
    E R de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Electronic address
    Eur J Pharmacol 719:53-62. 2013
    ..Diabetic encephalopathy is a pathology of imbalanced corticosterone action, which can be corrected in its pre-stage by a brief treatment with the antiglucocorticoid mifepristone. ..
  5. doi request reprint From vasotocin to stress and cognition
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 626:18-26. 2010
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Signaling pathways in brain involved in predisposition and pathogenesis of stress-related disease: genetic and kinetic factors affecting the MR/GR balance
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1032:14-34. 2004
    ..Stress can bias the receptor signaling pathways, changing "good" corticosteroid actions into "bad" ones...
  7. ncbi request reprint From the stalk to down under about brain glucocorticoid receptors, stress and development
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Neurochem Res 33:637-42. 2008
    ..Here we report that also the receptors display a remarkable plasticity in determining the fate of an organism...
  8. ncbi request reprint Corticosteroid hormones in the central stress response: quick-and-slow
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Front Neuroendocrinol 29:268-72. 2008
    ..The fast effects are complemented by slower glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effects which facilitate suppression of temporary raised excitability, recovery from the stressful experience and storage of information for future use...
  9. ncbi request reprint Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease
    E Ron de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:463-75. 2005
    ..New candidate susceptibility genes that serve as markers for the prediction of vulnerable phenotypes are now being identified...
  10. doi request reprint Neuropharmacology of glucocorticoids: focus on emotion, cognition and cocaine
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 585:473-82. 2008
    ..Here we focus on the role of glucocorticoids in emotions, cognitive performance and behavioural sensitisation to cocaine...
  11. ncbi request reprint Hormones and the stressed brain
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1018:1-15. 2004
    ..This yin-yang concept in stress regulation is fundamental for genomic strategies to understand the mechanistic underpinning of corticosteroid-induced stress-related disorders such as severe forms of depression...
  12. ncbi request reprint [Stress: a neurobiological perspective]
    E R de Kloet
    Sectie Medische Farmacologie van het Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum, Leiden
    Tijdschr Psychiatr 51:541-50. 2009
    ..Stress is essential for our health and resilience, but vulnerability to psychopathology is increased when the action of a chronic stressor becomes excessive, prolonged or inadequate...
  13. ncbi request reprint Gene x environment interaction and cognitive performance: animal studies on the role of corticosterone
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 78:570-7. 2002
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Hormones, brain and stress
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocr Regul 37:51-68. 2003
    ..This Yin-Yang stress concept is fundamental for genomic strategies to understand the mechanistic underpinning of cortisol-induced stress-related disorders such as i.e. severe forms of depression and co-morbid diseases...
  15. doi request reprint Glucocorticoid signaling and stress-related limbic susceptibility pathway: about receptors, transcription machinery and microRNA
    E R de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1293:129-41. 2009
    ..We focus on the question how the action of CORT can change from protective to harmful...
  16. ncbi request reprint Who cares for a stressed brain? The mother, the kid or both?
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Aging 24:S61-5; discussion S67-8. 2003
    ..However, early trauma does not cause a generalized cognitive decline at older age, but rather drives cognitive performance to the extremes, at the expense of the average performance demonstrated by normally reared individuals...
  17. ncbi request reprint The Yin and Yang of nuclear receptors: symposium on nuclear receptors in brain, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands, 13-14 April 2000
    E R de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, PO Box 9503, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 11:245-8. 2000
    ..By elucidating the signalling pathway of nuclear receptors in brain, potential targets for therapeutic treatment of brain disorders can be identified...
  18. ncbi request reprint Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the brain for later life
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:271-81. 2005
    ..The results clearly demonstrate that early experiences trigger immediate changes in the stress system that may permanently alter brain and behaviour...
  19. ncbi request reprint From punch to profile
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, 9502, 2300 Leiden, RA, The Netherlands
    Neurochem Res 31:131-5. 2006
    ..For application of today's laser guided microdissection this knowledge of functional neuro-anatomy is indispensable...
  20. ncbi request reprint Stress in the brain
    E R de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, P O Box 9503, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 405:187-98. 2000
    ..The complete hippocampal genome is screened for corticosteroid responsive genes, which are potential targets for drugs promoting restorative capacity still present in the diseased brain...
