Paul N Newton

Summary

Affiliation: Mahidol University
Country: Thailand

Publications

  1. pmc A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia
    Paul N Newton
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e32. 2008
  2. pmc Evaluation of a rapid colorimetric field test to assess the effective life of long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets in the Lao PDR
    Michael D Green
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Malar J 12:57. 2013
  3. pmc Actinomycetoma in SE Asia: the first case from Laos and a review of the literature
    Sayaphet Rattanavong
    Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    BMC Infect Dis 12:349. 2012
  4. pmc Prognostic indicators in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in Western Thailand
    Paul N Newton
    Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Malar J 12:229. 2013
  5. pmc The relationship between the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit in Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Sue J Lee
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit MORU, Mahidol University, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, 3rd Floor, 60th Anniversary Chalermprakiat Building, 420 6 Ratchawithi Rd, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Malar J 7:149. 2008
  6. pmc Chromoblastomycosis after a leech bite complicated by myiasis: a case report
    Gunther Slesak
    SFE Medical Project, Luang Namtha, Lao PDR
    BMC Infect Dis 11:14. 2011
  7. pmc Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with an altered temporal pattern of transcription
    Sachel Mok
    School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
    BMC Genomics 12:391. 2011
  8. pmc Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum septicaemia in northern Laos, a modified oxidase test and post-mortem forensic family G6PD analysis
    Gunther Slesak
    SFE Medical Project, Luang Namtha, Lao People s Democratic Republic
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 8:24. 2009
  9. ncbi request reprint Early treatment failure in severe malaria resulting from abnormally low plasma quinine concentrations
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:184-6. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Sennetsu neorickettsiosis: a probable fish-borne cause of fever rediscovered in Laos
    Paul N Newton
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:190-4. 2009

Detail Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia
    Paul N Newton
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e32. 2008
    ....
  2. pmc Evaluation of a rapid colorimetric field test to assess the effective life of long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets in the Lao PDR
    Michael D Green
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Malar J 12:57. 2013
    ....
  3. pmc Actinomycetoma in SE Asia: the first case from Laos and a review of the literature
    Sayaphet Rattanavong
    Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    BMC Infect Dis 12:349. 2012
    ..Although well recognized elsewhere in Asia, it has not been reported from the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos)...
  4. pmc Prognostic indicators in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in Western Thailand
    Paul N Newton
    Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Malar J 12:229. 2013
    ..Severe malaria remains a major cause of death and morbidity amongst adults in the Asiatic tropics...
  5. pmc The relationship between the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit in Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Sue J Lee
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit MORU, Mahidol University, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, 3rd Floor, 60th Anniversary Chalermprakiat Building, 420 6 Ratchawithi Rd, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Malar J 7:149. 2008
    ..Anaemia is assessed either by measurement of the haematocrit or the haemoglobin concentration. For comparisons across studies, it is often necessary to derive one measure from the other...
  6. pmc Chromoblastomycosis after a leech bite complicated by myiasis: a case report
    Gunther Slesak
    SFE Medical Project, Luang Namtha, Lao PDR
    BMC Infect Dis 11:14. 2011
    ..Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic mycotic infection, most common in the tropics and subtropics, following traumatic fungal implantation...
  7. pmc Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with an altered temporal pattern of transcription
    Sachel Mok
    School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
    BMC Genomics 12:391. 2011
    ..To identify key features associated with the delayed parasite clearance phenotype, we employed DNA microarrays to profile the physiological gene expression pattern of the resistant isolates...
  8. pmc Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum septicaemia in northern Laos, a modified oxidase test and post-mortem forensic family G6PD analysis
    Gunther Slesak
    SFE Medical Project, Luang Namtha, Lao People s Democratic Republic
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 8:24. 2009
    ..It is rarely described as a human pathogen, mostly from tropical and subtropical areas...
  9. ncbi request reprint Early treatment failure in severe malaria resulting from abnormally low plasma quinine concentrations
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:184-6. 2006
    ..Plasma quinine concentrations were subtherapeutic. Abnormal quinine pharmacokinetics may explain sporadic reports of quinine treatment failures in severe malaria...
  10. ncbi request reprint Sennetsu neorickettsiosis: a probable fish-borne cause of fever rediscovered in Laos
    Paul N Newton
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:190-4. 2009
    ..sennetsu DNA by PCR, for the first time, in a fish (Anabas testudineus). These data suggest that sennetsu may be an under-recognized cause of fever and are consistent with the hypothesis that it may be contracted from eating raw fish...
