Paul M Brakefield

Summary

Affiliation: Leiden University
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. pmc Natural selection and developmental constraints in the evolution of allometries
    W Anthony Frankino
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
    Science 307:718-20. 2005
  2. pmc Selection and gene flow on a diminishing cline of melanic peppered moths
    Ilik J Saccheri
    School of Biological Sciences, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16212-7. 2008
  3. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of declining melanism in the peppered moth in the Netherlands
    P M Brakefield
    Institute of Ecological and Evolutionary Sciences, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 267:1953-7. 2000
  4. ncbi request reprint What are the effects of maternal and pre-adult environments on ageing in humans, and are there lessons from animal models?
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Mech Ageing Dev 126:431-8. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Structure of a character and the evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns
    P M Brakefield
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Exp Zool 291:93-104. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Evo-devo and constraints on selection
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Trends Ecol Evol 21:362-8. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Developmental plasticity and acclimation both contribute to adaptive responses to alternating seasons of plenty and of stress in Bicyclus butterflies
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Biosci 32:465-75. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Cracking the olfactory code of a butterfly: the scent of ageing
    Caroline M Nieberding
    Evolutionary Biology Group, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Ecol Lett 15:415-24. 2012
  9. pmc Single locus affects embryonic segment polarity and multiple aspects of an adult evolutionary novelty
    Suzanne V Saenko
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands
    BMC Biol 8:111. 2010
  10. pmc Internal and external constraints in the evolution of morphological allometries in a butterfly
    W Anthony Frankino
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evolution 61:2958-70. 2007

Detail Information

Publications86

  1. pmc Natural selection and developmental constraints in the evolution of allometries
    W Anthony Frankino
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
    Science 307:718-20. 2005
    ..Our results show that the short-term evolution of allometries is not limited by developmental constraints. Instead, scaling relationships are shaped by strong natural selection...
  2. pmc Selection and gene flow on a diminishing cline of melanic peppered moths
    Ilik J Saccheri
    School of Biological Sciences, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16212-7. 2008
    ....
  3. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of declining melanism in the peppered moth in the Netherlands
    P M Brakefield
    Institute of Ecological and Evolutionary Sciences, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 267:1953-7. 2000
    ..The darkest of the three insularia morphs has shown a transitory pulse of increased frequency in The Netherlands. The dynamics are discussed in relation to the history of air pollution and to straightforward predictions about selection...
  4. ncbi request reprint What are the effects of maternal and pre-adult environments on ageing in humans, and are there lessons from animal models?
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Mech Ageing Dev 126:431-8. 2005
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Structure of a character and the evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns
    P M Brakefield
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Exp Zool 291:93-104. 2001
    ..J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 291:93-104, 2001...
  6. ncbi request reprint Evo-devo and constraints on selection
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Trends Ecol Evol 21:362-8. 2006
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Developmental plasticity and acclimation both contribute to adaptive responses to alternating seasons of plenty and of stress in Bicyclus butterflies
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Biosci 32:465-75. 2007
    ..The responses clearly involve a mix of developmental plasticity as cued by different environments in pre-adult development,and the acclimation of life history traits in adults to their prevailing environment...
  8. doi request reprint Cracking the olfactory code of a butterfly: the scent of ageing
    Caroline M Nieberding
    Evolutionary Biology Group, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Ecol Lett 15:415-24. 2012
    ..Our data also reveal that there may be no 'lek paradox' to resolve once the precise signal of importance to females is identified, as hexadecanal is, as expected, depleted in additive genetic variation...
  9. pmc Single locus affects embryonic segment polarity and multiple aspects of an adult evolutionary novelty
    Suzanne V Saenko
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands
    BMC Biol 8:111. 2010
    ..Here we describe three pleiotropic mutations with large effects on a novel trait, butterfly eyespots, and on a conserved stage of embryogenesis, segment polarity...
  10. pmc Internal and external constraints in the evolution of morphological allometries in a butterfly
    W Anthony Frankino
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evolution 61:2958-70. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that evolution of this component of the forewing-hindwing allometry is not limited by developmental constraints in the short term and that natural selection on allometry intercepts can be powerful...
