Rogier W Sanders

Summary

Affiliation: Academic Medical Center
Country: The Netherlands

Publications

  1. pmc Chimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with potent intrinsic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity
    Gözde Isik
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e60126. 2013
  2. pmc HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein signatures that correlate with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing activity
    Tom L G M van den Kerkhof
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 10:102. 2013
  3. pmc HIV takes double hit before entry
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    BMC Biol 10:99. 2013
  4. pmc A stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer fused to CD40 ligand targets and activates dendritic cells
    Mark Melchers
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Retrovirology 8:48. 2011
  5. ncbi request reprint Clinical evaluation of a soluble trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein vaccine
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam The Netherlands
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1117-20. 2011
  6. pmc The carbohydrate at asparagine 386 on HIV-1 gp120 is not essential for protein folding and function but is involved in immune evasion
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Dept, Medical Microbiology, Center of Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 5:10. 2008
  7. pmc Evolution of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with a disulfide bond between gp120 and gp41
    Rogier W Sanders
    Dept of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 1:3. 2004
  8. pmc Evolution rescues folding of human immunodeficiency virus-1 envelope glycoprotein GP120 lacking a conserved disulfide bond
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Biol Cell 19:4707-16. 2008
  9. pmc Detailed mechanistic insights into HIV-1 sensitivity to three generations of fusion inhibitors
    Dirk Eggink
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 284:26941-50. 2009
  10. pmc HIV-1 N-glycan composition governs a balance between dendritic cell-mediated viral transmission and antigen presentation
    Thijs van Montfort
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 187:4676-85. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. pmc Chimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with potent intrinsic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity
    Gözde Isik
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e60126. 2013
    ..Chimeric Env(GM-CSF) should be useful for improving humoral immunity against HIV-1 and these studies should inform the design of other chimeric proteins...
  2. pmc HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein signatures that correlate with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing activity
    Tom L G M van den Kerkhof
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 10:102. 2013
    ..We hypothesized that the Envs of early HIV-1 variants in individuals who develop cross-reactive neutralizing activity (CrNA) might have unique characteristics that support the induction of CrNA...
  3. pmc HIV takes double hit before entry
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    BMC Biol 10:99. 2013
    ..In contrast to traditional drugs that inhibit essential steps in the viral life cycle at the cell surface or in the infected cells, this inhibitor cripples free virus in the absence of cells...
  4. pmc A stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer fused to CD40 ligand targets and activates dendritic cells
    Mark Melchers
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Retrovirology 8:48. 2011
    ..We have previously stabilized soluble trimeric mimics of Env by introducing a disulfide bond between gp120 and gp41 and adding a trimer stabilizing mutation in gp41 (SOSIP.R6 gp140)...
  5. ncbi request reprint Clinical evaluation of a soluble trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein vaccine
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam The Netherlands
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1117-20. 2011
    ..They found that the vaccine was safe and induced neutralizing antibody responses against the homologous virus, but not cross-neutralizing responses. The results reinforce the notion that our Env vaccine design needs to improve...
  6. pmc The carbohydrate at asparagine 386 on HIV-1 gp120 is not essential for protein folding and function but is involved in immune evasion
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Dept, Medical Microbiology, Center of Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 5:10. 2008
    ..Here we studied the role of the carbohydrate at position 386. We identified a virus variant that had lost the 386 glycan in an evolution study of a mutant virus lacking the disulfide bond at the base of the V4 domain...
  7. pmc Evolution of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with a disulfide bond between gp120 and gp41
    Rogier W Sanders
    Dept of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 1:3. 2004
    ..The modified Env protein antigenically mimics the functional wild-type Env complex. Here, we explore the effects of the covalent gp120 - gp41 interaction on virus replication and evolution...