  11. ncbi request reprint Counterfeit anti-infective drugs
    Paul N Newton
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:602-13. 2006
    ....
  12. pmc Manslaughter by fake artesunate in Asia--will Africa be next?
    Paul N Newton
    Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 3:e197. 2006
  13. pmc Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority
    Paul N Newton
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Malar J 10:352. 2011
    ..A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT) at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa...
  14. pmc Impact of poor-quality medicines in the 'developing' world
    Paul N Newton
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 31:99-101. 2010
    ..Poor-quality drugs are a vital (but neglected) public health problem. They contribute to a 'crevasse' between the enormous effort in therapeutic research and policy decisions and implementation of good-quality medicines...
  15. ncbi request reprint Thiamin deficiency and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Laos
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trop Med Int Health 12:363-9. 2007
    ..We therefore estimated the frequency of biochemical thiamin deficiency in patients presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in southern Laos...
  16. ncbi request reprint In vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility and pfcrt mutation among fresh Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Lao PDR (Laos)
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:245-50. 2007
    ..P. falciparum in Laos is multi-drug resistant; antimalarial immunity resulting from the use of ineffective chloroquine before 2005 probably contributes significantly to the therapeutic responses in clinical trials...
  17. ncbi request reprint Randomized comparison of artesunate and quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 37:7-16. 2003
    ..03). Artesunate is at least as effective as quinine in the treatment of adults with severe malaria. Larger trials are required to determine whether mortality is reduced among patients treated with artesunate...
  18. ncbi request reprint Combined molecular and clinical assessment of Plasmodium falciparum antimalarial drug resistance in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos)
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People Democratic Republic
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:36-43. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are no longer viable therapy in this country...
  19. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the Panbio dengue virus nonstructural 1 antigen detection and immunoglobulin M antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the diagnosis of acute dengue infections in Laos
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 60:43-9. 2008
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis and management of malaria by rural community health providers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos)
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trop Med Int Health 12:540-6. 2007
    ..This study strongly suggests that further training of Lao rural health providers in malaria diagnosis and management is needed to improve the quality of health services in areas remote from district hospitals...
  21. ncbi request reprint The pharmacokinetics of intravenous artesunate in adults with severe falciparum malaria
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Rd, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62:1003-9. 2006
    ..The choice of doses used has been empirical. To inform dosage recommendations we assessed the pharmacokinetics of intravenous artesunate after the first dose...
  22. ncbi request reprint Prospective evaluation of a rapid immunochromogenic cassette test for the diagnosis of melioidosis in northeast Thailand
    Allen C Cheng
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:64-7. 2006
    ..Low sensitivity and specificity of clinical rules is consistent with the protean manifestations of melioidosis and clinical difficulty in identifying patients with melioidosis...
  23. pmc The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos
    Bounkong Syhavong
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104:475-83. 2010
    ..These patients would be expected to respond to empirical doxycycline therapy which, in the absence of virological diagnosis and treatment, may be an appropriate cost-effective intervention in Lao patients with jaundice/hepatitis...
  24. pmc Artemether bioavailability after oral or intramuscular administration in uncomplicated falciparum malaria
    Kamolrat Silamut
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3795-8. 2003
    ..5 to 3.0 h) than after intramuscular administration (median, 8 h; range, 4 to 24 h) (P=0.001). Intramuscular artemether is absorbed very slowly in patients with acute malaria...
  25. pmc Pharmacokinetics of oral doxycycline during combination treatment of severe falciparum malaria
    Paul N Newton
    Mae Sot, Tak and Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Rd, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1622-5. 2005
    ..The data suggest that the doses of doxycycline currently recommended (circa 3.5 mg/kg of body weight daily) may not be optimal...
  26. pmc No evidence for spread of Plasmodium falciparum artemisinin resistance to Savannakhet Province, Southern Laos
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:403-8. 2012
    ..Serious adverse events did not develop during or after treatment in any patients. In conclusion, no evidence of P. falciparum in vivo resistance to artesunate was found in southern Laos...
  27. pmc Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the nationally-recommended artemisinin combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, in southern Laos
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Malar J 11:184. 2012
    ..With evidence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in adjacent Cambodia, there has been a concern as to AL efficacy. Monitoring of AL efficacy would help the Lao Government to make decisions on appropriate malaria treatment...