  11. ncbi request reprint Butterfly eyespot patterns and how evolutionary tinkering yields diversity
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Novartis Found Symp 284:90-101; discussion 101-15. 2007
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Potential constraints on evolution: sexual dimorphism and the problem of protandry in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Bas J Zwaan
    Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Leiden, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Genet 87:395-405. 2008
    ..Lastly, our results show that temperature has an effect on the amount of protandry in the selected lines. These results are discussed in relation to the ecology of this species and the evolution of protandry...
  13. doi request reprint The predictive adaptive response: modeling the life-history evolution of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in seasonal environments
    Joost van den Heuvel
    Evolutionary Biology Group, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Am Nat 181:E28-42. 2013
    ..We conclude that for B. anynana, early-stage cues can direct development toward a better adapted phenotype later in life and, therefore, that a PAR has evolved in this species...
  14. ncbi request reprint Developmental constraints versus flexibility in morphological evolution
    Patricia Beldade
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nature 416:844-7. 2002
    ..This flexibility is consistent with the diversity of wing patterns across species and argues for a dominant role of natural selection, rather than internal constraints, in shaping existing variation...
  15. pmc Differences in the selection response of serially repeated color pattern characters: standing variation, development, and evolution
    Cerisse E Allen
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    BMC Evol Biol 8:94. 2008
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Consequences of artificial selection on pre-adult development for adult lifespan under benign conditions in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Jeroen Pijpe
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, NL 2311 GP Leiden, The Netherlands
    Mech Ageing Dev 127:802-7. 2006
    ..A follow-up study with an identical set-up that introduces stress during development should give a more detailed insight into the role of development in the regulation of lifespan...
  17. ncbi request reprint Genetic linkage between melanism and winglessness in the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata
    Suzanne T E Lommen
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Genetica 140:229-33. 2012
    ..These traits are of interest in the context of the evolution of intraspecific morphological diversity, and for the application of ladybird beetles in biological control programs...
  18. doi request reprint Changed gene expression for candidate ageing genes in long-lived Bicyclus anynana butterflies
    Jeroen Pijpe
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9505, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Exp Gerontol 46:426-34. 2011
    ..This information will narrow down the list of genes that underpin variation in lifespan and ageing in extant populations of organisms, and which may serve as candidate genes in humans...
  19. doi request reprint Predictive adaptive responses: Condition-dependent impact of adult nutrition and flight in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Marjo Saastamoinen
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9505, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Am Nat 176:686-98. 2010
    ..The results reveal an important plasticity component to variation in flight performance and suggest that the cost of flight depends on an individual's internal condition...
  20. doi request reprint Radiations of mycalesine butterflies and opening up their exploration of morphospace
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Am Nat 176:S77-87. 2010
    ..I argue that research on B. anynana has provided an invaluable backbone for such an endeavor by revealing candidate suites of traits involved in adaptation to new ecological opportunities and in the evolution of reproductive isolation...
  21. pmc Conserved developmental processes and the formation of evolutionary novelties: examples from butterfly wings
    Suzanne V Saenko
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Kaiserstraat 63, 2311 GP Leiden, The Netherlands
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:1549-55. 2008
    ....
  22. pmc Translating environmental gradients into discontinuous reaction norms via hormone signalling in a polyphenic butterfly
    Vicencio Oostra
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 278:789-97. 2011
    ..The range of phenotypic responses observed within the suite of traits indicates both shared regulation and independent, trait-specific sensitivity to the hormone signal...
  23. pmc The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males
    Erik van Bergen
    Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, RA 2300 Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 280:20130102. 2013
    ..Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection...
  24. pmc Cytogenetic characterization and AFLP-based genetic linkage mapping for the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, covering all 28 karyotyped chromosomes
    Arjèn E Van't Hof
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 3:e3882. 2008
    ..This study presents the characterization of chromosomes in this species by means of cytogenetic analysis and linkage mapping...
