You Lin Tain



  1. Lin Y, Huang L, Tsai C, Sheen J, Tiao M, Yu H, et al. Maternal high-fat diet sex-specifically alters placental morphology and transcriptome in rats: Assessment by next-generation sequencing. Placenta. 2019;78:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal an association between the placental RAS and HFD-induced fetal growth restriction. ..
  2. Hsu C, Tain Y. Regulation of Nitric Oxide Production in the Developmental Programming of Hypertension and Kidney Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
  3. Hou C, Tain Y, Yu H, Huang L. The Effects of Resveratrol in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, resveratrol could be a useful regimen for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and its related conditions. ..
  4. Hsu C, Tain Y. The Double-Edged Sword Effects of Maternal Nutrition in the Developmental Programming of Hypertension. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of ideal nutritional interventions for the prevention of hypertension development that begins early in life will have a lifelong impact, with profound savings in the global burden of hypertension. ..
  5. Hsu C, Lu P, Lo M, Lin I, Chang Chien G, Lin S, et al. Gut Microbiota-Dependent Trimethylamine N-Oxide Pathway Associated with Cardiovascular Risk in Children with Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Early assessments of these surrogate markers should aid in decreasing cardiovascular risk in childhood CKD. ..
  6. Tsai C, Lin Y, Yu H, Sheen J, Lin I, Lai Y, et al. Regulation of Leptin Methylation Not via Apoptosis by Melatonin in the Rescue of Chronic Programming Liver Steatosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Melatonin reverses leptin methylation and expression and decreases inflammation and chronic liver steatosis not via apoptosis or histone deacetylation (HDAC). ..
  7. Chou H, Chiou Y, Chiou Y, Tain Y, Wang H, Yu M, et al. Mortality Risks among Various Primary Renal Diseases in Children and Adolescents on Chronic Dialysis. J Clin Med. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..84⁻16.85). Several kinds of PRDs appear to have high mortality risks in the pediatric dialysis population. These differences in mortality risk highlight the importance of the focused clinical management of these high-risk subgroups. ..
  8. Tain Y, Chan J, Lee C, Hsu C. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuates Methyl-Donor Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Adult Rat Offspring. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of reprogramming effects of melatonin might aid in developing a therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hypertension in adult offspring exposed to an excessive maternal methyl-supplemented diet. ..
  9. Tain Y, Hsu C. Developmental Programming of the Metabolic Syndrome: Can We Reprogram with Resveratrol?. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Hsu C, Lin Y, Hou C, Tain Y. Maternal Administration of Probiotic or Prebiotic Prevents Male Adult Rat Offspring against Developmental Programming of Hypertension Induced by High Fructose Consumption in Pregnancy and Lactation. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal gut microbiota-targeted therapies could be reprogramming strategies to prevent the development of hypertension caused by maternal consumption of fructose-rich diet. ..
  2. Tain Y, Ghosh S, Krieg R, Baylis C. Reciprocal changes of renal neuronal nitric oxide synthase-α and -β associated with renal progression in a neonatal 5/6 nephrectomized rat model. Pediatr neonatol. 2011;52:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The neonatal kidney is very susceptible to 5/6 NX-induced injury, and, as in adults, reciprocal changes in the nNOSα and nNOSβ in renal cortex occur during progression of chronic kidney disease and may contribute to the injury. ..
  3. Hsu C, Lin Y, Lu P, Tain Y. Maternal Resveratrol Therapy Protects Male Rat Offspring against Programmed Hypertension Induced by TCDD and Dexamethasone Exposures: Is It Relevant to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor?. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
  4. Hsu C, Tain Y. Hydrogen Sulfide in Hypertension and Kidney Disease of Developmental Origins. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
  5. Tain Y, Wu K, Lee W, Leu S, Chan J. Prenatal Metformin Therapy Attenuates Hypertension of Developmental Origin in Male Adult Offspring Exposed to Maternal High-Fructose and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlighted that the programming effects of metformin administered prenatally might be different from those reported in adults, and that deserves further elucidation. ..
  6. Tain Y, Leu S, Lee W, Wu K, Chan J. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    ..The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation. ..
  7. Tain Y, Lee C, Huang L. Long-term effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on renal transcriptome prevention of nitric oxide depletion-related programmed hypertension: the impact of gene-nutrient interactions. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:23255-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification. ..
  8. Tain Y, Hsu C. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase as a Reprogramming Strategy for Hypertension and Kidney Disease of Developmental Origin. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
  9. Tain Y, Hsu C, Lin C, Huang L, Lau Y. Aliskiren prevents hypertension and reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in young spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;670:561-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that aliskiren is a therapeutic agent for prehypertension that regulates the ADMA/NO pathway. ..
