Ching Jen Wang

Summary

Affiliation: Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
Country: Taiwan

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Triple positioning of tibial tubercle osteotomy for patellofemoral disorders
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Section of Sports Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan Electronic address
    Knee 21:133-7. 2014
  2. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows site-specific effects in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 183:612-9. 2013
  3. pmc Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows a number of treatment related chondroprotective effect in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 14:44. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Long-term results of extracorporeal shockwave therapy and core decompression in osteonecrosis of the femoral head with eight- to nine-year follow-up
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Biomed J 35:481-5. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave shows regression of osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung University of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 171:601-8. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows time-dependent chondroprotective effects in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 178:196-205. 2012
  7. ncbi request reprint Long-term results of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for plantar fasciitis
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833
    Am J Sports Med 34:592-6. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Three-year changes in bone mineral density around the knee after a six-month course of oral alendronate following total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomized study
    Ching Jen Wang
    Departments of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 88:267-72. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendon graft with remnant augmentation
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 21:1401. 2005
  10. doi request reprint Molecular changes in diabetic foot ulcers
    Ching Jen Wang
    The Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 94:105-10. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. doi request reprint Triple positioning of tibial tubercle osteotomy for patellofemoral disorders
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Section of Sports Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan Electronic address
    Knee 21:133-7. 2014
    ..This study evaluated the long-term results of triple positioning of tibial tubercle osteotomy for refractory patellofemoral disorders with 10-year follow-up...
  2. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows site-specific effects in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 183:612-9. 2013
    ..This study investigated the site-specific effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats...
  3. pmc Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows a number of treatment related chondroprotective effect in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 14:44. 2013
    ..However, the ideal number of ESWT is unknown. This study investigated the effects of different numbers of ESWT in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats...
  4. doi request reprint Long-term results of extracorporeal shockwave therapy and core decompression in osteonecrosis of the femoral head with eight- to nine-year follow-up
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Biomed J 35:481-5. 2012
    ..This study analyzed the long-term outcomes of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and core decompression for early osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) with 8- to 9-year follow-up...
  5. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave shows regression of osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung University of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 171:601-8. 2011
    ..This study investigated the effects of extracorporeal shockwave technology (ESWT) in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats...
  6. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows time-dependent chondroprotective effects in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 178:196-205. 2012
    ..However, the time course effects of ESWT in the osteoarthritic knee are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ESWT over time on osteoarthritis of the knee in rats...
  7. ncbi request reprint Long-term results of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for plantar fasciitis
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833
    Am J Sports Med 34:592-6. 2006
    ..Extracorporeal shockwave treatment has shown mixed short-term results for plantar fasciitis. However, the long-term results are not available...
  8. ncbi request reprint Three-year changes in bone mineral density around the knee after a six-month course of oral alendronate following total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomized study
    Ching Jen Wang
    Departments of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 88:267-72. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a six-month course of alendronate on bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty...
  9. ncbi request reprint Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendon graft with remnant augmentation
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 21:1401. 2005
    ..The selection of autograft precludes the risks of allograft and artificial ligament. The short-term results are encouraging, but long-term results are needed to confirm the value of this technique for PCL reconstruction...
  10. doi request reprint Molecular changes in diabetic foot ulcers
    Ching Jen Wang
    The Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 94:105-10. 2011
    ..This study investigated the molecular changes of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in chronic diabetic foot ulcers...
  11. ncbi request reprint Arthroscopic single- versus double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using hamstring autograft
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan ROC
    Injury 35:1293-9. 2004
    ..The difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstruction, if any, can be concluded only with long-term results and larger number of patients...
  12. ncbi request reprint Comparison of autogenous and allogenous posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions of the knee
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Injury 35:1279-85. 2004
    ..Complications were more prevalent with autogenous grafts. In conclusion, autogenous and allogenous tendon grafts are equally effective in PCL reconstruction...
  13. pmc The value of D-dimer in the detection of early deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty in Asian patients: a cohort study
    Chung Jen Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Thromb J 6:5. 2008
    ..The relationship of D-dimer and deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of D-dimer in the detection of early DVT after TKA...