  25. doi request reprint Increased life span in a polyphenic butterfly artificially selected for starvation resistance
    Jeroen Pijpe
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Am Nat 171:81-90. 2008
    ..In general, these results imply that the regulation of life span involves mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity...
  26. ncbi request reprint Mutants highlight the modular control of butterfly eyespot patterns
    Antonia Monteiro
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences EEW, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evol Dev 5:180-7. 2003
    ..We propose several developmental models, based on wing compartmentalization in Drosophila, that provide the first framework for thinking about the molecular evolution of butterfly wing pattern modularity...
  27. pmc Modularity, individuality, and evo-devo in butterfly wings
    Patricia Beldade
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14262-7. 2002
    ..Our results are discussed within the context of the evolution of modularity and individuality of serially repeated morphological traits...
  28. ncbi request reprint Butterfly selected lines explore the hormonal basis of interactions between life histories and morphology
    Wilte G Zijlstra
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Leiden, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Am Nat 163:E76-87. 2004
    ..The developmental system is flexible enough to allow evolution in directions opposing the correlation between wing pattern and developmental time, and responses to selection are not constrained by a shared hormonal system...
  29. pmc AFLP markers for the R-gene in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum, conferring resistance to defenses in Barbarea vulgaris
    Casper J Breuker
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Insect Sci 5:38. 2005
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns
    Patricia Beldade
    Leiden University, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evol Dev 5:169-79. 2003
    ..Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns...
  31. doi request reprint Development of a wingless morph in the ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata
    Suzanne T E Lommen
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, Leiden 2300 RA, The Netherlands
    Evol Dev 11:278-89. 2009
    ..Nevertheless, our results highlight that diverse mechanisms of development are likely to underlie the evolution of wingless insects...
  32. ncbi request reprint The genetics and evo-devo of butterfly wing patterns
    Patricia Beldade
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Genet 3:442-52. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Multitrait evolution in lines of Drosophila melanogaster selected for increased starvation resistance: the role of metabolic rate and implications for the evolution of longevity
    Egon A Baldal
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evolution 60:1435-44. 2006
    ..The results are discussed in relation to previous reported results on starvation resistance and its relation with mechanisms of aging and longevity...
  34. pmc The genetic basis of male fertility in relation to haplodiploid reproduction in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera: Figitidae)
    Bart A Pannebakker
    Section of Animal Ecology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, NL 2300 RA, The Netherlands
    Genetics 168:341-9. 2004
    ..We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the effect of mff, as well as mechanisms involved in vestigialization of traits involved in sexual reproduction...
  35. ncbi request reprint Exploring evolutionary constraints is a task for an integrative evolutionary biology
    P M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Am Nat 168:S4-13. 2006
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint The effects of larval density on adult life-history traits in three species of Drosophila
    E A Baldal
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Mech Ageing Dev 126:407-16. 2005
    ..This may reflect differences in resource acquisition and allocation, and we discuss our findings in relation to how selection may operate in the different species...
  37. ncbi request reprint Lack of response to artificial selection on the slope of reaction norms for seasonal polyphenism in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    P J Wijngaarden
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Heredity (Edinb) 87:410-20. 2001
    ..This is discussed with respect to potential evolutionary constraints in natural populations in these butterflies...
  38. ncbi request reprint Butterfly eyespot patterns: evidence for specification by a morphogen diffusion gradient
    A Monteiro
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Acta Biotheor 49:77-88. 2001
    ..The contours of the fused patterns were found to satisfy our equation, thus corroborating Nijhout's hypothesis to the extent possible with this particular type of experiment...
  39. pmc The genetics and development of an eyespot pattern in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: response to selection for eyespot shape
    A Monteiro
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    Genetics 146:287-94. 1997
    ..We conclude that selection changed general properties of the epidermis that responds to signals emanating from the eyespot focus but did not affect the mechanism of focal signaling...
  40. pmc Inbreeding of bottlenecked butterfly populations. Estimation using the likelihood of changes in marker allele frequencies
    I J Saccheri
    Conservation Genetics Group, Institute of Zoology, London NW1 4RY, United
    Genetics 151:1053-63. 1999
    ..It was, for example, able to resolve small differences in sigma2 among replicate lines within bottleneck-size treatments, which could be related to the observed variation in reproductive viability...