  28. pmc Evaluation of the Standard Diagnostics Leptospira IgM ELISA for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in Lao PDR
    Ampai Tanganuchitcharnchai
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit MORU, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106:563-6. 2012
    ..However, re-evaluation of the diagnostic cut-off to an OD of 1.7 demonstrated improved diagnostic accuracy overall (sensitivity 70%; specificity 78%)...
  29. pmc Accuracy of rapid IgM-based immunochromatographic and immunoblot assays for diagnosis of acute scrub typhus and murine typhus infections in Laos
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:365-9. 2010
    ..6% (95% CI = 49.1-60.0%) and 94.1% (95% CI = 92.0-95.7%), respectively. Both assays had relatively good specificity but low sensitivity and thus have limited utility for admission diagnosis...
  30. ncbi request reprint Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus using venous blood and finger prick filter paper blood spots
    Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People s Democratic Republic
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:837-40. 2009
    ..Because filter paper blood samples do not require sophisticated and expensive storage and transport, they may be an appropriate specimen collection technique for the diagnosis of rickettsial disease in the rural tropics...
  31. pmc Accuracy of AccessBio Immunoglobulin M and Total Antibody Rapid Immunochromatographic Assays for the Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus Infection
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Mahidol University Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit MORU, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Rd, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:263-6. 2010
    ..7 to 97.3%), respectively. For the detection of total antibodies, the sensitivity was 97.6% (122/125 samples; 95% CI, 93.1 to 99.5%), but the specificity was much lower, at 71.4% (75/105 samples; 95% CI, 61.8 to 79.8%)...
  32. pmc Clinically unapparent infantile thiamin deficiency in Vientiane, Laos
    Sengmanivong Khounnorath
    Department of Pediatrics, Mahosot Hospital, and Faculty of Postgraduate Studies, University of Health Sciences, Vientiane, Lao People s Democratic Republic
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e969. 2011
    ..Beriberi occurs in Vientiane, Lao PDR, among breastfed infants. Clinical disease may be the tip of an iceberg with subclinical thiamin deficiency contributing to other illnesses. Thiamin treatment could improve outcome...
  33. pmc Orientia tsutsugamushi in human scrub typhus eschars shows tropism for dendritic cells and monocytes rather than endothelium
    Daniel H Paris
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Programme, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1466. 2012
    ..tsutsugamushi from the initial eschar site. This newly described cellular tropism for O. tsutsugamushi may influence its interaction with local host immune responses...
  34. pmc A phase III, randomized, non-inferiority trial to assess the efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in comparison with artesunate-mefloquine in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southern Laos
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust, Mahosot Hospital, Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:1221-9. 2010
    ..falciparum malaria in Laos and is associated with fewer adverse effects. The results of this study were similar to those of the larger multicentre study...
  35. pmc A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR - implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance
    Sivong Sengaloundeth
    Food and Drug Department, Ministry of Health, Government of the Lao PDR, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Malar J 8:172. 2009
    ..A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos)...
  36. pmc Prospective study to determine accuracy of rapid serological assays for diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection in Laos
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:1458-64. 2007
    ..The findings of this study suggest that currently available RDTs based on the detection of IgM antibodies for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infections are unlikely to be useful for patient management...
  37. pmc Inter- and intra-operator variability in the reading of indirect immunofluorescence assays for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus
    Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh
    Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People s Democratic Republic
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:932-6. 2013
    ....
  38. pmc A prospective assessment of the accuracy of commercial IgM ELISAs in diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in patients with suspected central nervous system infections in Laos
    Catrin E Moore
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:171-8. 2012
    ..2% (95% CI = 87-100) with Panbio Ravi criteria. Specificities were 89-100%. For admission sera from AES patients, sensitivities and specificities of the Panbio ELISA were 85.7% (95% CI = 42-100%) and 92.9% (95% CI = 83-98%), respectively...
  39. pmc Rickettsial infections and fever, Vientiane, Laos
    Simaly Phongmany
    Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:256-62. 2006
    ..46%, p<0.001). Rickettsioses are an underrecognized cause of undifferentiated febrile illnesses among adults in Laos. This finding has implications for the local empiric treatment of fever...
  40. ncbi request reprint Short report: disease severity and outcome of melioidosis in HIV coinfected individuals
    Wirongrong Chierakul
    Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:1165-6. 2005
    ..Coinfection was detected in only 8 of 524 (1.5%) adults with melioidosis in northeast Thailand. Clinical presentation and acute outcome were similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients...
