W Chantratita

Summary

Affiliation: Mahidol University
Country: Thailand

Publications

  1. pmc ParallABEL: an R library for generalized parallelization of genome-wide association studies
    Unitsa Sangket
    Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics Research, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:217. 2010
  2. ncbi Development and comparison of the real-time amplification based methods--NASBA-Beacon, RT-PCR taqman and RT-PCR hybridization probe assays--for the qualitative detection of sars coronavirus
    Wasun Chantratita
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35:623-9. 2004
  3. doi Qualitative detection of avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a comparative evaluation of four real-time nucleic acid amplification methods
    Wasun Chantratita
    Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Mol Cell Probes 22:287-93. 2008
  4. ncbi Simultaneous detection and subtyping of H274Y-positive influenza A (H1N1) using pyrosequencing
    Wasun Chantratita
    Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok
    J Infect Dev Ctries 5:348-52. 2011
  5. ncbi Prevalence of HIV-1 polymerase gene mutations in pre-treated patients in Thailand
    Wasun Chantratita
    Department of Pathology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33:80-4. 2002
  6. ncbi Thai population data on nine tetrameric STR loci - D3S1358, vWA, FGA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820
    W Chantratita
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Mahidol, Bangkok, Thailand
    Forensic Sci Int 115:113-5. 2001
  7. ncbi Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in treated HIV-1 infected patients: under the initiative of access to the NNRTI-based regimen in Thailand
    C Sukasem
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Chemother 19:528-35. 2007
  8. ncbi Database of nine tetrameric STR loci--D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820 in Thai population
    B Rerkamnuaychoke
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Forensic Sci Int 119:123-5. 2001
  9. ncbi Options for a second-line antiretroviral regimen for HIV type 1-infected patients whose initial regimen of a fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine fails
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 44:447-52. 2007
  10. ncbi HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in children who failed non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40:83-8. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. pmc ParallABEL: an R library for generalized parallelization of genome-wide association studies
    Unitsa Sangket
    Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics Research, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:217. 2010
    ..It is arduous acquiring the necessary programming skills to correctly partition and distribute data, control and monitor tasks on clustered computers, and merge output files...
  2. ncbi Development and comparison of the real-time amplification based methods--NASBA-Beacon, RT-PCR taqman and RT-PCR hybridization probe assays--for the qualitative detection of sars coronavirus
    Wasun Chantratita
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35:623-9. 2004
    ..These results demonstrate that real-time NASBA provides a rapid and sensitive alternative to RT-PCR for the routine qualitative assay of sputum for SARS corona viral RNA detection...
  3. doi Qualitative detection of avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a comparative evaluation of four real-time nucleic acid amplification methods
    Wasun Chantratita
    Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Mol Cell Probes 22:287-93. 2008
    ..All assays provided the benefit of rapid influenza H5N1 identification for early diagnosis, in the range of hours, and they are well suited to high throughput analyses...
  4. ncbi Simultaneous detection and subtyping of H274Y-positive influenza A (H1N1) using pyrosequencing
    Wasun Chantratita
    Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok
    J Infect Dev Ctries 5:348-52. 2011
    ..We investigated the frequency of H274Y-positive swine-origin 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus outbreak in Thailand during May-August 2009. ..
  5. ncbi Prevalence of HIV-1 polymerase gene mutations in pre-treated patients in Thailand
    Wasun Chantratita
    Department of Pathology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33:80-4. 2002
    ....
  6. ncbi Thai population data on nine tetrameric STR loci - D3S1358, vWA, FGA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820
    W Chantratita
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Mahidol, Bangkok, Thailand
    Forensic Sci Int 115:113-5. 2001
    ..Allele frequencies for the nine STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit were determined in a Thai population of 100 unrelated individuals...