  41. ncbi request reprint Lack of response to selection for lower fluctuating asymmetry of mutant eyespots in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    C J Breuker
    Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Heredity (Edinb) 91:17-27. 2003
    ..The results suggest that FA provides little, if any, potential for exploring the mechanistic basis of developmental stability...
  42. ncbi request reprint Effects of bottlenecks on quantitative genetic variation in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    I J Saccheri
    Research Group in Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, Kaiserstraat 63, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Genet Res 77:167-81. 2001
    ....
  43. pmc Female choice depends on size but not symmetry of dorsal eyespots in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Casper J Breuker
    Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 269:1233-9. 2002
    ..The results indicate that although size per se of the eyespots is used as a signal, FA and wing size are not. We discuss the use of FA in studies of sexual selection and aspects of sexual selection on dorsal eyespot size...
  44. ncbi request reprint Heat shock in the developmentally sensitive period of butterfly eyespots fails to increase fluctuating asymmetry
    Casper J Breuker
    Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evol Dev 5:231-9. 2003
    ..We discuss how the increased production of heat shock proteins, including HSP60, may have stabilized development and how this might explain the results...
  45. pmc Mitochondrial DNA signature for range-wide populations of Bicyclus anynana suggests a rapid expansion from recent refugia
    Maaike A de Jong
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e21385. 2011
    ..000 years. These results provide crucial background information for studies of phenotypic and molecular adaptation in wild populations of B. anynana...
  46. pmc The male sex pheromone of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: towards an evolutionary analysis
    Caroline M Nieberding
    Evolutionary Biology Group, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 3:e2751. 2008
    ..Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies...
  47. pmc Cooler butterflies lay larger eggs: developmental plasticity versus acclimation
    Klaus Fischer
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 270:2051-6. 2003
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Simultaneous selection on two fitness-related traits in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Wilte G Zijlstra
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evolution 57:1852-62. 2003
    ..This suggests that the structure of the genetic architecture does not constrain the short-term, independent evolution of both wing pattern and development time...
  49. ncbi request reprint Analysis of a chemical defense in sawfly larvae: easy bleeding targets predatory wasps in late summer
    Caroline Muller
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Chem Ecol 29:2683-94. 2003
    ..rosae is an efficient defense against wasps, partially due to this compound. These experiments are the first to demonstrate the efficacy of this chemical defense mechanism in a natural setting...
  50. ncbi request reprint Contribution of Distal-less to quantitative variation in butterfly eyespots
    Patricia Beldade
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nature 415:315-8. 2002
    ..Here we begin to bridge this gap by demonstrating linkage between DNA polymorphisms in the candidate gene Distal-less (Dll) and eyespot size in B. anynana...
  51. ncbi request reprint The genetic basis of eyespot size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: an analysis of line crosses
    P J Wijngaarden
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Heredity (Edinb) 85:471-9. 2000
    ..No evidence for cytoplasmic effects was found, but the data were consistent with the presence of one or more loci on the X-chromosome. The results are discussed in the context of the current model of eyespot formation...
  52. ncbi request reprint The difficulty of agreeing about constraints
    Patricia Beldade
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Evol Dev 5:119-20. 2003
  53. ncbi request reprint Surgical Manipulations on Pupal Wings from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Damage and Cauteries
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5204. 2009
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint In Situ Hybridization of Embryos and Larval and Pupal Wings from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5208. 2009
    ..INTRODUCTION The modified in situ hybridization protocol described here can be used to localize RNA transcripts in developing tissues of the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, including larval and pupal wings and embryos...
  55. ncbi request reprint Surgical Manipulations on Pupal Wings from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Grafts
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5205. 2009
    ..Square grafts can be turned 180 degrees (or 90 degrees ) before implantation to distinguish donor and host tissue, because the orientation of the scale cells is determined before grafting...