  41. pmc Comparison of Ashdown's medium, Burkholderia cepacia medium, and Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar for clinical isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Sharon J Peacock
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5359-61. 2005
    ..pseudomallei from 155 clinical specimens that proved positive for this organism. The sensitivity of each was equivalent; the selectivity of BPSA was lower than that of Ashdown's or B. cepacia medium...
  42. ncbi request reprint Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance in clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Vanaporn Wuthiekanun
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:1029-31. 2005
    ..Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method is commonly used in melioidosis-endemic areas, but may overestimate resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole...
  43. pmc Estimation of the total parasite biomass in acute falciparum malaria from plasma PfHRP2
    Arjen M Dondorp
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS Med 2:e204. 2005
    ..P. falciparum releases a specific histidine-rich protein (PfHRP2) into plasma. Quantitative measurement of plasma PfHRP2 concentrations may reflect the total parasite biomass in falciparum malaria...
  44. ncbi request reprint Impaired clinical response in a patient with uncomplicated falciparum malaria who received poor-quality and underdosed intramuscular artemether
    Valy Keoluangkhot
    Adult Infectious Disease Ward, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:552-5. 2008
    ..Analysis of the packaging and chemical "fingerprinting" of the artemether suggested that the drug was genuine but was either substandard or had deteriorated after manufacture...
  45. ncbi request reprint In vitro efficacy of antimalarial drugs against Plasmodium vivax on the western border of Thailand
    Kesinee Chotivanich
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, and Department of Pathobiology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:395-7. 2004
    ..5 ng/mL. Compared with P. falciparum in this area, P. vivax was more sensitive to chloroquine and artesunate, equally sensitive to quinine, and more resistant to mefloquine...
  46. ncbi request reprint Characterization of "Yaa Chud" Medicine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: selecting for drug-resistant malaria and threatening public health
    Paul N Newton
    Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:662-9. 2008
    ..Inappropriate, ineffective antimalarial drugs on the Thailand-Myanmar border are likely to increase malaria morbidity, mortality and health costs and engender the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance...
  47. pmc Accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of human leptospirosis in Thailand
    Piengchan Sonthayanon
    Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, 420 6 Rajvithi Road, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:614-20. 2011
    ..84.6, 95% CI = 69.5-94.1). The rrs LAMP can provide an admission diagnosis in approximately half of patients with leptospirosis, but its clinical utility is reduced by a lower specificity...
  48. pmc Repeat blood culture positive for B. pseudomallei indicates an increased risk of death from melioidosis
    Direk Limmathurotsakul
    Department of Tropical Hygiene, Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithee Road, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:858-61. 2011
    ..However, repeat cultures of respiratory secretions, urine, throat swabs, or pus/surface swabs provide no prognostic information. This finding highlights the need for follow-up blood cultures in patients with melioidosis...
  49. ncbi request reprint Two randomized controlled trials of ceftazidime alone versus ceftazidime in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of severe melioidosis
    Wirongrong Chierakul
    Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1105-13. 2005
    ..It is not known whether TMP-SMX provides an additional benefit...
  50. doi request reprint In vivo parasitological measures of artemisinin susceptibility
    Kasia Stepniewska
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Infect Dis 201:570-9. 2010
    ....
  51. pmc Burkholderia pseudomallei detection in surface water in southern Laos using Moore's swabs
    Khamsing Vongphayloth
    Institut de la Francophonie pour la Médecine Tropicale, BP 9519, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:872-7. 2012
    ..pseudomallei. Most positive water samples were from the Sedone River, downstream of the East Saravane site. Moore's swabs are simple and inexpensive tools for detecting B. pseudomallei in surface waters...
  52. pmc Predictive diagnostic value of the tourniquet test for the diagnosis of dengue infection in adults
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trop Med Int Health 16:127-33. 2011
    ..To examine the accuracy of the admission tourniquet test in the diagnosis of dengue infection among Lao adults...
  53. pmc Fatal bacteremia due to immotile Vibrio cholerae serogroup O21 in Vientiane, Laos - a case report
    Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PD
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 7:10. 2008
    ..cholerae have been described from Laos. Elsewhere, non cholera-toxin producing, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from blood cultures and ascitic fluid, although they are exceedingly rare isolates...
