Shyam Sundar

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Novel mechanism of drug resistance in kala azar field isolates
    Neeloo Singh
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    J Infect Dis 188:600-7. 2003
  2. doi request reprint Single-dose liposomal amphotericin B for visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    N Engl J Med 362:504-12. 2010
  3. pmc Diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis by nucleic acid detection using PCR
    Pankaj Srivastava
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e19304. 2011
  4. pmc Visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008
    Paritosh Malaviya
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e14751. 2011
  5. pmc Interferon-gamma release assay (modified QuantiFERON) as a potential marker of infection for Leishmania donovani, a proof of concept study
    Kamlesh Gidwani
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1042. 2011
  6. pmc Liposomal amphotericin B and leishmaniasis: dose and response
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Glob Infect Dis 2:159-66. 2010
  7. pmc Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis
    Om Prakash Singh
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1874. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Oral miltefosine for Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a randomised trial
    Shyam Sundar
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 18:96-100. 2013
  9. doi request reprint Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy
    Shyam Sundar
    Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 14:53-63. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Efficacy of miltefosine in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India after a decade of use
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 55:543-50. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Novel mechanism of drug resistance in kala azar field isolates
    Neeloo Singh
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    J Infect Dis 188:600-7. 2003
    ..We speculate that protein phosphorylation may play a role in signal transduction pathway in the parasite after exposure to drug-conferring resistance...
  2. doi request reprint Single-dose liposomal amphotericin B for visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    N Engl J Med 362:504-12. 2010
    ..We wanted to determine whether the efficacy of a single infusion of liposomal amphotericin B was inferior to conventional parenteral therapy, consisting of 15 alternate-day infusions of amphotericin B deoxycholate...
  3. pmc Diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis by nucleic acid detection using PCR
    Pankaj Srivastava
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e19304. 2011
    ..The present study was planned to design a Leishmania specific diagnostic assay and to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity on a sample size, which to the best of our knowledge is the largest ever screened in one study...
  4. pmc Visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008
    Paritosh Malaviya
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e14751. 2011
    ..To understand the VL seasonality, annual and monthly variations of VL incidence and its relationship to meteorological variables, the numbers of VL cases reported in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008 were studied...
  5. pmc Interferon-gamma release assay (modified QuantiFERON) as a potential marker of infection for Leishmania donovani, a proof of concept study
    Kamlesh Gidwani
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1042. 2011
    ..We propose an interferon-gamma release assay (IFN-γRA) as a novel marker for latent L. donovani infection...
  6. pmc Liposomal amphotericin B and leishmaniasis: dose and response
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Glob Infect Dis 2:159-66. 2010
    ..With the availability of Liposomal amphotericin B at a preferential pricing in the endemic areas, short course combination therapy can become a viable alternative...
  7. pmc Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis
    Om Prakash Singh
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1874. 2012
    ..Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations...
  8. doi request reprint Oral miltefosine for Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a randomised trial
    Shyam Sundar
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 18:96-100. 2013
    ..Our objective was to evaluate oral miltefosine for its potential to provide effective as well as tolerable treatment for this disease...
  9. doi request reprint Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy
    Shyam Sundar
    Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 14:53-63. 2013
    ..The treatment of VL is challenging. The duration of treatment is long, and drugs are toxic thereby needing monitoring and hospitalization...
  10. doi request reprint Efficacy of miltefosine in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India after a decade of use
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 55:543-50. 2012
    ..Its unrestricted use has raised concern about its continued effectiveness. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of miltefosine for the treatment of VL after a decade of use in India...
  11. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of kala-azar
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Natl Med J India 25:85-9. 2012
    ..Early diagnosis, complete treatment of cases, integrated vector management, effective disease surveillance, and clinical and operational research should be the five key components of the strategy to achieve this goal...
  12. pmc Drug targeting to infectious diseases by nanoparticles surface functionalized with special biomolecules
    Shyam Sundar
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Curr Med Chem 19:3196-202. 2012
    ..These new strategies are likely to minimize drug degradation and loss, increase drug availability, and opens up new vistas for drug delivery...
  13. pmc No evidence for association between SLC11A1 and visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Sanjana Mehrotra
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, OS 221 005, India
    BMC Med Genet 12:71. 2011
    ..Most studies undertaken to date were under-powered, and none has been replicated within a population. Association with tuberculosis has replicated variably across populations. Here we investigate SLC11A1 and VL in India...
  14. doi request reprint Household cost-of-illness of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India
    Shyam Sundar
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 15:50-4. 2010
    ..To determine the cost of kala-azar (KA) to patients in Bihar, India...
  15. ncbi request reprint Comparative evaluation of parasitology and serological tests in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a phase III diagnostic accuracy study
    S Sundar
    Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 12:284-9. 2007
    ..986). Although DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test were highly sensitive with excellent specificity, the ease of use of the latter makes it most suitable for the diagnosis of VL in the field conditions...
  16. doi request reprint Short-course paromomycin treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India: 14-day vs 21-day treatment
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 49:914-8. 2009
    ..Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is far from satisfactory. There is an urgent need for a therapy that is efficacious, safe, affordable, and of short duration...
  17. ncbi request reprint Safety and efficacy of high-dose infusions of a preformed amphotericin B fat emulsion for treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:700-3. 2009
    ..In this study, ABLE was safe and had excellent efficacy when given as a bolus of 15 mg/kg. More studies with larger number of patients and higher doses are needed to establish acceptable, safe and efficacious regimen...