  56. ncbi request reprint Fixation and Dissection of Embryos from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5206. 2009
    ..Such embryos can be used subsequently for in situ hybridization experiments or for immunohistochemistry analysis...
  57. ncbi request reprint Dissection of Larval and Pupal Wings from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5207. 2009
    ..Dissected pupal wings can be used subsequently for in situ hybridization or for immunohistochemistry. They can also be analyzed with stereomicroscopy to study scale maturation and pigment deposition...
  58. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemistry Staining of Embryos from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5209. 2009
    ..The embryos are stained with a primary antibody against a protein of interest, followed by a fluorescently labeled secondary antibody...
  59. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemistry Staining of Wing Discs from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5210. 2009
    ..The wing discs are stained with a primary antibody against a protein of interest, followed by a fluorescently labeled secondary antibody...
  60. ncbi request reprint Extraction and Gas Chromatography Analysis of Adult Pheromones from the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5211. 2009
    ..This protocol describes the preparation of pheromone extracts from wings of the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana and the subsequent use of these extracts in GC analysis...
  61. ncbi request reprint Fresh Weight, Dry Weight, and Fat Content of Adult African Butterflies Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5212. 2009
    ..From this, the weight of water and fat can be calculated, as well as water and fat fractions...
  62. ncbi request reprint Constant Volume Respirometry in the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5213. 2009
    ..The RMR of each individual is corrected for weight, preferably after removal of water and fat mass, to allow comparison of the RMRs among individuals...
  63. ncbi request reprint Hemolymph Extraction from Various Developmental Stages of the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5214. 2009
    ..The hemolymph can subsequently be used for various purposes; the method for processing the hemolymph depends on the question under investigation...
  64. ncbi request reprint Culture and Propagation of Laboratory Populations of the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5203. 2009
    ..At ~27 degrees C, egg development takes 4 d, and the total generation time is 5-6 wk, yielding about eight generations a year in selection experiments...
  65. ncbi request reprint The African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: A Model for Evolutionary Genetics and Evolutionary Developmental Biology
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.emo122. 2009
    ..Here, we explore the characteristics of B. anynana that enable integrative research linking variations among genotypes via development and physiology to variations in phenotypes and variations in adaptation to natural environments...
  66. pmc Rapid spread of immigrant genomes into inbred populations
    Ilik J Saccheri
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Biol Sci 269:1073-8. 2002
    ..Our result suggests that effective migration rates may often be much higher than the numbers of individual migrants assumed by classical population genetics models, with implications for the persistence and evolution of metapopulations...
  67. ncbi request reprint Injection of Chemicals into Pupae of the African Butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    Paul M Brakefield
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    CSH Protoc 2009:pdb.prot5215. 2009
    ..INTRODUCTION This protocol describes a procedure for the injection of chemicals into pupae of the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana. A number of target traits can be monitored to determine the effect of a particular chemical on the pupae...
  68. ncbi request reprint Captivity masks inbreeding effects on male mating success in butterflies
    Mathieu Joron
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nature 424:191-4. 2003
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Methuselah life history in a variety of conditions, implications for the use of mutants in longevity research
    E A Baldal
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Exp Gerontol 41:1126-35. 2006
    ..We conclude that these data can only provide limited information on natural variation. The data show the need to uncover the full complexity of variation in such traits in natural environments...
  70. ncbi request reprint On the neutrality of molecular genetic markers: pedigree analysis of genetic variation in fragmented populations
    C Van Oosterhout
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P O Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Mol Ecol 13:1025-34. 2004
    ..This study demonstrates that the neutrality of molecular markers cannot always be assumed, particularly in small populations with a high mutation load...
  71. ncbi request reprint Genetic and environmental sources of egg size variation in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana
    K Fischer
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, Leiden NL 2300 RA, The Netherlands
    Heredity (Edinb) 92:163-9. 2004
    ..2 (variance component estimates using the full-sib families). Although there seemed to be some variation in the plastic response to temperature among families, genotype-environment interactions were nonsignificant...