  14. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting the outcome of distal realignment for patellofemoral disorders of the knee
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Knee 12:195-200. 2005
    ..However, the clinical outcome correlated with the severity of articular damage and the correction of patellar malalignment. Error in patient selection and inadequate surgical technique were attributable to poor outcomes...
  15. doi request reprint Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a comparative study of extracorporeal shockwave therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 92:187-93. 2011
    ..This study compared the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in chronic diabetic foot ulcers...
  16. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave for hip necrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus
    C J Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
    Lupus 18:1082-6. 2009
    ..86 vs. 0.89; P = 0.467) and function scores (89% vs. 91%; P = 0.194) between patients with SLE and controls. SLE response to ESWT for ONFH is comparable with ONFH in patients without SLE...
  17. doi request reprint Biological effects of extracorporeal shockwave in bone healing: a study in rabbits
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 128:879-84. 2008
    ..This study is an investigation of the biological effects of extracorporeal shockwave treatment (ESWT) on bone healing in a rabbit model...
  18. ncbi request reprint Treatment of osteonecrosis of the hip: comparison of extracorporeal shockwave with shockwave and alendronate
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University School of Medicine, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 128:901-8. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that joint effects of ESWT and alendronate may produce superior results. This prospective study compared the results of ESWT and alendronate with that of ESWT without alendronate in early ONFH...
  19. doi request reprint The effects of shockwave on systemic concentrations of nitric oxide level, angiogenesis and osteogenesis factors in hip necrosis
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, 833, Taiwan
    Rheumatol Int 31:871-7. 2011
    ..Local ESWT application results in significant elevations of serum NO level, angiogenic and osteogenic and anti-inflammatory factors in ONFH...
  20. doi request reprint VEGF modulates angiogenesis and osteogenesis in shockwave-promoted fracture healing in rabbits
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 171:114-9. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether VEGF modulates the angiogenesis and osteogenesis in shockwave-promoted fracture healing in rabbits...
  21. ncbi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave for chronic patellar tendinopathy
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833
    Am J Sports Med 35:972-8. 2007
    ..Chronic patellar tendinopathy is an overuse syndrome with pathologic changes similar to tendinopathies of the shoulder, elbow, and heel. Extracorporeal shockwave was shown effective in many tendinopathies...
  22. ncbi request reprint The effects of extracorporeal shockwave on acute high-energy long bone fractures of the lower extremity
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine or Chang Gung Institute of Technology, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 127:137-42. 2007
    ..However, the effect of shockwave on acute fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of shockwave on acute high-energy fractures of the lower extremity...
  23. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows chondroprotective effects in osteoarthritic rat knee
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Section of Sports Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsian, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 131:1153-8. 2011
    ..This study investigated the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on the subchondral bone and articular cartilage in the initiation of osteoarthritis of the knee in rats...
  24. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty: a comparison of ultrasound and venography studies
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaoshiung, Taiwan 833, ROC
    Chang Gung Med J 27:16-21. 2004
    ..A prospective clinical study was performed to compare the diagnostic accuracy between ultrasound and venography of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
  25. ncbi request reprint Clinical outcome and patient satisfaction in aseptic and septic revision total knee arthroplasty
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Knee 11:45-9. 2004
    ..Despite the difference in knee scores, 85% of the patients from both groups were equally satisfied with the results of treatment. There was no discernible radiographic difference between the two groups, including radiolucency...
  26. ncbi request reprint The often poor clinical outcome of infected total knee arthroplasty
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Arthroplasty 17:608-14. 2002
    ..No significant difference in knee scores was observed, however, between reimplantation TKA and arthrodesis. Approximately 50% of reimplantation TKAs had mild-to-moderate knee pain...
  27. ncbi request reprint Shockwave therapy for patients with plantar fasciitis: a one-year follow-up study
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Foot Ankle Int 23:204-7. 2002
    ..The recurrence rate was 5%. There were no device-related problems, systemic or local complications. Shockwave therapy is a safe and effective modality in the treatment of patients with plantar fasciitis...
