A Holmgren

Summary

Affiliation: Karolinska Institutet
Country: Sweden

Publications

  1. pmc Rod-derived Cone Viability Factor-2 is a novel bifunctional-thioredoxin-like protein with therapeutic potential
    Frederic Chalmel
    Division of Bioinformatics, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Basel, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    BMC Mol Biol 8:74. 2007
  2. ncbi Antioxidant function of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems
    A Holmgren
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Antioxid Redox Signal 2:811-20. 2000
  3. ncbi Thiol redox control via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems
    A Holmgren
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, The Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochem Soc Trans 33:1375-7. 2005
  4. ncbi NMR structure of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 3-glutathione mixed disulfide complex: implications for the enzymatic mechanism
    K Nordstrand
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 286:541-52. 1999
  5. ncbi Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of glutaredoxin 2, an atypical glutaredoxin from Escherichia coli
    A Vlamis-Gardikas
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 272:11236-43. 1997
  6. ncbi High-level expression in Escherichia coli of selenocysteine-containing rat thioredoxin reductase utilizing gene fusions with engineered bacterial-type SECIS elements and co-expression with the selA, selB and selC genes
    E S Arner
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, S 171 77, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 292:1003-16. 1999
  7. ncbi Essential role of selenium in the catalytic activities of mammalian thioredoxin reductase revealed by characterization of recombinant enzymes with selenocysteine mutations
    L Zhong
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 275:18121-8. 2000
  8. pmc Three-dimensional structure of a mammalian thioredoxin reductase: implications for mechanism and evolution of a selenocysteine-dependent enzyme
    T Sandalova
    Division of Molecular Structural Biology and Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9533-8. 2001
  9. ncbi Efficient reduction of lipoamide and lipoic acid by mammalian thioredoxin reductase
    E S Arner
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 225:268-74. 1996
  10. ncbi Characterization of Escherichia coli NrdH. A glutaredoxin-like protein with a thioredoxin-like activity profile
    A Jordan
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 272:18044-50. 1997

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications69

  1. pmc Rod-derived Cone Viability Factor-2 is a novel bifunctional-thioredoxin-like protein with therapeutic potential
    Frederic Chalmel
    Division of Bioinformatics, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Basel, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    BMC Mol Biol 8:74. 2007
    ..We have previously identified a trophic factor "Rod-derived Cone Viability Factor (RdCVF) that is secreted by rods and promote cone viability in a mouse model of the disease...
  2. ncbi Antioxidant function of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems
    A Holmgren
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Antioxid Redox Signal 2:811-20. 2000
    ..The mechanism of glutaredoxins as efficient general GSH-mixed disulfide oxidoreductases may protect proteins from inactivation as well as play a major role in general redox signaling...
  3. ncbi Thiol redox control via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems
    A Holmgren
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, The Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochem Soc Trans 33:1375-7. 2005
    ..Here, we give a brief overview of the human Trx and Grx systems. The main part focuses on our current knowledge about mitochondrial Grx2, which facilitates mitochondrial redox homoeostasis during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis...
  4. ncbi NMR structure of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 3-glutathione mixed disulfide complex: implications for the enzymatic mechanism
    K Nordstrand
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 286:541-52. 1999
    ..A comparison of glutathione binding in Grx3-SG and ligand binding in other members of the thioredoxin superfamily is presented, which illustrates the highly conserved intermolecular interactions in this protein family...
  5. ncbi Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of glutaredoxin 2, an atypical glutaredoxin from Escherichia coli
    A Vlamis-Gardikas
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 272:11236-43. 1997
    ..Grx2 being radically different from the presently known glutaredoxins in terms of molecular weight, amino acid sequence, catalytic activity, and lack of a consensus GSH-binding site is the first member of a novel class of glutaredoxins...
  6. ncbi High-level expression in Escherichia coli of selenocysteine-containing rat thioredoxin reductase utilizing gene fusions with engineered bacterial-type SECIS elements and co-expression with the selA, selB and selC genes
    E S Arner
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, S 171 77, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 292:1003-16. 1999
    ..These results show that with the strategy utilized here, the capacity of selenoprotein synthesis in E. coli is more than sufficient for making possible the use of the bacteria for production of recombinant selenoproteins...