  7. ncbi Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in treated HIV-1 infected patients: under the initiative of access to the NNRTI-based regimen in Thailand
    C Sukasem
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Chemother 19:528-35. 2007
    ..8% lamivudine, 40.6% stavudine, 43.8% nevirapine). In order to avoid the rapid emergence of resistant viruses in a resource-poor setting, a close surveillance of antiretroviral drug resistance is feasible and should be considered...
  8. ncbi Database of nine tetrameric STR loci--D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820 in Thai population
    B Rerkamnuaychoke
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Forensic Sci Int 119:123-5. 2001
    ..Allele distributions for the nine STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus kit were evaluated in a Thai population of 300 unrelated individuals...
  9. ncbi Options for a second-line antiretroviral regimen for HIV type 1-infected patients whose initial regimen of a fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine fails
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 44:447-52. 2007
    ..Virological failure with this regimen has become more common, and a second-line regimen needs to be prepared in the national program...
  10. ncbi HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in children who failed non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40:83-8. 2009
    ..The patterns of resistance mutations suggest that 48% of patients need a protease inhibitor-based regimen for the second regimen and didanosine+lamivudine is the most required nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone...
  11. doi A study of seven rule-based algorithms for the interpretation of HIV-1 genotypic resistance data in Thailand
    Vongsakorn Poonpiriya
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Virol Methods 151:79-86. 2008
    ..S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved TRUGENE commercial system...
  12. ncbi Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive pregnant Thai women
    Somsri Auswinporn
    Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33:818-21. 2002
    ....
  13. ncbi Survey of reverse transcriptase from the heterosexual epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE in Thailand from 1990 to 2000
    S Sirivichayakul
    Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:1077-81. 2001
    ..These results indicate that epidemic HIV-1 may be constrained within defined limits of genetic diversity at least in some genomic regions...
  14. doi Cytomegalovirus viremia after kidney transplantation in Thailand: predictors of symptomatic infection and outcome
    S P Watcharananan
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Transplant Proc 44:701-5. 2012
    ..In order to argue for the need for CMV prevention, the knowledge on the incidence and impact of the CMV infection following KT is highly desirable...
  15. ncbi Genotypic subtyping of the HIV-1 polymerase gene in 30 naåve patients from Thailand
    S Auswinporn
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32:346-50. 2001
    ..The mixture of subtype E and B' strains also offers the opportunity to study phenotypic differences between the two subtypes...
  16. ncbi Multi-drug resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase genotype in children treated with dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
    Chulapan Engchanil
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 89:1713-20. 2006
    ..Multi-drug resistant HIV mutants have been reported after prolonged dual antiretroviral therapy...
  17. doi Genotypic resistance profiles in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 infections before and after initiation of first-line HAART: impact of polymorphism on resistance to therapy
    Chonlaphat Sukasem
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 31:277-81. 2008
    ..However, this study also revealed the difference in natural mutations among subtypes, which may affect the manifestation of drug resistance...
  18. doi Tipranavir resistance associated mutations in protease inhibitor-naïve patients with HIV-1 subtype A/E infection
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Clin Virol 43:284-6. 2008
    ..Tipranavir-resistance associated mutations (TPV-RAMs) are often observed among patients with HIV-1 subtype A/E infection. Data regarding TPV resistance in subtype A/E is still limited...
  19. ncbi Risk factors for nevirapine-associated rash among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts in resource-limited settings
    Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Curr HIV Res 6:65-9. 2008
    ..Initiation of NVP in patients with these risks needs closed monitoring...
  20. doi Prevalence and risk factors for developing K65R mutations among HIV-1 infected patients who fail an initial regimen of fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Clin Virol 41:310-3. 2008
    ..K65R mutations that occur after failing this regimen prevent the use of tenofovir, didanosine, and abcavir in the second-line regimen...
  21. ncbi The effects of antiretroviral dose modification on the re-emergence of HIV-1 wild-type strains
    Ekachai Jenwitheesuk
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33:99-101. 2002
    ..Resistant variants did not emerge, even after sub-therapeutic levels of antiretroviral drugs had been introduced to these patients for 4 weeks. These findings may have clinical implications for long-term treatment strategies...