  28. ncbi request reprint Injuries to the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral instabilities of the knee
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC
    Chang Gung Med J 25:288-97. 2002
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Outcome of arthroscopic single bundle reconstruction for complete posterior cruciate ligament tear
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Injury 34:747-51. 2003
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint The effect of alendronate on bone mineral density in the distal part of the femur and proximal part of the tibia after total knee arthroplasty
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Niao Sung Hsiang, Taiwan
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 85:2121-6. 2003
    ..The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alendronate on bone mineral density in the distal part of the femur and proximal part of the tibia after total knee arthroplasty in women...
  31. ncbi request reprint Pathomechanism of shock wave injuries on femoral artery, vein and nerve. An experimental study in dogs
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123, Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Injury 33:439-46. 2002
    ..To study the pathomechanism of shock wave injuries to the femoral artery, vein and nerve in dogs...
  32. ncbi request reprint Prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty in Asian patients. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin and indomethacin
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 86:136-40. 2004
    ..A prospective clinical study was performed to compare the efficacy of low-molecular-weight heparin and indomethacin for the prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty in Asian patients...
  33. ncbi request reprint Treatment of focal articular cartilage lesions of the knee with autogenous osteochondral graftsA 2- to 4-year follow-up study
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 122:169-72. 2002
    ..Therefore, an autogenous osteochondral graft is considered a good method in the treatment of knees with moderately sized articular cartilage defects...
  34. ncbi request reprint Shock wave-enhanced neovascularization at the tendon-bone junction: an experiment in dogs
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Niao Sung Hsiang, Taiwan
    J Foot Ankle Surg 41:16-22. 2002
    ..Two pathologists reviewed each specimen and concurrence was achieved in all cases. The results of the study suggested that low-energy shock wave enhanced the phenomenon of neovascularization at the bone-tendon junction in dogs...
  35. ncbi request reprint Outcome of surgical reconstruction for posterior cruciate and posterolateral instabilities of the knee
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Injury 33:815-21. 2002
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head: comparison of extracorporeal shock waves with core decompression and bone-grafting
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Medical Center, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 87:2380-7. 2005
    ..We compared the results of noninvasive treatment with extracorporeal shock waves with those of core decompression and bone-grafting in similar groups of patients...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effects of knee position, graft tension, and mode of fixation in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cadaveric knee study
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Yi Su University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 18:496-501. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal graft tension, the best angle of knee flexion, and the mode of fixation in PCL reconstruction. Type of Study: Anatomic biomechanical study...
  38. ncbi request reprint Nitric oxide mediates ultrasound-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha activation and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in human osteoblasts
    Feng Sheng Wang
    Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Bone 35:114-23. 2004
    ..Together, these findings show that NO plays an important role in mediating extracellular stimuli released by US and triggering intracellular response of osteoblasts to produce angiogenic factor after US treatment...
  39. doi request reprint pCMV-BMP-2-transfected cell-mediated gene therapy in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in rabbits
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 26:968-76. 2010
    ..This study investigated the effect of plasmid cytomegalovirus (pCMV)-bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene therapy on the healing of the tendon-bone interface after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in rabbits...
  40. ncbi request reprint Shock wave therapy induces neovascularization at the tendon-bone junction. A study in rabbits
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, 833 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Orthop Res 21:984-9. 2003
    ..The neovascularization may play a role to improve blood supply and tissue regeneration at the tendon-bone junction...
  41. ncbi request reprint Pertussis toxin-sensitive Galphai protein and ERK-dependent pathways mediate ultrasound promotion of osteogenic transcription in human osteoblasts
    Yeung Jen Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan
    FEBS Lett 554:154-8. 2003
    ..Membranous Galphai proteins and cytosolic ERK pathways acted as potent mechanosensitive signals in the response of osteoblasts to pulsed US stimulation...