  21. ncbi request reprint Brain corticosteroid receptor balance in health and disease
    E R de Kloet
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocr Rev 19:269-301. 1998
    ..7. The set points of HPA regulation and MR/GR balance are genetically programmed, but can be reset by early life experiences involving mother-infant interaction. 8. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)..
  22. ncbi request reprint Brain mineralocorticoid receptors and centrally regulated functions
    E R de Kloet
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Kidney Int 57:1329-36. 2000
    ..It is presently unknown in which brain cells the MR-mediated effects on these aspects of central cardiovascular regulation occur...
  23. ncbi request reprint The effect of chronic exposure to highly aggressive mice on hippocampal gene expression of non-aggressive subordinates
    Dorine E M Feldker
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1089:10-20. 2006
    ..Together, we hypothesize that reduced NFkappaB signaling and diminished protein biosynthesis form part of the molecular mechanisms by which a chronic psychosocial stressor induces structural alterations in hippocampus of LAL mice...
  24. pmc Previous history of chronic stress changes the transcriptional response to glucocorticoid challenge in the dentate gyrus region of the male rat hippocampus
    Nicole A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 154:3261-72. 2013
    ..We propose that this altered transcriptional potential forms part of the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced vulnerability for stress-related disorders like depression caused by chronic stress. ..
  25. doi request reprint Functional mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene variation influences the cortisol awakening response after dexamethasone
    Nienke van Leeuwen
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:339-49. 2010
    ..The association of the CAR with functional MR gene variants only in dexamethasone treated subjects suggests the involvement of MR in dexamethasone induced suppression of morning cortisol...
  26. pmc Steroid receptor coactivator-1 is necessary for regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone by chronic stress and glucocorticoids
    Servane Lachize
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8038-42. 2009
    ..In conclusion, SRC-1 is involved in positive and negative regulation of the crh gene, and an important factor for the adaptive capacity of stress...
  27. doi request reprint Two populations of glucocorticoid receptor-binding sites in the male rat hippocampal genome
    J Annelies E Polman
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 154:1832-44. 2013
    ..In conclusion, our results highlight the existence of 2 populations of GBS in the rat hippocampal genome...
  28. ncbi request reprint The HPA system during the postnatal development of CD1 mice and the effects of maternal deprivation
    Mathias V Schmidt
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Medical Pharmacology, Gorlaeus Laboratories, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 139:39-49. 2002
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity of newborn mice rapidly desensitizes to repeated maternal absence but becomes highly responsive to novelty
    L Enthoven
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 149:6366-77. 2008
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Adrenal hypersensitivity precedes chronic hypercorticism in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice
    Yanina Revsin
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Einsteinweg 55, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 149:3531-9. 2008
    ..These results suggest that sensitization of the adrenal glands to ACTH rather than an increase in circulating ACTH level is the primary event leading to hypercorticism in the STZ-induced diabetes mouse model...
  31. ncbi request reprint The dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during maternal deprivation
    M Schmidt
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    J Neuroendocrinol 16:52-7. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Differential and age-dependent effects of maternal deprivation on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of brown norway rats from youth to senescence
    J O Workel
    Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Medical Pharmacology, University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Neuroendocrinol 13:569-80. 2001
    ..The deprivation effect culminates in a midlife corticosterone surge and results at senescence in a strongly reduced corticosterone output...
  33. doi request reprint Acute effects of neonatal dexamethasone treatment on proliferation and astrocyte immunoreactivity in hippocampus and corpus callosum: towards a rescue strategy
    Sanne E F Claessens
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1482:1-12. 2012
    ..These acute alterations in the neonate brain might underlie later functional impairments reported in DEX-treated animals and humans and further illustrate the impact of early GR activation on brain development...
  34. doi request reprint Critical time-window for the actions of adrenal glucocorticoids in behavioural sensitisation to cocaine
    Inge E M de Jong
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Medical Pharmacology, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Einsteinweg 55, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 604:66-73. 2009
    ....
  35. doi request reprint The newborn rat's stress system readily habituates to repeated and prolonged maternal separation, while continuing to respond to stressors in context dependent fashion
    Nikolaos P Daskalakis
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, Gorlaeus Laboratories, The Netherlands
    Horm Behav 60:165-76. 2011
    ..In conclusion, separation environment, maternal care and genotype do not affect adrenal desensitization to repeated 8 h-MS itself, but may modulate the adrenal stress-responsiveness of separated pups...