  22. ncbi Elective cesarean delivery plus short-course lamivudine and zidovudine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Panyu Panburana
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:803-8. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of elective cesarean delivery plus a lamivudine-zidovudine prophylaxis regimen on non-breastfeeding mothers with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and their infants...
  23. ncbi The application of artificial neural networks for phenotypic drug resistance prediction: evaluation and comparison with other interpretation systems
    Ekawat Pasomsub
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Jpn J Infect Dis 63:87-94. 2010
    ....
  24. ncbi Quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load by real-time RT-PCR assay using self-quenched fluorogenic primers
    Somying Promso
    Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37:477-87. 2006
    ..The results indicate that the AMPLICOR HIV-1 Monitor assay and real-time RT-PCR using LUX primers are in good agreement (mean difference in log10 copies/ml+/-2 standard deviations = 0.21+/-1.34)...
  25. doi Using of nevirapine is associated with intermediate and reduced response to etravirine among HIV-infected patients who experienced virologic failure in a resource-limited setting
    Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Clin Virol 47:330-4. 2010
    ..Treatment options after failing an initial regimen are limited because of cross-resistance of NNRTIs...
  26. pmc Influence of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on the persistence of plasma nevirapine concentrations following a single intra-partum dose for the prevention of mother to child transmission in HIV-infected Thai women
    Soranun Chantarangsu
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:1265-73. 2009
    ..To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with nevirapine concentrations following intra-partum single-dose nevirapine...
  27. ncbi Surveillance of genotypic resistance mutations in chronic HIV-1 treated individuals after completion of the National Access to Antiretroviral Program in Thailand
    C Sukasem
    Dept of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Infection 35:81-8. 2007
    ..The development of drug resistance is required for access to ARV drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in Thai HIV-1 treated individuals after completing the NAPHA program...
  28. ncbi Quantification of HIV-1 RNA load by one-tube-one-step RT PCR and real time PCR assay with TaqMan probe
    Veerachai Watanaveeradej
    Deparment of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 88:S206-13. 2005
    ..To develop a less expensive assay to calculate HIV-1 viral load for use in resource-limited countries...
  29. ncbi Genotypic resistance mutations in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients under widespread use of antiretroviral drugs in Thailand: implications for further epidemiologic surveillance
    Chonlaphat Sukasem
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Jpn J Infect Dis 60:284-9. 2007
    ..We also recommend routine genotypic testing in treatment-naive patients before starting antiretroviral therapy to prevent subtherapeutic response and viral failure...
  30. ncbi Prevalence of cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus-6, and Epstein-Barr virus in periodontitis patients and healthy subjects in the Thai population
    Surang Tantivanich
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35:635-40. 2004
    ..3%) healthy control while HHV-6 and EBV-1 were not found. The depth of sample sites, various demographic and baseline characteristics eg sex, age, occupation and root planning were not associated with the presence of these viruses...
  31. ncbi Delayed progression to AIDS in volunteers treated with long-term HIV-1 Immunogen (REMUNE) therapy in Thailand
    W Chantratita
    Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    HIV Med 5:317-25. 2004
    ..Carlsbad, CA, USA) as a first course of treatment designed to sustain the immune system and thus delay the initiation of therapy with antiretroviral drugs and/or delay disease progression...
  32. ncbi Detection of JC virus infection in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: the first documented case in Thailand
    Taweekiat Dujneungkunakorn
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 85:1139-44. 2002
    ..Qualitative PCR for JCV of CSF showed a positive result. This report emphasizes the yield of PCR, the CSF for JCV in a diagnosis of PML, which may reduce the need for a brain biopsy in such cases...
  33. doi Genotyping of HPA-1 to -7 and -15 in the Thai population using multiplex PCR
    M Kengkate
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Transfus Med 22:272-6. 2012
    ....