  8. pmc Evolution rescues folding of human immunodeficiency virus-1 envelope glycoprotein GP120 lacking a conserved disulfide bond
    Rogier W Sanders
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Biol Cell 19:4707-16. 2008
    ..Our results show that the interactions between two beta-strands that are important for the formation and/or integrity of the beta-barrel can be supported by either a disulfide bond or beta-sheet favoring residues...
  9. pmc Detailed mechanistic insights into HIV-1 sensitivity to three generations of fusion inhibitors
    Dirk Eggink
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 284:26941-50. 2009
    ..Implications for the design of novel antiviral peptide inhibitors are discussed...
  10. pmc HIV-1 N-glycan composition governs a balance between dendritic cell-mediated viral transmission and antigen presentation
    Thijs van Montfort
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 187:4676-85. 2011
    ..This finding may have implications for the early events in HIV-1 transmission and the induction of antiviral immune responses...
  11. pmc Lactoferrin prevents dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission by blocking the DC-SIGN--gp120 interaction
    Fedde Groot
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 79:3009-15. 2005
    ..DC-mediated capture of a bLF-resistant HIV-1 variant that was selected during long-term culturing in T cells could still be blocked by bLF. This underscores the usefulness of bLF as a microbicide drug to prevent HIV-1 transmission...
  12. pmc Stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers lacking the V1V2 domain, obtained by virus evolution
    Ilja Bontjer
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 285:36456-70. 2010
    ..These evolved ΔV1V2 trimers could be useful reagents for immunogenicity and structural studies...
  13. pmc An HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer with an embedded IL-21 domain activates human B cells
    Gözde Isik
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e67309. 2013
    ..These studies should guide the further design of chimeric proteins and Env(IL-21) may prove useful in improving antibody responses against HIV-1...
  14. pmc Optimization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins with V1/V2 deleted, using virus evolution
    Ilja Bontjer
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15 K3 105, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 83:368-83. 2009
    ..In general, virus evolution may provide a powerful tool to optimize Env vaccine antigens...
  15. pmc Selection of T1249-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants
    Dirk Eggink
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, P O Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 82:6678-88. 2008
    ..Furthermore, substitutions at position 38 do not provide resistance to the third-generation inhibitor T2635, while substitution at positions 79 and 90 do, suggesting different resistance mechanisms...
  16. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary repair of HIV type 1 gp41 with a kink in the N-terminal helix leads to restoration of the six-helix bundle structure
    Rogier W Sanders
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:742-9. 2004
    ..In the escape virus, which contains a Pro559Leu first-site pseudoreversion, the local helical structure and, as a consequence, Env biosynthesis and function are restored...
  17. doi request reprint Mucin 6 in seminal plasma binds DC-SIGN and potently blocks dendritic cell mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T-lymphocytes
    Martijn J Stax
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Virology 391:203-11. 2009
    ..Additionally, we demonstrate that purified mucin 6 binds DC-SIGN and successfully inhibits viral transfer. Mucin 6 in seminal plasma may therefore interfere with the sexual transmission of HIV-1 and other DC-SIGN co-opting viruses...
  18. pmc Dendritic cell-induced activation of latent HIV-1 provirus in actively proliferating primary T lymphocytes
    Renee M van der Sluis
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003259. 2013
    ..Unraveling this physiologically relevant purging mechanism could provide useful information for the development of new therapeutic strategies that aim at the eradication of HIV-1 reservoirs...
  19. pmc Lack of complex N-glycans on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins preserves protein conformation and entry function
    Dirk Eggink
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Virology 401:236-47. 2010
    ..Manipulating Env's N-glycosylation may be useful for structural and functional studies and for vaccine design...
  20. pmc Resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to a third-generation fusion inhibitor requires multiple mutations in gp41 and is accompanied by a dramatic loss of gp41 function
    Dirk Eggink
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 85:10785-97. 2011
    ..It requires the accumulation of multiple mutations in gp41, is accompanied with a dramatic loss of gp41 function, and induces compensatory mutations in gp120...