  42. ncbi request reprint Ras induction of superoxide activates ERK-dependent angiogenic transcription factor HIF-1alpha and VEGF-A expression in shock wave-stimulated osteoblasts
    Feng Sheng Wang
    Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    J Biol Chem 279:10331-7. 2004
    ..Thus, modulation of redox reaction by SW may have some positive effect on angiogenesis during bone regeneration...
  43. ncbi request reprint Arthroscopic reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament with use of a quadruple hamstring tendon graft with 3- to 5-year follow-up
    Yi Sheng Chan
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 22:762-70. 2006
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Control of Dkk-1 ameliorates chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage destruction, and subchondral bone deterioration in osteoarthritic knees
    Lin Hsiu Weng
    Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center and Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arthritis Rheum 62:1393-402. 2010
    ..The Wnt inhibitor Dkk-1 mediates remodeling of various tissue types. We undertook this study to examine whether control of Dkk-1 expression prevents joint deterioration in osteoarthritic (OA) knees...
  45. ncbi request reprint Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase in shock wave-promoted bone formation of segmental defect in rats
    Yeung Jen Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan
    Bone 34:466-77. 2004
    ..ERK phosphorylation is active throughout the period of ESW-induced bone regeneration. p38 activation most likely plays an important role in signaling cartilage formation in callus...
  46. ncbi request reprint Superoxide mediates shock wave induction of ERK-dependent osteogenic transcription factor (CBFA1) and mesenchymal cell differentiation toward osteoprogenitors
    Feng Sheng Wang
    Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    J Biol Chem 277:10931-7. 2002
    ..Thus, an appropriate modulation of redox reaction by ESW may have some positive effect on the bone regeneration...
  47. ncbi request reprint Clinical significance of muscular deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Niaosung Shiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R O C
    Chang Gung Med J 30:41-6. 2007
    ..The definition of gastrocneumus and soleus deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of muscular deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
  48. ncbi request reprint The effect of shock wave treatment at the tendon-bone interface-an histomorphological and biomechanical study in rabbits
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Orthop Res 23:274-80. 2005
    ..This study was performed to investigate the effect of shock wave treatment on the healing at tendon-bone interface in rabbits...
  49. ncbi request reprint Infection after intramedullary nailing of the femur
    Chin En Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Trauma 55:338-44. 2003
    ..The management of infection after intramedullary nailing of the femoral shaft fracture remains a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. The dilemma confronting surgeons concerns the removal or retention of the nail in the presence of infection...
  50. doi request reprint Arthroscopic suture fixation of tibial eminence avulsion fractures
    Tsan Wen Huang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Arthroscopy 24:1232-8. 2008
    ..This study presents the clinical results of a procedure for treating tibial eminence fractures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using arthroscopic reduction and No. 5 Ethibond sutures (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ)...
  51. ncbi request reprint Results of chronic osteomyelitis of the femur treated with hyperbaric oxygen: a preliminary report
    Chin En Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833, ROC
    Chang Gung Med J 27:91-7. 2004
    ..This retrospective study investigated the clinical results of HBO therapy for chronic refractory osteomyelitis of the femur...
  52. ncbi request reprint Shock wave treatment shows dose-dependent enhancement of bone mass and bone strength after fracture of the femur
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Bone 34:225-30. 2004
    ..015) and modulus of elasticity (P = 0.011) than the low-energy and control groups. Overall, the effect of shock wave treatment on bone mass and bone strength appears to be dose dependent in acute fracture healing in rabbits...
  53. doi request reprint The effects of shockwave on bone healing and systemic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), TGF-beta1, VEGF and BMP-2 in long bone non-unions
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Taiwan
    Nitric Oxide 20:298-303. 2009
    ..The elevations of systemic concentration of NO level and the osteogenic factors may reflect a local stimulation of shockwave in bone healing in long bone non-unions...
  54. ncbi request reprint Shockwaves enhance the osteogenetic gene expression in marrow stromal cells from hips with osteonecrosis
    Tsung Cheng Yin
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Chang Gung Med J 34:367-74. 2011
    ..This in vitro study investigated the angiogenesis and osteogenesis effects of shockwaves on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from hips with osteonecrosis...