  10. Tsai C, Kuo H, Hsu C, Huang L, Tain Y. Metformin reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine and prevents hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Transl Res. 2014;164:452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the consideration of metformin as an antihypertensive agent for diabetic patients with prehypertension. ..
  11. Tain Y, Huang L, Chan J. Transcriptional regulation of programmed hypertension by melatonin: an epigenetic perspective. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:18484-95 pubmed publisher
  12. Tain Y, Huang L, Lee C, Chan J, Hsu C. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced programmed hypertension in rats. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that supplementing CIT in pregnant women with NO deficiency can improve fetal development and prevent programmed hypertension. ..
  13. Lee W, Wu K, Leu S, Tain Y. Translational insights on developmental origins of metabolic syndrome: Focus on fructose consumption. Biomed J. 2018;41:96-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Research into the preventions and treatments of MetS that begin early in life will have a lifelong impact and profound savings in disease burden and financial costs. ..
  14. Hsu C, Lai W, Lin Y, Tain Y. Postnatal high-fat diet sex-specifically exacerbates prenatal dexamethasone-induced hypertension: Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic approach. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;57:268-275 pubmed publisher
  15. Sheen J, Yu H, Tiao M, Chen C, Huang L, Chang H, et al. Prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension and renal programming. Life Sci. 2015;132:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight candidate genes and pathways involved in renal programming as targets for therapeutic approaches to prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to antenatal corticosteroids. ..
  16. Tain Y, Huang L, Lin I, Lau Y, Lin C. Melatonin prevents hypertension and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine in young spontaneous hypertensive rats. J Pineal Res. 2010;49:390-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Tai I, Sheen J, Lin Y, Yu H, Tiao M, Chen C, et al. Maternal N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and prevents programmed hypertension in male offspring exposed to prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high-fat diet. Nitric Oxide. 2016;53:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of the ADMA-NO and H2S-generating pathways by maternal NAC therapy may be a potential approach to prevent programmed hypertension induced by two-hit insults. ..
  18. Lo M, Lin I, Lu P, Huang C, Chien S, Hsieh K, et al. Evaluation of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial plasma markers, and traditional metabolic parameters in children with adiposity. J Formos Med Assoc. 2019;118:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The early detection and prevention of endothelial dysfunction may decrease the rate of progression to cardiovascular consequences in later life. ..
  19. Lin I, Hsu C, Lo M, Chien S, Tain Y. Low urinary citrulline/arginine ratio associated with blood pressure abnormalities and arterial stiffness in childhood chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2016;10:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Early assessments of BP load abnormalities, urinary biomarkers in the CIT-ARG-NO pathway, and arterial stiffness parameters should increase early preventive care toward decreasing hypertension and CV remodeling in pediatric CKD. ..
  20. Tain Y, Lee W, Wu K, Leu S, Chan J. Maternal High Fructose Intake Increases the Vulnerability to Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Offspring. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data implicated that specific therapy targeting on nutrient sensing signals, oxidative stress, and SEH may be a promising approach to prevent hypertension in children and mothers exposed to high-fructose and high-fat consumption. ..
  21. Tain Y, Joles J. Reprogramming: A Preventive Strategy in Hypertension Focusing on the Kidney. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;17: pubmed publisher
    ..It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies. ..
  22. Tain Y, Hsu C. Targeting on Asymmetric Dimethylarginine-Related Nitric Oxide-Reactive Oxygen Species Imbalance to Reprogram the Development of Hypertension. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
  23. Tain Y, Chan J, Hsu C. Maternal Fructose Intake Affects Transcriptome Changes and Programmed Hypertension in Offspring in Later Life. Nutrients. 2016;8: pubmed
    ..Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand early-life nutrient-gene interactions and to develop effective reprogramming strategies for treating hypertension and other HF consumption-related diseases. ..
  24. Yu H, Tain Y, Sheen J, Tiao M, Chen C, Kuo H, et al. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. ..
  25. Chang H, Tain Y. Postnatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension is related to the regulation of melatonin and its receptors. Steroids. 2016;108:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings would offer potential therapeutic approaches to prevent programmed hypertension in premature baby receiving glucocorticoids. ..
  26. Tain Y, Hsu C, Lee C, Lin Y, Tsai C. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring Born to Suramin-Treated Mothers. Biol Reprod. 2016;95:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested interplay among suramin, ADMA-NO pathway, and H2S synthesis pathway in programmed hypertension. Furthermore, NAC administration in pregnant rats with hypertension prevented programmed hypertension in adult offspring. ..