  21. pmc Autoantibodies induced by chimeric cytokine-HIV envelope glycoprotein immunogens
    Gözde Isik
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 192:4628-35. 2014
    ..The induction of undesired autoimmune responses should be considered when using cytokines as costimulatory molecules in fusion proteins. ..
  22. pmc A chimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer with an embedded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) domain induces enhanced antibody and T cell responses
    Thijs van Montfort
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 286:22250-61. 2011
    ..Collectively, these results show that targeting and activation of immune cells using engineered cytokine domains within the protein can improve the immunogenicity of Env subunit vaccines...
  23. ncbi request reprint Antibodies to HIV-1: aiming at the right target
    Dirk Eggink
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trends Microbiol 15:291-4. 2007
    ..We discuss these observations and explain their relevance for HIV-1 vaccine design...
  24. pmc Targeting HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers to B cells by using APRIL improves antibody responses
    Mark Melchers
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 86:2488-500. 2012
    ..Targeting and activating B cells with a trimeric HIV-1 Env-APRIL fusion protein may therefore improve the induction of humoral immunity against HIV-1...
  25. pmc Histatin 5-derived peptide with improved fungicidal properties enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by promoting viral entry
    Fedde Groot
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 15, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 80:9236-43. 2006
    ..This study shows that modification of antimicrobial peptides in order to improve their activity against a pathogen may have unpredictable and unwanted side effects on other pathogens...
  26. doi request reprint Quantitation of HIV-1 DNA with a sensitive TaqMan assay that has broad subtype specificity
    Renee M van der Sluis
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol Methods 187:94-102. 2013
    ..Execution of the pre-amplification step with a second primer set enables for the exclusive quantitation of the 2-LTR circular HIV-1 DNA form...
  27. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of HIV-1 by fusion inhibitors
    Dirk Eggink
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Curr Pharm Des 16:3716-28. 2010
    ..Here we discuss the development of fusion inhibitors, their mode of action and their potential for incorporation in future drug regimens...
  28. ncbi request reprint Early development of broadly reactive HIV-1 neutralizing activity in elite neutralizers
    Tom L G M van den Kerkhof
    aDepartment of Experimental Immunology and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam bCrucell Holland BV, Leiden cDepartment of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands dDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York eRagon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA
    AIDS 28:1237-40. 2014
    ..These results indicate that brNA does not necessarily require multiple years to develop and they should encourage the search for vaccines that can elicit protective humoral immunity. ..
  29. pmc HIV-1 autologous antibody neutralization associates with mother to child transmission
    Elly Baan
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e69274. 2013
    ..Although the number of HIV-1 transmitting pairs is low our results indicate that autologous NAb responses in mothers and infants do not protect against MTCT and may in fact be detrimental when considering IU HIV-1 transmissions. ..
  30. doi request reprint Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1: templates for a vaccine
    Marit J van Gils
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Virology 435:46-56. 2013
    ..Here we will review the characteristics of the different classes of BrNAbs and their target epitopes, as well as factors associated with their development and implications for vaccine design...
  31. pmc Emergence of a drug-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant during therapy with the T20 fusion inhibitor
    Chris E Baldwin
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P O Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 78:12428-37. 2004
    ..A premature switch will generate nonfunctional envelope glycoproteins (dead spikes) on the surface of the virion, and T20 prevents this abortive event by acting as a safety pin that preserves an earlier prefusion conformation...
  32. pmc Stabilization of the soluble, cleaved, trimeric form of the envelope glycoprotein complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Rogier W Sanders
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:8875-89. 2002
    ..SOSIP gp140 should be a useful reagent for structural and immunogenicity studies...
  33. pmc Differential transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by distinct subsets of effector dendritic cells
    Rogier W Sanders
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 76:7812-21. 2002
    ..The ICAM-1-LFA-1 interaction is known to be important for immunological cross talk between DC and T cells, and our results indicate that this cell-cell contact is exploited by HIV-1 for efficient transmission...