  54. ncbi request reprint The comparative accuracy of 8 commercial rapid immunochromatographic assays for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1127-34. 2006
    ..Immunochromatographic tests are rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that can be performed at the bedside, but they have not been fully validated for diagnosis of dengue infection...
  55. doi request reprint Simple, rapid and sensitive detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi by loop-isothermal DNA amplification
    Daniel H Paris
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Programme, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithee Road, 10400 Bangkok, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1239-46. 2008
    ..This inexpensive method requires no sophisticated equipment or sample preparation, and may prove useful as a diagnostic assay in financially poor settings; however, it requires further prospective validation in the field setting...
  56. pmc Burkholderia pseudomallei is spatially distributed in soil in northeast Thailand
    Direk Limmathurotsakul
    Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e694. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial distribution of B. pseudomallei in soil and consider the implications of this for soil sampling strategies...
  57. pmc Antimicrobial resistance to ceftazidime involving loss of penicillin-binding protein 3 in Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Narisara Chantratita
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17165-70. 2011
    ..The mechanism described here represents an explanation for ceftazidime treatment failure, and may be a frequent but undetected resistance event...
  58. pmc Survey of antimicrobial resistance in clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates over two decades in Northeast Thailand
    Vanaporn Wuthiekanun
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:5388-91. 2011
    ..Resistance to carbapenem drugs was not detected. These findings support the current prescribing recommendations for melioidosis...
  59. ncbi request reprint Randomized comparison of chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus artesunate plus mefloquine versus artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Lao People's Democratic Republic
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital, Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1139-47. 2004
    ....
  60. pmc Causes of community-acquired bacteremia and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Vientiane, Laos
    Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:978-85. 2006
    ..4/day, an important exception being B. pseudomallei. Bacteremic infants in this setting require an anti-staphylococcal antibiotic...
  61. pmc Comparison of performance of serum and plasma in panbio dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:573-5. 2012
    ..5% (3 of 201 for Dengue/JEV IgM and Dengue IgG) and 2.0% (4 of 201; IgM and NS1) showed discordant pairs. These results demonstrate that plasma containing EDTA is suitable for use in these ELISAs...
  62. ncbi request reprint Malaria and amphetamine 'horse tablets' in Thailand
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Trop Med Int Health 8:17-8. 2003
    ..This comorbidity may cause diagnostic confusion, alter malaria pathophysiology and lead to drug interactions...
  63. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in pigs: implications for human infections in village-based subsistence pig farming in the Lao PDR
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:305-7. 2007
    ..3% (46/301) amongst village pigs. The age distribution suggested previous in-village HEV pig infections. These findings suggest a zoonotic risk associated with village-based smallholder pig farming...
  64. pmc Enhanced determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes associated with invasive disease in Laos by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction serotyping assay with cerebrospinal fluid
    Catrin E Moore
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:451-7. 2010
    ..Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos. Further studies are urgently needed to guide pneumococcal vaccine policy in Laos...
  65. pmc Diagnosis of scrub typhus
    Gavin C K W Koh
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:368-70. 2010
    ..We discuss the limitations of IFA, debate the value of other methods based on antigen detection and nucleic acid amplification, and outline recommendations for future study...
  66. ncbi request reprint Mixed-species malaria infections in humans
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Trends Parasitol 20:233-40. 2004
  67. ncbi request reprint Real-time multiplex PCR assay for detection and differentiation of rickettsiae and orientiae
    Daniel H Paris
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Programme, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:186-93. 2008
    ..However, further optimisation and validation on samples taken directly from patients to assess its clinical diagnostic utility is required...
  68. pmc Erythrocyte transketolase activity, markers of cardiac dysfunction and the diagnosis of infantile beriberi
    Douangdao Soukaloun
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao People s Democratic Republic
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e971. 2011
    ..There are few data on biochemical markers of infantile thiamin deficiency or indices of cardiac dysfunction as potential surrogate markers...
  69. pmc Rapid immunofluorescence microscopy for diagnosis of melioidosis
    Vanaporn Wuthiekanun
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Wellcome Trust Oxford University Mahidol University Tropical Medicine Research Program, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:555-6. 2005
    ..The sensitivities of both IF tests were 66%, and the specificities were 99.5 and 99.4%, respectively...
  70. pmc Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in children in Cambodia
    Emma K Nickerson
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:313-7. 2011
    ..The study findings have important implications for healthcare in a setting where diagnostic microbiology and access to antimicrobial drugs with efficacy against MRSA are limited...