  7. ncbi Essential role of selenium in the catalytic activities of mammalian thioredoxin reductase revealed by characterization of recombinant enzymes with selenocysteine mutations
    L Zhong
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 275:18121-8. 2000
    ..Thus selenium is required for the catalytic activities of TrxR explaining the essential role of this trace element in cell growth...
  8. pmc Three-dimensional structure of a mammalian thioredoxin reductase: implications for mechanism and evolution of a selenocysteine-dependent enzyme
    T Sandalova
    Division of Molecular Structural Biology and Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9533-8. 2001
    ..Our results suggest that mammalian TrxR evolved from the GR scaffold rather than from its prokaryotic counterpart. This evolutionary switch renders cell growth dependent on selenium...
  9. ncbi Efficient reduction of lipoamide and lipoic acid by mammalian thioredoxin reductase
    E S Arner
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 225:268-74. 1996
    ..Our results suggest that in mammalian cells a significant part of the therapeutically important reduction of lipoic acid is catalyzed by thioredoxin reductase...
  10. ncbi Characterization of Escherichia coli NrdH. A glutaredoxin-like protein with a thioredoxin-like activity profile
    A Jordan
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 272:18044-50. 1997
    ..We also show that NrdI, encoded by all nrdEF operons, has a stimulatory effect on ribonucleotide reduction...
  11. ncbi Reactivity of glutaredoxins 1, 2 and 3 from Escherichia coli and protein disulfide isomerase towards glutathionyl-mixed disulfides in ribonuclease A
    J Lundström-Ljung
    Medical Nobel Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    FEBS Lett 443:85-8. 1999
    ..However, it could be measured only after a characteristic lag phase that was shortened by all three E. coli Grxs in a concentration-dependent manner. A role of the glutaredoxin mechanism in the endoplasmic reticulum is suggested...
  12. ncbi Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms
    M Lundberg
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 276:26269-75. 2001
    ..We further showed that one of the mRNA isoforms corresponding to Grx2a encoded a functional N-terminal mitochondrial translocation signal...
  13. ncbi Glutaredoxin-3 from Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequence, 1H AND 15N NMR assignments, and structural analysis
    F Aslund
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 271:6736-45. 1996
    ..Thus, despite an identical active site disulfide motif and a similar secondary structure and tertiary fold, Grx3 and Grx1 display large functional differences in in vitro protein disulfide oxido-reduction reactions...
  14. ncbi High-level expression of fully active human glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) in E. coli and characterization of Cys7 to Ser mutant protein
    C A Padilla
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    FEBS Lett 378:69-73. 1996
    ....
  15. ncbi Rat and calf thioredoxin reductase are homologous to glutathione reductase with a carboxyl-terminal elongation containing a conserved catalytically active penultimate selenocysteine residue
    L Zhong
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 273:8581-91. 1998
    ..This showed that the carboxyl-terminal motif was essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme...
  16. ncbi Decreased expression of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in placentae from pregnancies with pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction
    L Sahlin
    Division for Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Placenta 21:603-9. 2000
    ..We conclude that the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin reducing systems are affected in placenta from pregnancies with pre-eclampsia and/or growth restriction of fetuses, and that the decrease correlates to the severity of the condition...
  17. ncbi The expression of glutaredoxin is increased in the human cervix in term pregnancy and immediately post-partum, particularly after prostaglandin-induced delivery
    L Sahlin
    Division for Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Mol Hum Reprod 6:1147-53. 2000
    ..Glutaredoxin mRNA levels are up-regulated after prostaglandin treatment, which is effective and the most commonly used substance for cervical priming and induction of labour...
  18. pmc Thiols decrease cytokine levels and down-regulate the expression of CD30 on human allergen-specific T helper (Th) 0 and Th2 cells
    A Bengtsson
    Department of Medicine, Unit of Clinical Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Clin Exp Immunol 123:350-60. 2001
    ..In the likely event that CD30 and its soluble counterpart prove to contribute to the pathogenesis in Th2 related diseases such as allergy, NAC may be considered as a future therapeutic agent in the treatment of these diseases...