  34. doi request reprint Selective packaging of cellular miRNAs in HIV-1 particles
    Nick C T Schopman
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Virus Res 169:438-47. 2012
    ..A small subset of the cellular miRNAs is dramatically concentrated in the virions up to 115 fold, suggesting a biological function in HIV-1 replication...
  35. doi request reprint Is there a future for antiviral fusion inhibitors?
    Ben Berkhout
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Virol 2:50-9. 2012
    ..Here, we will review the field of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors...
  36. pmc Enhancing the proteolytic maturation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins
    James M Binley
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:2606-16. 2002
    ..Coexpression of Env cleavage site mutants and furin is therefore a useful method for obtaining high-level expression of processed Env...
  37. doi request reprint Optimizing cellular immunity against HIV-1 Gag and preventing suppression by HIV-1 gp120
    Thijs van Montfort
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Expert Rev Vaccines 11:1175-7. 2012
    ..These results demonstrate that optimal induction of antiviral CD8(+) responses requires careful optimization of vaccine design, composition and administration...
  38. doi request reprint Molecular strategies to design an escape-proof antiviral therapy
    Ben Berkhout
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Antiviral Res 92:7-14. 2011
    ..Several options for a combinatorial RNAi attack to prevent viral escape will be discussed. The simultaneous use of multiple RNAi inhibitors turns out to be the most effective and durable strategy...
  39. pmc Evaluating the immunogenicity of a disulfide-stabilized, cleaved, trimeric form of the envelope glycoprotein complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Simon Beddows
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Ave, Room W 805, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 79:8812-27. 2005
    ..Neutralization of these viruses was immunoglobulin mediated and was predominantly caused by antibodies to gp120 epitopes, but not the V3 region...
  40. pmc IgG subclass profiles in infected HIV type 1 controllers and chronic progressors and in uninfected recipients of Env vaccines
    Kaustuv Banerjee
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:445-58. 2010
    ..Although we found isotypic differences in IgG responses to HIV-1 antigens among vaccinees and the HC and CP individuals, there were no indications of differential T(H)1:T(H)2 polarization between the different groups...
  41. pmc Two HIV-1 variants resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors differ in how they use CCR5 for entry
    Reem Berro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000548. 2009
    ..However, D1/86.16 cl.23 does not have an increased dependency on the CCR5 N-terminus, and its CCR5 binding site has not become more exposed. How this virus interacts with the inhibitor-CCR5 complex remains to be understood...
  42. doi request reprint Gene therapy as a vaccine for HIV-1
    Ben Berkhout
    University of Amsterdam, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Meibergdreef 15, K3 110, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 12:1315-21. 2012
    ..HIV-1 vaccine research has encountered several false starts and a few causes for hope over the last 28 years, but no real success stories. Thus, it is time to think out of the box and design and test unorthodox vaccination strategies...
  43. pmc The mannose-dependent epitope for neutralizing antibody 2G12 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120
    Rogier W Sanders
    Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:7293-305. 2002
    ....
  44. pmc Enzymatic removal of mannose moieties can increase the immune response to HIV-1 gp120 in vivo
    Kaustuv Banerjee
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Virology 389:108-21. 2009
    ..Giving an IL-10 receptor blocking MAb together with unmodified gp120 in Alum increased the anti-gp120 IgG titer, implicating IL-10 as a possible mediator of auto-suppressive responses to gp120...
  45. pmc HIV-1 gp120 mannoses induce immunosuppressive responses from dendritic cells
    Meimei Shan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e169. 2007
    ..Since such mechanisms might suppress immune responses to Env-containing vaccines, demannosylation may be a way to improve the immunogenicity of gp120 or gp140 proteins...
  46. pmc HIV-1 evades virus-specific IgG2 and IgA responses by targeting systemic and intestinal B cells via long-range intercellular conduits
    Weifeng Xu
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Immunol 10:1008-17. 2009
    ....