  71. pmc Diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA and lipL32 genes for human leptospirosis in Thailand: a case-control study
    Janjira Thaipadungpanit
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS ONE 6:e16236. 2011
    ..Here, we compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of two real-time PCR assays targeting rrs or lipL32 for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in northeast Thailand...
  72. pmc Comparison of oral artesunate and dihydroartemisinin antimalarial bioavailabilities in acute falciparum malaria
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1125-7. 2002
    ..The mean antimalarial activity in terms of the bioavailability of DHA relative to that of artesunate did not differ significantly from 1, suggesting that DHA can be formulated to be an acceptable oral alternative to artesunate...
  73. pmc Defining disease heterogeneity to guide the empirical treatment of febrile illness in resource poor settings
    Lisa J White
    Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e44545. 2012
    ..e. be spatially heterogeneous) and that national empirical treatment policies based on the aetiology measured in a single location could lead to inappropriate treatment...
  74. pmc Urine antibiotic activity in patients presenting to hospitals in Laos: implications for worsening antibiotic resistance
    Manisone Khennavong
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:295-302. 2011
    ..0% versus 46.5%; P < 0.001). Antibiotic use based on patients histories was significantly less frequent than when estimated from urinary antibiotic activity (P < 0.0001)...
  75. ncbi request reprint Public health impact of establishing the cause of bacterial infections in rural Asia
    Sharon J Peacock
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:5-6. 2008
    ..These factors have major implications for empirical therapy of fever. Initiatives are urgently needed to strengthen the infrastructure of microbiology in rural Asia...
  76. pmc Factors associated with a measles outbreak in children admitted at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Mayfong Mayxay
    Division of Post Graduate studies and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Laos, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    BMC Public Health 7:193. 2007
    ..We therefore conducted a study to determine risk factors associated with measles amongst children admitted at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane...
  77. pmc Accuracy of Burkholderia pseudomallei identification using the API 20NE system and a latex agglutination test
    Premjit Amornchai
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 45:3774-6. 2007
    ..mallei and 98 B. thailandensis isolates were not correctly identified. A latex agglutination test was positive for 796/800 (99.5%) B. pseudomallei isolates and negative for 120 other oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli...
  78. ncbi request reprint Toad poisoning in Laos
    Sommay Keomany
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:850-3. 2007
    ..These data indicate that toad poisoning may be underestimated and that education on the seriousness of toad toxins could be a useful public health measure...
  79. ncbi request reprint Contrasting genetic structure in Plasmodium vivax populations from Asia and South America
    Mallika Imwong
    Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Int J Parasitol 37:1013-22. 2007
    ..falciparum, and have important implications for the design of association mapping studies, and interpretation of P. vivax epidemiology...
  80. pmc N-acetylcysteine as adjunctive treatment in severe malaria: a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial
    Prakaykaew Charunwatthana
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Crit Care Med 37:516-22. 2009
    ..It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment. We studied the efficacy and safety of parenteral NAC as an adjunct to artesunate treatment of severe falciparum malaria...
  81. pmc Genetic diversity and microevolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment
    Narisara Chantratita
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e182. 2008
    ..The soil dwelling Gram-negative pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis. The diversity and population structure of this organism in the environment is poorly defined...
  82. pmc Randomized soil survey of the distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in rice fields in Laos
    Sayaphet Rattanavong
    Institut de la Francophonie pour la Médecine Tropicale, BP 9519, Vientiane, Lao People s Democratic Republic
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:532-6. 2011
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate potential climatic, soil, and biological determinants of this heterogeneity...
  83. ncbi request reprint A systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of rapid immunochromatographic assays for the detection of dengue virus IgM antibodies during acute infection
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:775-84. 2006
    ..It is recommended that additional, standardized evaluations are required for other dengue ICTs...
  84. pmc Limited diagnostic capacities of two commercial assays for the detection of Leptospira immunoglobulin M antibodies in Laos
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR, and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, UK
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:1166-9. 2006
    ..3% and specificity of 75.5%: ELISA sensitivity of 60.9% and specificity of 65.6%) compared to the Leptospira "gold standard" microscopic agglutination test...
  85. ncbi request reprint A randomized comparison of oral chloramphenicol versus ofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in Laos
    Simmaly Phongmany
    Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99:451-8. 2005
    ..Three days ofloxacin was more effective than 14 days chloramphenicol for the in-patient treatment of typhoid fever, irrespective of antibiotic susceptibility, and was of similar cost...