  72. ncbi request reprint Chemical defence in a sawfly: genetic components of variation in relevant life-history traits
    C Muller
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Heredity (Edinb) 90:468-75. 2003
    ..A consequence of such host-plant variation in the wild might be that genetic variation of such chemical defensive traits is largely invisible to natural selection...
  73. ncbi request reprint Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings
    J M Janssen
    Section of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Evol Dev 3:415-23. 2001
    ..The results are discussed on the basis of gene expression patterns, variability in rates of scale development and pigment, and scale sclerotization pathways...
  74. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of the defence mechanism of the turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), against predation by lizards
    L Vlieger
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Bull Entomol Res 94:283-9. 2004
    ..Movement and colour may be important additional factors triggering the behaviour of vertebrate predators...
  75. ncbi request reprint Genetic basis and fitness consequences of winglessness in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata
    H Ueno
    Institute of Biology, Leiden University, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Heredity (Edinb) 93:283-9. 2004
    ..This correlation suggests that the modifier genes influence both wing formation and fitness components. The significance of such epistatic effects to the evolution of flightlessness in insects is discussed...
  76. ncbi request reprint Sequestration of host plant glucosinolates in the defensive hemolymph of the sawfly Athalia rosae
    C Muller
    Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    J Chem Ecol 27:2505-16. 2001
    ..The glucosinolates were likewise found in freshly emerged adults, showing that the sequestered phytochemicals were transferred through the pupal stage...
  77. ncbi request reprint Sexual functionality of Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) after reversing Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis
    B A Pannebakker
    Section of Animal Ecology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Evol Biol 18:1019-28. 2005
    ..Infected females, however, do not fertilize their eggs after mating with males from uninfected populations. The absence of genomic incompatibilities suggests that these effects are due to the difference in mode of reproduction...
  78. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary dynamics of multilocus microsatellite arrangements in the genome of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, with implications for other Lepidoptera
    P M Brakefield
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Heredity 98:320-8. 2007
    ..Further study of these conserved sequences may help to understand the mechanism underlying the multiplication events, and answer the question of why these redundancies are predominantly found in this insect group...
  79. ncbi request reprint Generating phenotypic variation: prospects from "evo-devo" research on Bicyclus anynana wing patterns
    Patricia Beldade
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 2525, USA
    Evol Dev 7:101-7. 2005
    ..Here, we report on recent advances in the genetics of Bicyclus anynana butterflies. This system provides the potential for a fully integrated study of the evolutionary and developmental processes underlying diversity in morphology...
  80. ncbi request reprint Pattern formation: a focus on notch in butterfly eyespots
    Vernon French
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 14:R663-5. 2004
    ..New observations of early and dynamic expression of Notch in developing lepidopteran wings suggests that this signalling pathway may function in defining the central focus that will specify the butterfly eyespot colour pattern...
  81. ncbi request reprint Integration of wings and their eyespots in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria
    Casper J Breuker
    Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, TR10 9EZ, UK
    J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 308:454-63. 2007
    ..This did not affect overall developmental integration of the eyespots. The adaptive significance of integration patterns is discussed and more specifically we stress the need to conduct studies on phenotypic plasticity of integration...
  82. ncbi request reprint Developmental biology: hotspots for evolution
    Michael K Richardson
    Nature 424:894-5. 2003
  83. pmc The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly
    Antonia Monteiro
    Department of Biological Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14228, USA
    BMC Genet 8:22. 2007
    ....
  84. pmc Does predation maintain eyespot plasticity in Bicyclus anynana?
    Anne Lyytinen
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland
    Proc Biol Sci 271:279-83. 2004
    ..Our results show that natural selection acts against eyespots in the dry season, favouring crypsis, whereas in the wet season it may favour eyespots as deflective patterns...
  85. pmc Inbreeding uncovers fundamental differences in the genetic load affecting male and female fertility in a butterfly
    Ilik J Saccheri
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, The Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 272:39-46. 2005
    ..This challenging evolutionary puzzle should stimulate work on the occurrence and causes of sex differences in fertility load...
  86. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary developmental biology: how and why to spot fly wings
    Paul M Brakefield
    Nature 433:466-7. 2005