  27. Lu P, Sheen J, Yu H, Lin Y, Chen C, Tiao M, et al. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2016;124:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake. ..
  28. Tain Y, Chan S, Chan J. Biochemical basis for pharmacological intervention as a reprogramming strategy against hypertension and kidney disease of developmental origin. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;153:82-90 pubmed publisher
  29. Lee W, Wu C, Chuang Y, Tain Y, Chiang P. Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan (Hachimi-jio-gan) can ameliorate cyclophosphamide-induced ongoing bladder overactivity and acidic adenosine triphosphate solution-induced hyperactivity on rats prestimulated bladder. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;184:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..BWDHW pretreatment can reduce acidic ATP solution-provoked hyperactivity by preventing TRPV1 receptor overexpression in CYP-treated bladder mucosa and inhibiting P2X3 receptor overexpression in naïve bladder mucosa. ..
  30. Sheen J, Chen Y, Hsu M, Tain Y, Huang Y, Tiao M, et al. Melatonin Alleviates Liver Apoptosis in Bile Duct Ligation Young Rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, BDL in young rats caused liver apoptosis. Melatonin rescued the apoptotic changes via the intrinsic pathway, and possibly through the MT2 receptor. Melatonin also reversed ER stress induced by BDL. ..
  31. Tain Y, Huang L, Chan J, Lee C. Transcriptome analysis in rat kidneys: importance of genes involved in programmed hypertension. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:4744-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of DEGs identified by the RNA-Seq in this study deserve further clarification, to develop the potential interventions in the prevention of programmed hypertension. ..
  32. Sheen J, Hsieh C, Tain Y, Li S, Yu H, Chen C, et al. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:533 pubmed publisher
    ..Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. ..
  33. Tain Y, Wu M, Lin Y. Sex differences in renal transcriptome and programmed hypertension in offspring exposed to prenatal dexamethasone. Steroids. 2016;115:40-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Early identification of sex-specific underlying mechanisms could provide novel deprogramming strategy to reach maximal optimization in both sexes. ..
  34. Tain Y, Lee W, Hsu C, Lee W, Huang L, Lee C, et al. Asymmetric dimethylarginine is associated with developmental programming of adult kidney disease and hypertension in offspring of streptozotocin-treated mothers. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55420 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of the ADMA-NO pathway by citrulline supplementation may be a potential approach to prevent these conditions. ..
  35. Wang S, Lin K, Chien S, Huang L, Hsu C, Tain Y. RNA silencing targeting PIN (protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase) attenuates the development of hypertension in young spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2014;8:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PIN siRNA reduced PIN expression in vitro and in vivo. PIN siRNA therapy attenuates hypertension in SHRs at 12 weeks of age. Our results suggest that PIN is involved in the development of hypertension. ..
  36. Chien S, Lin K, Kuo H, Huang C, Lin Y, Huang L, et al. Two different approaches to restore renal nitric oxide and prevent hypertension in young spontaneously hypertensive rats: l-citrulline and nitrate. Transl Res. 2014;163:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that both NOS-dependent and -independent approaches in the prehypertensive stage toward augmentation of NO can prevent the development of hypertension in young SHRs. ..
  37. Lin Y, Tsai C, Huang L, Sheen J, Tiao M, Yu H, et al. Detrimental effect of maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet on the reproductive function in the adult female offspring rat: roles of insulin-like growth factor 2 and the ovarian circadian clock. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017;34:817-826 pubmed publisher
  38. Tain Y, Hsu C. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
  39. Tain Y, Huang L, Hsu C. Developmental Programming of Adult Disease: Reprogramming by Melatonin?. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, there is an urgent need to understand reprogramming mechanisms of melatonin and to translate experimental research into clinical practice for halting a growing list of DOHaD-related NCDs. ..
  40. Tain Y, Hsu C. Toxic Dimethylarginines: Asymmetric  Dimethylarginine (ADMA) and Symmetric  Dimethylarginine (SDMA). Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impact of ADMA and SDMA on a wide range of human diseases is essential to the development of specific therapies against diseases related to ADMA and SDMA. ..
  41. Tain Y, Lin Y, Sheen J, Yu H, Tiao M, Chen C, et al. High Fat Diets Sex-Specifically Affect the Renal Transcriptome and Program Obesity, Kidney Injury, and Hypertension in the Offspring. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel personalized dietary intervention to prevent obesity and related disorders. ..
  42. Tain Y, Hsu C. Interplay between Oxidative Stress and Nutrient Sensing Signaling in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular programming is essential to developing early reprogramming interventions to combat the globally growing epidemic of CVD. ..