  86. pmc Factors predicting and reducing mortality in patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus disease in a developing country
    Emma K Nickerson
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS ONE 4:e6512. 2009
    ..The factors determining mortality in developing countries have not been identified...
  87. ncbi request reprint A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acetazolamide for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 35:769-72. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Retinal haemorrhage in P falciparum malaria
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Lancet 360:515. 2002
  89. ncbi request reprint Diabetes mellitus, insulin, and melioidosis in Thailand
    Andrew J H Simpson
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 36:e71-2. 2003
    ..This provides evidence against the hypothesis that insulin deficiency contributes to the known susceptibility to melioidosis in patients with diabetes mellitus...
  90. ncbi request reprint A simple and inexpensive container for the transport of biological specimens in limited resource situations
    Stuart D Blacksell
    Wellcome Trust Mahosot Hospital Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration, Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:1084-6. 2006
    ..We have found the PVC transporter to be a useful and cost-efficient durable alternative that meets IATA Packing Instruction 650 biological transport container requirements...
  91. pmc Evaluation of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG rapid cassette test kits for diagnosis of melioidosis in an area of endemicity
    Vanaporn Wuthiekanun
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Rd, Bangkok, 10400 Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3435-7. 2004
    ..This kit represents an improvement over IHA for the diagnosis of melioidosis an area of endemicity although, as with other serological tests, it has reduced diagnostic utility in a population with high background seropositivity...
  92. ncbi request reprint A trichinellosis outbreak in Borikhamxay Province, Lao PDR
    Somphou Sayasone
    Institut de la Francophonie pour la Médecine Tropicale, Vientiane, Lao PDR
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:1126-9. 2006
    ..Among the 22 patients, 86% had consumed pork meat from the same source. This is the first report of an outbreak investigation in Lao PDR since 1975. It shows that the incidence of trichinellosis is much higher than currently thought...
  93. pmc Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in East Asia
    Oliver G Pybus
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:1071-82. 2009
    ..Our analysis explains the generation and maintenance of HCV diversity in Asia and could provide a template for further investigations of HCV spread in other regions...
  94. ncbi request reprint Stability of artesunate in pharmaceutical solvents
    Karen Gaudin
    Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique UFR Pharmacie, EA 3677, Bases thérapeutiques des inflammations et infections, Universite Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 43:1019-24. 2007
    ..In PEG 400, significant degradation was observed after only 1 month, however DHA was the unique degradation product, which is also an efficient anti-malarial drug...
  95. ncbi request reprint [Retrospective analysis of 107 imported adult cases of malaria. Experience report of uncomplicated falciparum malaria treatment in adults with oral atovaquone-proguanil]
    Rémy Vatan
    Service de médecine interne et des maladies tropicales, Hôpital Saint André, Bordeaux
    Presse Med 35:571-7. 2006
    ..We also analyzed the epidemiologic, clinical and hematologic characteristics of these patients with imported malaria...
  96. ncbi request reprint In vitro release and stability of an artesunate rectal gel suitable for pediatric use
    Karen Gaudin
    Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, UFR Pharmacie, Universite Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Int J Pharm 353:1-7. 2008
    ..The calculated in vitro release exponent (n) value suggested that artesunate is released from the gel by non-Fickian transport...
  97. ncbi request reprint Plasmodium berghei: dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate reverses chloroquino-resistance in experimental malaria infection; correlation with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione synthesis pathway
    Innocent Safeukui
    Unité 3677, Bases thérapeutiques des inflammations et infections, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux II, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Biochem Pharmacol 68:1903-10. 2004
    ..This experimental study suggests that DHEAS could be used to potentiate antimalarial action of CQ, particularly on CQ resistant strains...
  98. pmc Evaluation of FRET real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Plasmodium species in returning travellers and migrants
    Innocent Safeukui
    Pôle de Biologie Moléculaire, CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital Pellegrin, Place Amelie Raba Leon, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Malar J 7:70. 2008
    ....
  99. pmc Use of pre-packaged chloroquine for the home management of presumed malaria in Malagasy children
    Arsène Ratsimbasoa
    Malaria Unit Research, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, BP 1274, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
    Malar J 5:79. 2006
    ..The availability of treatment options by studying retailers and community-based service providers was also investigated...