  19. ncbi Two resident ER-proteins, CaBP1 and CaBP2, with thioredoxin domains, are substrates for thioredoxin reductase: comparison with protein disulfide isomerase
    J Lundström-Ljung
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    FEBS Lett 357:305-8. 1995
    ..Thus, the well known activity of PDI is not unique in the endoplasmic reticulum and CaBP1 and CaBP2 may be regarded as functional equivalents...
  20. ncbi Analysis of the inhibition of mammalian thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and glutaredoxin by cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and its major metabolite, the glutathione-platinum complex
    E S Arner
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm, Sweden
    Free Radic Biol Med 31:1170-8. 2001
    ....
  21. ncbi Combinations of protein-disulfide isomerase domains show that there is little correlation between isomerase activity and wild-type growth
    R Xiao
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 276:27975-80. 2001
    ..Thus, most of the PDI structure is dispensable for its essential function in yeast, and high-level isomerase activity appears not required for viability or rapid growth...
  22. ncbi Truncated thioredoxin (Trx80) induces production of interleukin-12 and enhances CD14 expression in human monocytes
    K Pekkari
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Blood 97:3184-90. 2001
    ..The results showed that Trx80 is a potent cytokine for normal human monocytes and directs the immune system in favor of a Th1 response via IL-12 production...
  23. ncbi Immunohistochemical determination of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin distribution in the human cervix, and possible relation to cervical ripening
    J Lysell
    Division for Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, L5 01, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Gynecol Endocrinol 17:303-10. 2003
    ..g. transcription factors and enzymes. Secreted Trx may participate in removing inhibitors of collagen-degrading metalloproteinases...
  24. pmc Two additional glutaredoxins exist in Escherichia coli: glutaredoxin 3 is a hydrogen donor for ribonucleotide reductase in a thioredoxin/glutaredoxin 1 double mutant
    F Aslund
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:9813-7. 1994
    ..The physiological functions of Grx2 and Grx3 remain to be determined...
  25. ncbi Purification from placenta, amino acid sequence, structure comparisons and cDNA cloning of human glutaredoxin
    C A Padilla
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Sweden
    Eur J Biochem 227:27-34. 1995
    ..A cDNA that encodes the entire glutaredoxin gene (grx) and flanking sequences was isolated from a human spleen cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA (0.8 kb) was determined, including the complete grx gene...
  26. ncbi EPR investigation of the active site of recombinant human 5-lipoxygenase: inhibition by selenide
    T Hammarberg
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochemistry 40:6371-8. 2001
    ..2, typical for enzymatically active 5LO. Lipid hydroperoxide added to selenide-treated 5LO could not reinstate the signal at g = 6.2, indicating an irreversible change of the coordination of the active site iron...
  27. ncbi Regulation of thioredoxin mRNA in the rat uterus by gonadal steroids
    L Sahlin
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 68:203-9. 1999
    ..None of these hormones affected the hepatic thioredoxin mRNA level in the same animals...
  28. ncbi Selenite and selenate inhibit human lymphocyte growth via different mechanisms
    G Spyrou
    The Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Cancer Res 56:4407-12. 1996
    ..Ribonucleotide reductase activity was inhibited in an in vitro assay by selenite and selenodiglutathione but not by selenate. These results show that selenite and selenate use different mechanisms to inhibit cell growth...
  29. ncbi Truncated thioredoxin is a mitogenic cytokine for resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is present in human plasma
    K Pekkari
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 275:37474-80. 2000
    ..In conclusion, the naturally occurring Trx80 is a novel mitogenic cytokine for normal resting human blood mononuclear cells...
  30. ncbi Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase
    E S Arner
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Biochem 267:6102-9. 2000
    ....
  31. ncbi Characterization of homogeneous recombinant glutaredoxin from Escherichia coli: purification from an inducible lambda PL expression system and properties of a novel elongated form
    O Bjornberg
    Department of Physiological Chemistry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Protein Expr Purif 2:287-95. 1991
    ..The molar extinction coefficient of native glutaredoxin (12,500 M-1 cm-1 at 280 nm) was 15% higher than expected from its content of one Trp and four Tyr residues...