  55. ncbi request reprint Total knee arthroplasty for arthritis of the knee with extra-articular deformity
    Jun Wen Wang
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 84:1769-74. 2002
    ..This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical results of total knee arthroplasty combined with intra-articular bone resection, without osteotomy, in patients with extra-articular deformity and arthritis of the knee...
  56. doi request reprint Navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty for a knee with malunion of the distal femur
    Wen Yi Chou
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung, Medical Center, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Arthroplasty 23:1239.e13-9. 2008
    ..Our report reveals that navigation system without intramedullary reaming is a feasible and less invasive alternative for TKA surgery for complex arthritic knee disorders...
  57. ncbi request reprint Arthroscopic-assisted reduction with bilateral buttress plate fixation of complex tibial plateau fractures
    Yi Sheng Chan
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 19:974-84. 2003
    ..Our aim was to determine the outcome of arthroscopic-assisted reduction with bilateral buttress plate fixation for the treatment of closed complex tibial plateau fractures...
  58. ncbi request reprint Femoral interference screw placement through the tibial tunnel: a novel method without graft damage
    Yi Sheng Chan
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 22:1251.e1-4. 2006
    ..Moreover, this novel approach is feasible for all tendon grafts (bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts, quadriceps tendon-patellar bone grafts, and hamstring tendon grafts)...
  59. ncbi request reprint Nitric oxide donor increases osteoprotegerin production and osteoclastogenesis inhibitory activity in bone marrow stromal cells from ovariectomized rats
    Feng Sheng Wang
    Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Endocrinology 145:2148-56. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that NO donor can be an alternative pharmacological strategy for regulating bone resorption...
  60. ncbi request reprint Arthroscopic evaluation of soft tissue injuries in tibial plateau fractures: retrospective analysis of 98 cases
    Mohamed Zaki Abdel-Hamid
    Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 22:669-75. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that use of arthroscopy to evaluate soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fractures would reveal a greater number of associated injuries than have previously been reported...
  61. doi request reprint Improved divergence angles with femoral interference screw placement through the tibial tunnel as measured by multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography
    Yi Sheng Chan
    Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Arthroscopy 25:54-61. 2009
    ..This study evaluated femur bioabsorbable interference screw divergence and obliquity of the graft and tunnel positions as measured by multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography (MPR-CT) after endoscopic ACL reconstruction...
  62. ncbi request reprint Extracorporeal shock wave enhanced extended skin flap tissue survival via increase of topical blood perfusion and associated with suppression of tissue pro-inflammation
    Yur Ren Kuo
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 143:385-92. 2007
    ..This study assessed whether extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) treatment rescues compromised flap tissue by enhancing tissue perfusion and is associated with suppression of inflammatory response...
  63. doi request reprint Application of extracorporeal shock wave treatment to enhance spinal fusion: a rabbit experiment
    Tao Chen Lee
    Department of Neurosurgery Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Surg Neurol 70:129-34; discussion 134. 2008
    ..Extracorporeal shock wave treatment has been used to treat many orthopedic disorders. However, the effect of extracorporeal shock waves on spinal fusion has not been reported...
  64. ncbi request reprint Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 modulates glucocorticoid attenuation of osteogenic activities and bone mass
    Feng Sheng Wang
    Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Niao Sung, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
    Endocrinology 146:2415-23. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that SFRP1 modulates glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Regulation of Wnt/SFRP signal transduction can be used in the future as an alternative strategy for the prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis...
  65. ncbi request reprint Recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells and expression of TGF-beta 1 and VEGF in the early stage of shock wave-promoted bone regeneration of segmental defect in rats
    Yeung Jen Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan
    J Orthop Res 22:526-34. 2004
    ..TGF-beta 1 and VEGF-A are proposed to play a chemotactic and mitogenic role in recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells...
  66. doi request reprint Functional outcomes of bilateral hip necrosis: total hip arthroplasty versus extracorporeal shockwave
    June Ming Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 129:837-41. 2009
    ..This study compared the functional outcomes of total hip (THA) in one and shockwave (ESWT) in the other in 17 patients with bilateral hip necrosis...