  34. doi Clinical performance of three rapid diagnostic tests for influenza virus in nasopharyngeal specimens to detect novel swine-origin influenza viruses
    V Pongthanapisith
    Unit of Virology and Molecular Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
    Infection 39:105-11. 2011
    ....
  35. doi Adenovirus disease after kidney transplantation: course of infection and outcome in relation to blood viral load and immune recovery
    S P Watcharananan
    Medicine Pathology Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Transplant 11:1308-14. 2011
    ..Early case recognition with reduction of immunosuppression is critical. Serial blood adenovirus viral loads and assessment of lymphocyte recovery are also useful in monitoring the course of infection...
  36. ncbi Intratypic variations among Thai herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolates determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis
    Sutida Visaprom
    Inter Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Graduate School, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36:910-6. 2005
    ..HSV-1 isolates found in both non-genital and genital lesions had more variety than the HSV-2 isolates. This suggests that intratypic variations in HSV-2 are fewer than in HSV-1...
  37. ncbi Establishment of real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay for quantitation of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in healthy donors and in patients with EBV associated lymphoma
    Patcha Incomserb
    Inter Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 88:S280-6. 2005
    ..01). Assessment of this assay in larger number of donors and patients will provide clinical cut-off values which are essential for monitoring and diagnosis of EBV-associated diseases...
  38. ncbi Thai population data on 15 tetrameric STR loci-D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA
    Budsaba Rerkamnuaychoke
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Forensic Sci Int 158:234-7. 2006
    ....
  39. ncbi Comparison of the TaqMan and LightCycler systems in evaluation of CYP2B6 516G>T polymorphism
    Soranun Chantarangsu
    Virology and Molecular Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Phrayathai, Rajthaewee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Mol Cell Probes 21:408-11. 2007
    ..The genotype success rate was similar, but the LightCycler procedure was less expensive in terms of cost per sample and shorter running time...
  40. ncbi Prospective clinical evaluation of the accuracy of 16S rRNA real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis
    Narisara Chantratita
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:814-7. 2007
    ..4 CFU/ml (0.2-13.5 CFU/ml); this may explain the low sensitivity of PCR for this specimen. The PCR assay described here is not sufficiently sensitive to replace culture in our clinical setting...
  41. ncbi Efavirenz-based regimen as treatment of advanced AIDS with cryptococcal meningitis
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:118-9. 2003
  42. pmc Insights into saquinavir resistance in the G48V HIV-1 protease: quantum calculations and molecular dynamic simulations
    Kitiyaporn Wittayanarakul
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Biophys J 88:867-79. 2005
    ..The magnitude of interaction energy changes was comparable to the experimental K(i) data. The designing for a new drug should consider a reduction of steric repulsion on P2 to enhance the activity toward this mutant strain...
  43. ncbi Evaluating the role of etravirine in the second-line antiretroviral therapy after failing an initial non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen in a resource-limited setting
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Department of Medicine, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    Curr HIV Res 6:474-6. 2008
    ..This strategy may be an option for patients who cannot afford or tolerate protease inhibitor. Prospective study to evaluate this strategy should be conducted in resource-limited setting...
  44. ncbi Similarity of the allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium pattern of single nucleotide polymorphisms in drug-related gene loci between Thai and northern East Asian populations: implications for tagging SNP selection in Thais
    Surakameth Mahasirimongkol
    Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Center for International Cooperation, Foreign Affairs Section, 3rd Floor, Building 1, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
    J Hum Genet 51:896-904. 2006
    ..The combination of non-overlapping Japanese derived tagSNP and Chinese-derived tagSNP improved the percentage of genomic coverage in Thais, at least in these drug-related gene loci...
  45. ncbi Evaluation of resequencing on number of tag SNPs of 13 atherosclerosis-related genes in Thai population
    Chintana Tocharoentanaphol
    Centre National de Genotypage, 2 rue Gaston Cremieux, CP 5721, 91057, Evry Cedex, France
    J Hum Genet 53:74-86. 2008
    ....