  32. ncbi In vivo transcription of nrdAB operon and of grxA and fpg genes is triggered in Escherichia coli lacking both thioredoxin and glutaredoxin 1 or thioredoxin and glutathione, respectively
    R Gallardo-Madueno
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Espana
    J Biol Chem 273:18382-8. 1998
    ..These results suggest that transcription of grxA might share common redox regulatory mechanism(s) with that of the fpg gene, involved in the repair of 8-oxoguanine in DNA...
  33. ncbi Structural basis for the thioredoxin-like activity profile of the glutaredoxin-like NrdH-redoxin from Escherichia coli
    M Stehr
    Division of Molecular Structural Biology and the Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, S 171 77 Sweden
    J Biol Chem 276:35836-41. 2001
    ..coli thioredoxin reductase at this pocket and also via a loop that is complementary to a crevice in the reductase in a similar manner as observed in the E. coli thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase complex...
  34. ncbi New thioredoxins and glutaredoxins as electron donors of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate reductase
    C H Lillig
    Biochemistry of Plants, Faculty of Biology, Ruhr University, 44780 Bochum, Germany
    J Biol Chem 274:7695-8. 1999
    ..9 microM), whereas the Km trx2 was considerably higher (34.2 microM). The results agree with previous in vivo data suggesting that Trx1 or Grx1 is essential for sulfate reduction but not for ribonucleotide reduction in E. coli...
  35. ncbi NMR structure of oxidized glutaredoxin 3 from Escherichia coli
    K Nordstrand
    Center for Structural Biochemistry Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, S 141 57, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 303:423-32. 2000
    ..This could explain the observed low affinity of glutaredoxins for S-blocked glutathione analogues, in spite of the fact that glutaredoxins are highly specific reductants of glutathione mixed disulfides...
  36. ncbi Glutaredoxin protects cerebellar granule neurons from dopamine-induced apoptosis by activating NF-kappa B via Ref-1
    D Daily
    Department of Neurobiochemistry, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 Israel
    J Biol Chem 276:1335-44. 2001
    ..These results show that Grx2 exerts its anti apoptotic activity through the activation of Ref-1, which then activates NF-kappaB...
  37. ncbi Glutaredoxin protects cerebellar granule neurons from dopamine-induced apoptosis by dual activation of the ras-phosphoinositide 3-kinase and jun n-terminal kinase pathways
    D Daily
    Department of Neurobiochemistry, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    J Biol Chem 276:21618-26. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate that dual activation of Ras/phosphoinositide 3-kinase and AP-1 cascades, which are mediated by Ref-1, is an essential component of the Grx2 mechanism of action...
  38. ncbi Solution structure of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin-2 shows similarity to mammalian glutathione-S-transferases
    B Xia
    Department of Molecular Biology and Skaggs Institute of Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Biol 310:907-18. 2001
    ..The primary function of Grx2 as a GST-like glutaredoxin is to catalyze reversible glutathionylation of proteins with GSH in cellular redox regulation including stress responses...
  39. ncbi Sequence-specific 1H n.m.r. assignments and determination of the three-dimensional structure of reduced Escherichia coli glutaredoxin
    P Sodano
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biophysik, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Mol Biol 221:1311-24. 1991
    ..The active site Cys11-Pro-Tyr-Cys14 is located after the first beta-strand and occupies the latter part of the loop connecting this strand with the first helix...
  40. ncbi Structural and functional characterization of the mutant Escherichia coli glutaredoxin (C14----S) and its mixed disulfide with glutathione
    J H Bushweller
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochemistry 31:9288-93. 1992
    ....
  41. ncbi Cloning and expression of the glutaredoxin (grx) gene of Escherichia coli
    J O Hoog
    Gene 43:13-21. 1986
    ..GRX production was amplified at least 100 fold in strain JM103[pEMBL9ECG] over that in wild-type E. coli cells. The protein purified from the overproducing strain was identical in aa sequence with the previously analyzed GRX protein...
  42. pmc Construction and characterization of glutaredoxin-negative mutants of Escherichia coli
    M Russel
    Laboratory of Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:990-4. 1988
    ..In rich medium, very slowly growing, unstable transductants were obtained that at high frequency gave rise to better growing cells. One such isolate, A410, was shown to still lack glutaredoxin and thioredoxin...