  36. ncbi request reprint Reversal of cognitive deficit of apolipoprotein E knockout mice after repeated exposure to a common environmental experience
    J Grootendorst
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Centre, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9503, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Neuroscience 108:237-47. 2001
    ..In conclusion, repeated exposure to a common environmental experience did abolish and reverse the difference in cognitive performance and corticosterone concentrations of apoE-knockout and wild-type mice...
  37. ncbi request reprint Acute activation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors results in different waves of gene expression throughout time
    M C Morsink
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Neuroendocrinol 18:239-52. 2006
    ..Furthermore, we identified a number of interesting candidate genes which may underlie the glucocorticoid-mediated effects on hippocampal cell function...
  38. ncbi request reprint Kainate-elicited seizures induce mRNA encoding a CaMK-related peptide: a putative modulator of kinase activity in rat hippocampus
    E Vreugdenhil
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    J Neurobiol 39:41-50. 1999
    ..We propose that CARP induction leads to the modulation of kinase activity in specific subregions of the rat hippocampus, providing a negative feedback mechanism for seizure-induced kinases...
  39. ncbi request reprint Effects of urinary and recombinant gonadotrophins on gene expression profiles during the murine peri-implantation period
    R M Sibug
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    Hum Reprod 22:75-82. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Rapid glucocorticoid effects on the expression of hippocampal neurotransmission-related genes
    M C Morsink
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research LACDR, Leiden University Medical Center LUMC, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1150:14-20. 2007
    ..The results are important for understanding the role of GR in pleiotropic control of hippocampal neurotransmission and plasticity, which is characterized by recovery of function transiently raised by excitatory input...
  41. ncbi request reprint Therapy Insight: is there an imbalanced response of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in depression?
    E Ronald de Kloet
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden University Medical Center and the Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:168-79. 2007
    ....
  42. pmc A genome-wide signature of glucocorticoid receptor binding in neuronal PC12 cells
    J Annelies E Polman
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 2333 CC, The Netherlands
    BMC Neurosci 13:118. 2012
    ..The objective of the present study was to identify genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor binding sites in neuronal PC12 cells using Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation combined with next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq)...
  43. pmc Glucocorticoid receptor and myocyte enhancer factor 2 cooperate to regulate the expression of c-JUN in a neuronal context
    Niels Speksnijder
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research LACDR, Leiden University Medical Center, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Mol Neurosci 48:209-18. 2012
    ..At the same time, GR influences MEF2 activity and DNA binding. These results give novel insight into the molecular interplay of GR and MEF2 in the control of genes important for neuronal plasticity...
  44. doi request reprint The transcriptional response to chronic stress and glucocorticoid receptor blockade in the hippocampal dentate gyrus
    Nicole A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Hippocampus 22:359-71. 2012
    ....
  45. doi request reprint Central corticosteroid actions: Search for gene targets
    Nicole A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 583:272-89. 2008
    ....
  46. doi request reprint Human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene haplotypes modulate MR expression and transactivation: implication for the stress response
    Nienke van Leeuwen
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 36:699-709. 2011
    ..Moreover, these haplotypes may contribute to individual differences in perceived chronic stress as well as neuroendocrine and cardiovascular stress responses...
  47. ncbi request reprint Low doses of dexamethasone can produce a hypocorticosteroid state in the brain
    A M Karssen
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 146:5587-95. 2005
    ..The results support the concept that low doses of dex can create a hypocorticoid state in the brain...
  48. ncbi request reprint Correlation between hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression and memory performance in senescent rats
    M J Schaaf
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Division of Medical Pharmacology, Sylvius Laboratories P O Box 9503, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 915:227-33. 2001
    ..Thus, we have demonstrated that in senescent rats, hippocampal BDNF expression in response to water maze training is associated with memory performance...
  49. pmc Timing is critical for effective glucocorticoid receptor mediated repression of the cAMP-induced CRH gene
    Siem van der Laan
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e4327. 2009
    ..Since the order of activation of both signaling pathways may vary considerably in vivo, we conclude that a critical time-window exists for effective repression of the CRH gene by glucocorticoids...