  67. ncbi request reprint Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of chronic refractory osteomyelitis: a preliminary report
    Chin En Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC
    Chang Gung Med J 26:114-21. 2003
    ..In this retrospective study, we reported the clinical results of HBO therapy for chronic refractory osteomyelitis...
  68. doi request reprint Bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in spinal fusion masses enhanced by extracorporeal shock wave treatment: a rabbit experiment
    Tao Chen Lee
    Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Niao Sung, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 152:1779-84. 2010
    ..Extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) has been introduced to enhance spinal fusion. This study was conducted to assess the effect of ESW on bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in a spinal fusion experiment...
  69. doi request reprint Shock wave-pretreated bone marrow cells further improve left ventricular function after myocardial infarction in rabbits
    Jiunn Jye Sheu
    Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC
    Ann Vasc Surg 24:809-21. 2010
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Vulnerability of the spinal cord to injury from extracorporeal shock waves in rabbits
    Tao Chen Lee
    Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, and Chang Gung University Medical College, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    J Clin Neurosci 14:873-8. 2007
    ..ESWT produced varying degrees of microscopic changes of the treated cords, but no neurological symptoms. The neuronal injury was dose-dependent and mild in the low-energy group...
  71. doi request reprint Functional outcomes of arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of anteromedial and anterolateral trans-tibia approach
    To Wong
    Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 129:315-21. 2009
    ..The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to compare the functional outcomes of A-M and A-L trans-tibia approach in arthroscopic PCL reconstruction...
  72. doi request reprint Functional outcomes of Y-graft double-bundle and single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee
    Mui Leng Lao
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jhong Jheng Orthopedic Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arthroscopy 29:1525-32. 2013
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcome, ligament laxity, and tibial tunnel enlargement between 3-tunnel double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and single-bundle (SB) ACL reconstruction...
  73. ncbi request reprint Arthroscopically assisted osteosynthesis for tibial plateau fractures
    Shuo S Hung
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    J Trauma 54:356-63. 2003
    ..Options for management of tibial plateau fracture are numerous, and the outcome depends on several factors. With the inherent advantages of arthroscopy, the results of tibial plateau fracture have been greatly improved...
  74. doi request reprint Dkk-1 promotes angiogenic responses and cartilage matrix proteinase secretion in synovial fibroblasts from osteoarthritic joints
    Lin Hsiu Weng
    Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Arthritis Rheum 64:3267-77. 2012
    ..Wnt inhibitor Dkk-1 contributes to joint remodeling. We undertook this study to investigate whether Dkk-1 regulates cartilage destruction activities in OA synovial fibroblasts...
  75. doi request reprint Increased IL-1beta expression and myofibroblast recruitment in subacromial bursa is associated with rotator cuff lesions with shoulder stiffness
    Jih Yang Ko
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Orthop Res 26:1090-7. 2008
    ..002), but not in Group I (p = 0.510). Increased expression of IL-1beta and myofibroblast recruitment in the subacromial bursa in rotator cuff lesions are linked to shoulder stiffness...
  76. doi request reprint Cocktail therapy for femoral head necrosis of the hip
    Shan Ling Hsu
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 130:23-9. 2010
    ..Cocktail therapy consists of extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) and alendronate. We hypothesized that this combined therapy may produce better results than ESWT alone when treating hip necrosis...
  77. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shockwave treatment for chronic diabetic foot ulcers
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
    J Surg Res 152:96-103. 2009
    ..This prospective study compared extracorporeal shockwave treatment (ESWT) with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in chronic diabetic foot ulcers...
  78. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis of partial tear of the rotator cuff: a clinical and pathologic study
    Jih Yang Ko
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    J Shoulder Elbow Surg 15:271-8. 2006
    ....
  79. doi request reprint Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhanced diabetic wound healing through recruitment of tissue regeneration in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes
    Yur Ren Kuo
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Plast Reconstr Surg 128:872-80. 2011
    ..This study investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy has effectiveness in the enhancement of diabetic wound healing through tissue regeneration...