  43. ncbi The primary structure of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin. Distant homology with thioredoxins in a superfamily of small proteins with a redox-active cystine disulfide/cysteine dithiol
    J O Hoog
    Eur J Biochem 136:223-32. 1983
    ..The mixed properties are compatible with this conclusion, the superfamily assignment, and the differences in biological activity...
  44. ncbi The primary structure of calf thymus glutaredoxin. Homology with the corresponding Escherichia coli protein but elongation at both ends and with an additional half-cystine/cysteine pair
    I M Klintrot
    Eur J Biochem 144:417-23. 1984
    ..coli protein. In contrast to the bacterial glutaredoxin, the calf thymus protein contains two additional half-cystines/cysteine residues at positions 74 and 78, which may be of regulatory significance...
  45. pmc NMR structure of oxidized Escherichia coli glutaredoxin: comparison with reduced E. coli glutaredoxin and functionally related proteins
    T H Xia
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biophysik, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Honggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland
    Protein Sci 1:310-21. 1992
    ..coli glutaredoxin showed a general trend to increase upon reduction. Only the sulfhydryl group of Cys 11 is exposed to the solvent, whereas that of Cys 14 is buried and solvent inaccessible...
  46. ncbi Assignment of the proton NMR spectrum of reduced and oxidized thioredoxin: sequence-specific assignments, secondary structure, and global fold
    H J Dyson
    Department of Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California 92037
    Biochemistry 28:7074-87. 1989
    ..While the overall fold of oxidized thioredoxin is the same in solution and in the crystalline state, some small differences in local conformation are apparent...
  47. pmc Thioredoxin or glutaredoxin in Escherichia coli is essential for sulfate reduction but not for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis
    M Russel
    Laboratory of Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    J Bacteriol 172:1923-9. 1990
    ..Thus, E. coli must contain a third hydrogen donor active with ribonucleotide reductase...
  48. ncbi The levels of ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin, glutaredoxin 1, and GSH are balanced in Escherichia coli K12
    A Miranda-Vizuete
    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Centro de Experimentación Biológica, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Espana
    J Biol Chem 271:19099-103. 1996
    ..Restoration of nearly normal levels of both GSH content and redox status cure the growth defect...
  49. ncbi Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of recombinant Escherichia coli glutaredoxin. Sequence-specific assignments and secondary structure determination of the oxidized form
    P Sodano
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biophysik, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland
    Eur J Biochem 200:369-77. 1991
    ..The protein further contains three helices extending approximately from residues 13-28, 45-54 and 72-84...
  50. ncbi Assignment of the 15N NMR spectra of reduced and oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin
    K Chandrasekhar
    Department of Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA 92037
    FEBS Lett 284:178-83. 1991
    ....
  51. pmc Three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli thioredoxin-S2 to 2.8 A resolution
    A Holmgren
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 72:2305-9. 1975
    ..Thioredoxin is an example of a protein with the active center located on a protrusion rather than in a cleft, thus demonstrating the existence of male proteins...
  52. pmc Conserved immunoglobulin-like features in a family of periplasmic pilus chaperones in bacteria
    A Holmgren
    Department of Molecular Biology, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden
    EMBO J 11:1617-22. 1992
    ....
  53. ncbi Immunohistochemical localization of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin in human endometrium: a possible association with pinopodes
    A Stavreus-Evers
    Division for Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Mol Hum Reprod 8:546-51. 2002
    ..The intense immunostaining concomitant with the presence of pinopodes suggests that Grx plays an important role during implantation, possibly by protecting the epithelial cells from apoptotic actions of the trophoblast cells...
  54. ncbi Electric chips for rapid detection and quantification of nucleic acids
    M Gabig-Ciminska
    Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, S 10691, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biosens Bioelectron 19:537-46. 2004
    ..The assay time depends on the sensitivity required. Artificial RNA target and 16S rRNA, in amounts ranging from 10(11) to 10(10) molecules, were assayed within 25 min and 4 h, respectively...
  55. pmc Role of thioredoxin in the response of normal and transformed cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors
    J S Ungerstedt
    Cell Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:673-8. 2005
    ..Thus, Trx, independent of the caspase apoptotic pathway, is an important determinant of resistance of cells to HDACi-induced cell death...