  50. pmc Differential targeting of brain stress circuits with a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator
    Ioannis Zalachoras
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:7910-5. 2013
    ..Thus, C108297 represents a class of ligands that has the potential to more selectively abrogate pathogenic GR-dependent processes in the brain, while retaining beneficial aspects of GR signaling...
  51. ncbi request reprint Corticosteroid receptor genetic polymorphisms and stress responsivity
    Roel Derijk
    Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrine 28:263-70. 2005
    ..The data suggest that these MR and GR variants contribute to individual differences in resilience and vulnerability to stressors, and that these receptors therefore are potential drug targets for recovery of homeostasis and health...
  52. pmc Behavioral sensitization to cocaine: cooperation between glucocorticoids and epinephrine
    Inge E M de Jong
    Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Einsteinweg 55, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:693-703. 2009
    ..While there is ample evidence that adrenal glucocorticoids mediate these effects of stress, the role of the sympatho-adrenal system in the effects of psychostimulants is poorly understood...
  53. doi request reprint Fundamental aspects of the impact of glucocorticoids on the (immature) brain
    Danielle L Champagne
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Center, Gorlaeus Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 14:136-42. 2009
    ..This concept has led to the hypothesis that a 'mismatch' between early and later life conditions can enhance vulnerability to disease...
  54. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoid receptor blockade disinhibits pituitary-adrenal activity during the stress hyporesponsive period of the mouse
    M V Schmidt
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 146:1458-64. 2005
    ..In conclusion, the data suggest that control of postnatal pituitary-adrenal activity during the SHRP involves GR-mediated feedback in the anterior pituitary, which is further potentiated in the absence of the mother...
  55. ncbi request reprint Differential effect of corticosterone on spatial learning abilities in apolipoprotein E knockout and C57BL/6J mice
    J Grootendorst
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, University of Leiden, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 953:281-5. 2002
    ..These results suggest that corticosterone mediates the lasting effects of environmental challenges on apoE-genotype related cognitive performance...
  56. ncbi request reprint Stress alleviates reduced expression of cell adhesion molecules (NCAM, L1), and deficits in learning and corticosterone regulation of apolipoprotein E knockout mice
    J Grootendorst
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, PO Box 9503, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Neurosci 14:1505-14. 2001
    ..Under these same conditions the differences in cognitive performance and corticosterone concentrations were abolished between wild type and apoE0/0 mice...
  57. ncbi request reprint The dynamic pattern of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcriptional responses in neuronal PC12 cells
    M C Morsink
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurochem 99:1282-98. 2006
    ..Finally, we identified a number of interesting genes, such as SWI/SNF, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 and certain Rab proteins which may play a role in the effects of glucocorticoids on catecholaminergic neuronal functioning...
  58. ncbi request reprint Differential development of stress system (re)activity at weaning dependent on time of disruption of maternal care
    L Enthoven
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1217:62-9. 2008
    ..We conclude that the developmental stage of the organism determines the vulnerability for the detrimental effects of maternal deprivation and the organization of the stress system in adolescence...
  59. ncbi request reprint Mineralocorticoid receptors in control of emotional arousal and fear memory
    V Brinks
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Gorlaeus Laboratories, PO Box 9502, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Horm Behav 56:232-8. 2009
    ..We propose that such a disbalance in MR:GR functions in MR(CaMKCre) mice provides the conditions for an animal model for anxiety-related disorders...
  60. ncbi request reprint Repeated exposure to rats has persistent genotype-dependent effects on learning and locomotor activity of apolipoprotein E knockout and C57Bl/6 mice
    J Grootendorst
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, University of Leiden, P O Box 9503, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 125:249-59. 2001
    ..Thus, pre-experimental confrontation of mice with rats shifts behaviour and physiological responses and eliminates some of the genotype-dependent differences...
  61. doi request reprint Corticosterone facilitates extinction of fear memory in BALB/c mice but strengthens cue related fear in C57BL/6 mice
    V Brinks
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Gorlaeus Laboratoria, LACDR LUMC, Division of Medical Pharmacology, Einsteinweg 55, 2300 RA Leiden, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Exp Neurol 216:375-82. 2009
    ..We conclude that genetic background and time of corticosterone action are modifiers of fear memory with interesting translational implications for anxiety-related diseases...
  62. ncbi request reprint Serial analysis of gene expression predicts structural differences in hippocampus of long attack latency and short attack latency mice
    Dorine E M Feldker
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Neurosci 17:379-87. 2003
    ....