  80. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shock wave treatment modulates skin fibroblast recruitment and leukocyte infiltration for enhancing extended skin-flap survival
    Yur Ren Kuo
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Wound Repair Regen 17:80-7. 2009
    ..The mechanisms of action of ESWs involve modulation of oxygen radicals, attenuation of leukocyte infiltration, decrease in tissue apoptosis, and recruitment of skin fibroblasts, which results in increased flap tissue survival...
  81. ncbi request reprint Cocktail therapy for hip necrosis in SARS patients
    To Wong
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Chang Gung Med J 31:546-53. 2008
    ..This study evaluated the outcomes of cocktail therapy with a 4-year followup...
  82. ncbi request reprint Surgical results in rotator cuff tears with shoulder stiffness
    Shan Lin Hsu
    Department of Orthopedics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Formos Med Assoc 106:452-61. 2007
    ..We prospectively treated a series of patients with rotator cuff tears associated with shoulder stiffness concomitantly and reported the outcomes...
  83. ncbi request reprint Supracondylar fractures of the femur above total knee arthroplasties with cortical allograft struts
    Jun Wen Wang
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Arthroplasty 17:365-72. 2002
    ....
  84. doi request reprint Simultaneous arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament using hamstring and quadriceps tendon autografts
    Yang Pin Lo
    Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Trauma 66:780-8. 2009
    ..Various methods of reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) after knee dislocation have been described, but few reports discuss simultaneous ACL and PCL reconstructions in a single operation...
  85. ncbi request reprint Periacetabular osteotomy through a modified ollier transtrochanteric approach for treatment of painful dysplastic hips
    Jih Yang Ko
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 84:1594-604. 2002
    ..We treat acetabular dysplasia with a periacetabular osteotomy performed through a modified Ollier transtrochanteric approach. In this report, we describe the operative technique and the clinical and radiographic results...
  86. doi request reprint Arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial plateau fractures: 2- to 10-year follow-up results
    Yi Sheng Chan
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Republic of China
    Arthroscopy 24:760-8. 2008
    ..This study evaluated the outcome of arthroscopy-assisted reduction with internal fixation for treating tibial plateau fractures at 2- to 10-year follow-up...
  87. ncbi request reprint Radiographic assessment of the knee after patellar tendon reconstruction for chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833, ROC
    Chang Gung Med J 27:85-90. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the patellar height and degenerative changes of the knee by radiographic assessment after patellar tendon reconstruction for chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency...
  88. ncbi request reprint Comparing cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty and cruciate-substituting total knee arthroplasty: a prospective clinical study
    Ching Jen Wang
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC
    Chang Gung Med J 27:578-85. 2004
    ..This prospective clinical study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes and radiographic changes between patients with cruciate-retaining (CR) and cruciate-substituting (CS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
  89. doi request reprint Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy enhanced wound healing via increasing topical blood perfusion and tissue regeneration in a rat model of STZ-induced diabetes
    Yur Ren Kuo
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung 83305, Taiwan
    Wound Repair Regen 17:522-30. 2009
    ..In conclusion, treatment with an optimal session of ESWT significantly enhanced diabetic wound healing associated with increased neo-angiogenesis and tissue regeneration, and topical anti-inflammatory response...
  90. ncbi request reprint Management of nonunion associated with broken intramedullary nail of the femur
    Chin En Chen
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Orthopedics 31:78. 2008
    ..Nonunion or delayed union is the main cause of nail breakage. Exchange nailing with bone grafting is a safe and effective method of treatment for a broken intramedullary nail with nonunion...
  91. ncbi request reprint Biomechanical testing of spinal fusion segments enhanced by extracorporeal shock wave treatment in rabbits
    Tao Chen Lee
    Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University Collage of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Chang Gung Med J 32:276-82. 2009
    ..Extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) has been proven effective in enhancing spinal fusion in a preliminary animal study. However, biomechanical tests were not performed...