  56. ncbi Three-dimensional solution structure of the reduced form of Escherichia coli thioredoxin determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    H J Dyson
    Department of Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California 92037
    Biochemistry 29:4129-36. 1990
    ..This conformational change has important implications for the mechanism of thioredoxin as a protein disulfide oxidoreductase...
  57. ncbi Crystal structure of chaperone protein PapD reveals an immunoglobulin fold
    A Holmgren
    Department of Molecular Biology, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden
    Nature 342:248-51. 1989
    ..The chaperone protein PapD mediates assembly of pili in Escherichia coli. Its polypeptide chain folds into two immunoglobulin-type domains that are homologous in sequence to the human lymphocyte differentiation antigen Leu-1/CD5...
  58. ncbi Effect of disulfide bridge formation on the NMR spectrum of a protein: studies on oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin
    K Chandrasekhar
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037
    J Biomol NMR 4:411-32. 1994
    ..These results show that, consistent with the biochemical behavior of thioredoxin, there are minimal differences in backbone configuration between the oxidized and reduced forms of the protein...
  59. ncbi High-resolution solution structures of oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin
    M F Jeng
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037
    Structure 2:853-68. 1994
    ..We therefore undertook high-resolution solution structural studies of the two forms of Escherichia coli thioredoxin in order to detect subtle conformational differences...
  60. ncbi Unique gene organization of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase in Mycobacterium leprae
    B Wieles
    Department of Immunohaematology and Blood Bank, Leiden University Hospital, The Netherlands
    Mol Microbiol 16:921-9. 1995
    ..leprae. These findings demonstrate the very unusual phenomenon of a single gene coding for both the substrate (thioredoxin) and the enzyme (thioredoxin reductase), which seems to be unique to M. leprae...
  61. ncbi The gene for human glutaredoxin (GLRX) is localized to human chromosome 5q14
    C A Padilla
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden bb1papec lucano uco es
    Genomics 32:455-7. 1996
    ..This localization at chromosome 5 was in agreement with the somatic cell hybrid analysis, using DNA from a human-hamster and a human-mouse hybrid panel and using a human glutaredoxin cDNA as a probe...
  62. ncbi Nucleotide sequence of the thioredoxin gene from Escherichia coli
    J O Hoog
    Biosci Rep 4:917-23. 1984
    ..The predicted amino acid sequence differs by two inversions from the previously given thioredoxin sequence. The revised sequence is presented and the results further show that thioredoxins from E. coli B and K12 are identical...
  63. ncbi Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data for thioredoxin from Escherichia coli B
    A Holmgren
    J Mol Biol 54:387-90. 1970
  64. ncbi Thioredoxin. 6. The amino acid sequence of the protein from escherichia coli B
    A Holmgren
    Eur J Biochem 6:475-84. 1968
  65. ncbi Structure of oxidized thioredoxin to 4 with 5 A resolution
    B O Soderberg
    J Mol Biol 90:143-52. 1974
  66. ncbi Studies on the structure of T4 thioredoxin. II. Amino acid sequence of the protein and comparison with thioredoxin from Escherichia coli
    B M Sjoberg
    J Biol Chem 247:8063-8. 1972
  67. ncbi The primary structure of thioredoxin from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. 7119
    F K Gleason
    J Biol Chem 260:9567-73. 1985
    ..The sequence of Anabaena thioredoxin shows a definite homology to the protein from Escherichia coli, with 49% residue identities occurring in the proteins when aligned at the active site disulfide...
  68. ncbi Preliminary X-ray study of papD crystals from uropathogenic Escherichia coli
    A Holmgren
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Molecular Biology, Uppsala
    J Mol Biol 203:279-80. 1988
    ..0 A, b = 58.1 A and c = 64.0 A. The crystal data, together with a subunit molecular weight of 24,500 suggest that there is one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The crystals are stable in X-rays and diffract to a resolution beyond 2.0 A...
  69. ncbi Expression analysis of the nrdHIEF operon from Escherichia coli. Conditions that trigger the transcript level in vivo
    F Monje-Casas
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
    J Biol Chem 276:18031-7. 2001
    ..We propose that E. coli might optimize the responses to different stimuli by co-evolving the expression levels for its multiple reductases and electron donors...