  63. doi request reprint Glucocorticoids modulate the mTOR pathway in the hippocampus: differential effects depending on stress history
    J Annelies E Polman
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 153:4317-27. 2012
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that direct regulation of the mTOR pathway by GC represents an important mechanism regulating neuronal plasticity in the rat DG, which changes after exposure to chronic stress...
  64. ncbi request reprint Adrenalectomy prevents behavioural sensitisation of mice to cocaine in a genotype-dependent manner
    Inge E M de Jong
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Medical Pharmacology, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Einsteinweg 55, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 177:329-39. 2007
    ..The present results demonstrate that adrenal stress hormones facilitate behavioural sensitisation to cocaine in a genotype-dependent manner and suggest that glucocorticoids contribute to strain differences in psychostimulant sensitivity...
  65. pmc Development of the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray (EUMAMA): a new genetic tool for large-scale expression profiling in a non-human primate
    Nicole A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research and Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    BMC Genomics 8:190. 2007
    ..In contrast to the growing interest for the marmoset as an animal model, the molecular tools for genetic analysis are extremely limited...
  66. ncbi request reprint When glucocorticoids change from protective to harmful. Lessons from a type 1 diabetes animal model
    Yanina Revsin
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Medicina (B Aires) 69:353-8. 2009
    ..As an example, we discuss in this article, how the impact of excessive levels of corticosterone in a pharmacological model of type 1 diabetes can be ameliorated after a brief treatment with a GR antagonist...
  67. ncbi request reprint Ontogeny of steroid receptor coactivators in the hippocampus and their role in regulating postnatal HPA axis function
    Mathias V Schmidt
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1174:1-6. 2007
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Multiple transcripts generated by the DCAMKL gene are expressed in the rat hippocampus
    E Vreugdenhil
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Center for Drug Research LACDR, Leiden University, P O Box 9503, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 94:67-74. 2001
    ..We conclude that alternative splicing of the DCAMKL gene may generate different but similar proteins in the adult rat hippocampus thereby regulating different but overlapping aspects of DCAMKL controlled neuronal plasticity...
  69. ncbi request reprint Enhanced 5-HT1A receptor expression in forebrain regions of aggressive house mice
    S M Korte
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Sylvius Laboratories, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 736:338-43. 1996
    ..In conclusion, genetic selection for high offensive aggression co-selects for reduced (circadian peak) level in plasma corticosterone and increased postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor number in limbic and cortical regions...
  70. ncbi request reprint A common polymorphism in the mineralocorticoid receptor modulates stress responsiveness
    Roel H DeRijk
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Center, Gorlaeus Laboratories, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:5083-9. 2006
    ..Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) mediate the action of aldosterone on sodium resorption in kidney tubular cells, but in brain they respond to the glucocorticoid cortisol in stress regulation and cognitive processes...
  71. doi request reprint Early handling modulates outcome of neonatal dexamethasone exposure
    Sanne E F Claessens
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Horm Behav 62:433-41. 2012
    ..In conclusion, these findings indicate that handling of the neonate enhances maternal care and attenuates specific DEX-induced alterations in the adult behavioral phenotype...
  72. doi request reprint Testing the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses of psychopathology in a rat model of early-life adversity
    Nikolaos P Daskalakis
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Physiol Behav 106:707-21. 2012
    ..For this purpose the combined effects of early-life adversity and later-life stress exposure on behavioral markers of psychosis susceptibility were studied in male Wistar rats...
  73. pmc Hippocampal CA1 region shows differential regulation of gene expression in mice displaying extremes in behavioral sensitization to amphetamine: relevance for psychosis susceptibility?
    Nicole A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research LACDR and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 217:525-38. 2011
    ..We hypothesize that the same genes and pathways underlying behavioral sensitization in mice are also involved in the vulnerability to psychosis...
  74. doi request reprint Brain development under stress: hypotheses of glucocorticoid actions revisited
    Melly S Oitzl
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Centre for Drug Research LACDR Leiden University Medical Centre LUMC, University of Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:853-66. 2010
    ..The Predictive Adaptation Hypothesis therefore presents a conceptual framework to examine the role of glucocorticoids in understanding individual phenotypic differences in stress-related behaviours over the lifespan...
  75. pmc Development of individual differences in stress responsiveness: an overview of factors mediating the outcome of early life experiences
    Sanne E F Claessens
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 214:141-54. 2011
    ..The interplay between genes and environment underlies this phenomenon...
  76. doi request reprint Decreased expression of mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA and its splice variants in postmortem brain regions of patients with major depressive disorder
    Melanie D Klok
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Psychiatr Res 45:871-8. 2011
    ..A decreased expression of corticosteroid receptors in specific brain regions of MDD patients could underlie HPA hyperactivity, mood and cognitive disturbances often observed in patients suffering from stress-related psychopathologies...
  77. ncbi request reprint Brain region-specific transcriptomic markers of serotonin-1A receptor agonist action mediating sexual rejection and aggression in female marmoset monkeys
    Yves Aubert
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Sex Med 10:1461-75. 2013
    ....
  78. doi request reprint Early experience of a novel-environment in isolation primes a fearful phenotype characterized by persistent amygdala activation
    Nikolaos P Daskalakis
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Traumatic Stress Studies Division and Laboratory of Molecular Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA Mental Health Care Center, PTSD Clinical Research Program and Laboratory of Clinical Neuroendocrinology and Neurochemistry, James J Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, USA Electronic address
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 39:39-57. 2014
    ..In conclusion, programming of an adult fearful phenotype linked to amygdala priming develops if pups are repeatedly isolated from peers in a novel-environment, while away from the dam for a prolonged period of time...
  79. ncbi request reprint Large-scale gene expression profiling of discrete brain regions: potential, limitations, and application in genetics of aggressive behavior
    Dorine E M Feldker
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Behav Genet 33:537-48. 2003
    ..In this special issue, we focus on the principles of SAGE and DNA microarrays, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and application to analysis in brain tissue in order to identify aggression-related genes...
  80. ncbi request reprint The microtubule-associated protein doublecortin-like regulates the transport of the glucocorticoid receptor in neuronal progenitor cells
    Carlos P Fitzsimons
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Medical Pharmacology Department, Einsteinweg 55, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Mol Endocrinol 22:248-62. 2008
    ....
  81. doi request reprint Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress
    Danielle L Champagne
    Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences Center for Neuroscience, University of Amsterdam, 1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 28:6037-45. 2008
    ....
  82. doi request reprint Environmental and tactile stimulation modulates the neonatal handling effect on adult rat spatial memory
    Nikolaos P Daskalakis
    Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Athens University School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
    Int J Dev Neurosci 27:747-55. 2009
    ..These data suggest that the nature and intensity of the individual components of a mild early life manipulation, like handling, are critical in modifying aspects of adult memory performance and basal adrenocortical function...
  83. doi request reprint Stress responsiveness varies over the ultradian glucocorticoid cycle in a brain-region-specific manner
    Ratna A Sarabdjitsingh
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Centre for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Centre, University of Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 151:5369-79. 2010
    ..Our data suggest that the oscillatory changes in plasma glucocorticoid levels are critical for the maintenance of normal physiological reactivity to a stressor and in addition modulate emotionality and exploratory behavior...
  84. ncbi request reprint Identification of corticosteroid-responsive genes in rat hippocampus using serial analysis of gene expression
    N A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Neurosci 14:675-89. 2001
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Recovery from disrupted ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity reveals a dissociation between hormonal and behavioural stress responsiveness
    R A Sarabdjitsingh
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Centre for Drug Research LACDR Leiden University Medical Centre LUMC, University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Neuroendocrinol 22:862-71. 2010
    ..Upon reinstatement of the ultradian rhythm, and despite the fact that these animals did not differ from controls in their response to noise stress, they did show substantial changes in their behavioural response to stress...
  86. ncbi request reprint Expression profile of 30,000 genes in rat hippocampus using SAGE
    N A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Hippocampus 11:430-44. 2001
    ..This is the first extensive inventory of gene expression in the hippocampus and serves as a reference for future studies aimed at elucidating hippocampal transcriptional responses under various conditions...
  87. pmc Point mutation in the mouse glucocorticoid receptor preventing DNA binding impairs spatial memory
    M S Oitzl
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, P O Box 9503, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12790-5. 2001
    ..Although it cannot be excluded that both processes are involved in a coordinated way, interrupting the DNA-binding capacity of the receptor is sufficient to induce impairment...
  88. ncbi request reprint Genetic dissection of corticosterone receptor function in the rat hippocampus
    E Vreugdenhil
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, P O Box 9503, 2300 RA, The Netherlands
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 11:423-30. 2001
    ..These findings suggest a novel mode of operation of the CaMK pathway in control of Ca2+ homeostasis relevant for CORT-related brain disorders...
  89. ncbi request reprint Centrally regulated blood pressure response to vasoactive peptides is modulated by corticosterone
    S A B E van Acker
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    J Neuroendocrinol 14:56-63. 2002
    ..However, predominant MR occupancy appears to play an opposite role and attenuates the angiotensin II-induced pressor response...
  90. ncbi request reprint The role of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein in brain penetration of prednisolone
    A M Karssen
    Divisions of Medical Pharmacology and Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9502, Leiden, 2300 RA, The Netherlands
    J Endocrinol 175:251-60. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the ensuing imbalance in activation of the two types of brain corticosteroid receptors may have consequences for cognitive performance and mood...
  91. ncbi request reprint Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein hampers the access of cortisol but not of corticosterone to mouse and human brain
    A M Karssen
    Divisions of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 142:2686-94. 2001
    ..This finding suggests a more prominent role for corticosterone in control of human brain function than hitherto recognized...
  92. ncbi request reprint Effects of flesinoxan on corticosteroid receptor expression in the rat hippocampus
    R M Sibug
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Division of Medical Pharmacology, Sylvius Laboratories, P O Box 9503, 2300 RA, Leiden, Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 404:111-9. 2000
    ....
  93. ncbi request reprint Gonadotrophin stimulation reduces VEGF(120) expression in the mouse uterus during the peri-implantation period
    R M Sibug
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Center, Gorlaeus Laboratories, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Hum Reprod 17:1643-8. 2002
    ..Ovarian stimulation by gonadotrophin treatment exerts negative effects on implantation and embryonic development. We investigated whether gonadotrophin treatment affects VEGF(120) mRNA expression during the peri-implantation period...
  94. ncbi request reprint Severe learning deficits in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice in a water maze task
    M S Oitzl
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 752:189-96. 1997
    ..Swimming ability and general locomotor activity of both groups were comparable. These results indicate that absence of apoE in these animals might be critical for spatial learning and memory abilities...
  95. ncbi request reprint Behavioral and neuroendocrine responses controlled by the concerted action of central mineralocorticoid (MRS) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRS)
    M S Oitzl
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Division of Medical Pharmacology, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 22:S87-93. 1997
    ..In addition, the results on the function of MRs and GRs show clearly that the coupling of one receptor with one function is too reductionistic to fully explain the biological relevance of such receptors...
  96. ncbi request reprint The Brown Norway rat displays enhanced stress-induced ACTH reactivity at day 18 after 24-h maternal deprivation at day 3
    J O Workel
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 103:199-203. 1997
    ..It is concluded that maternal deprivation has persistently diminished adrenocortical function in containment of the ACTH response to stress...
  97. ncbi request reprint Acute blockade of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors facilitates spatial learning in rats
    M S Oitzl
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research LACDR, Division of Medical Pharmacology, University of Leiden, P O Box 9503, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
    Brain Res 797:159-62. 1998
    ..This observation suggests a discrete specificity of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in facilitation of memory...
  98. pmc Role of endogenous neurotensin in the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of cocaine
    C Betancur
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Sylvius Laboratories, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 19:322-32. 1998
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint Downregulation of BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus by corticosterone
    M J Schaaf
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Division of Medical Pharmacology, Sylvius Laboratories, P O Box 9503, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 813:112-20. 1998
    ..In conclusion, we have found a transient, dose-dependent decrease in BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus, which may underly changes in neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus after short-term changes in corticosterone concentrations...
  100. pmc MicroSAGE: a modified procedure for serial analysis of gene expression in limited amounts of tissue
    N A Datson
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, PO Box 9503, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nucleic Acids Res 27:1300-7. 1999
    ....
  101. ncbi request reprint Quantification of swim patterns in the Morris water maze
    S Dalm
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 32:134-9. 2000
    ..In summary, image analysis systems have made it very convenient to quantify behavior. Using their capacity, we have further improved the analysis of swim patterns, revealing animals' different approaches to solve a problem...