  18. doi request reprint New treatment approach in Indian visceral leishmaniasis: single-dose liposomal amphotericin B followed by short-course oral miltefosine
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 47:1000-6. 2008
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Paromomycin in the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, Varanasi 221005, India
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 17:787-94. 2008
    ..All these factors increase the cost of the treatment. The development of resistance to pentavalent antimonials in patients with visceral leishmaniasis in North Bihar, India, has added another dimension to the problem...
  20. ncbi request reprint Amphotericin B treatment for Indian visceral leishmaniasis: response to 15 daily versus alternate-day infusions
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 45:556-61. 2007
    ..daily administration) and dose (1 vs. 0.75 mg/kg) and to determine whether the duration of amphotericin B treatment in Bihar, India, can be shortened to 15 days...
  21. ncbi request reprint Injectable paromomycin for Visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Shyam Sundar
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
    N Engl J Med 356:2571-81. 2007
    ..Safe, effective, and affordable new therapies are needed. We conducted a randomized, controlled, phase 3 open-label study comparing paromomycin, an aminoglycoside, with amphotericin B, the present standard of care in Bihar, India...
  22. doi request reprint Comparison of short-course multidrug treatment with standard therapy for visceral leishmaniasis in India: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Lancet 377:477-86. 2011
    ..Improved treatment approaches are needed for visceral leishmaniasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of three potential short-course combination treatments compared with the standard monotherapy in India...
  23. pmc Antimony toxicity
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 7:4267-77. 2010
    ..Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically...
  24. pmc Noninvasive molecular diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis
    Manisha Vaish
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2003-5. 2011
    ..This method is simple and well tolerated and has good potential for development, showing 83% sensitivity with 90.56% specificity in control groups...
  25. doi request reprint Safety of a pre-formulated amphotericin B lipid emulsion for the treatment of Indian Kala-azar
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, and Muzaffarpur, India
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1208-12. 2008
    ..There was no dose response linear correlation. In this preliminary study, AB formulated in a lipid emulsion vehicle was safe and effective for the treatment of VL in India...
  26. pmc Pharmacokinetics of oral sitamaquine taken with or without food and safety and efficacy for treatment of visceral leishmaniais: a randomized study in Bihar, India
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala Azar Medical Research Centre, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:892-900. 2011
    ..8-94.4%) for sitamaquine and 95% (95% confidence interval = 75.1-99.9) for AmB. Sitamaquine can be taken regardless of food intake, was generally well tolerated, and showed potential efficacy in patients with visceral leishmaniasis...
  27. doi request reprint Molecular and serological markers of Leishmania donovani infection in healthy individuals from endemic areas of Bihar, India
    Pankaj Srivastava
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 18:548-54. 2013
    ..Recent epidemiological reports indicate that asymptomatic human infections with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or Kala-azar (KA), occur frequently in India. We explored markers of infection...
  28. pmc Genetic and functional evaluation of the role of DLL1 in susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Sanjana Mehrotra
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, OS 221 005, India
    Infect Genet Evol 12:1195-201. 2012
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India
    Rudra Pratap Singh
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Barcelona Centre for International Health Research CRESIB, Hospital Clínic Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 17:1345-8. 2012
    ..The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed. ..
  30. doi request reprint Antileishmanial activity of nano-amphotericin B deoxycholate
    Krishna Das Manandhar
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:376-80. 2008
    ..The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of a nano form of amphotericin B deoxycholate with that of conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis...
  31. pmc Genetic and functional evaluation of the role of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in north-east India
    Sanjana Mehrotra
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    BMC Med Genet 12:162. 2011
    ..Variants at CXCR1 and CXCR2 have been associated with susceptibility to cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Here we investigate the role of CXCR1/CXCR2 in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India...
  32. pmc Rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: comparison of two immunochromatographic strip tests for detection of anti-K39 antibody
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Clin Microbiol 44:251-3. 2006
    ..yielded comparable results for symptomatic infection and identified apparent subclinical infection in 15 to 32% of healthy residents in a region where visceral leishmaniasis is highly endemic...
  33. pmc A multiattribute utility evaluation of different methods for the detection of enteric protozoa causing diarrhea in AIDS patients
    Lekha Tuli
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    BMC Microbiol 10:11. 2010
    ..Thus, a diagnostic protocol was devised for rapid, sensitive and cost effective identification of the opportunistic enteric protozoa...
  34. ncbi request reprint Oral miltefosine treatment in children with mild to moderate Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Institutes of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 6 SK Gupta Nagar, Varanasi 221005, India
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:434-8. 2003
    ..Because approximately one-half of the visceral leishmaniasis patients worldwide are children, we performed a Phase I/II dose ranging study in the pediatric population in India...
  35. pmc Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis
    Dinesh Kumar
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
    J Clin Microbiol 51:3955-9. 2013
    ..We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality. ..
  36. pmc Persistence of Leishmania donovani antibodies in past visceral leishmaniasis cases in India
    Kamlesh Gidwani
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:346-8. 2011
    ..Antibody titers remained high for an extended period of time in past cases of VL. These results highlight the need to carefully elicit the history of patients with VL symptoms...
  37. pmc CD8 T cell exhaustion in human visceral leishmaniasis
    Shalini Gautam
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
    J Infect Dis 209:290-9. 2014
    ..We suggest CD8 T cells are driven to anergy/exhaustion in human VL, which affect their ability to contribute to protective immune responses. ..
  38. pmc In vitro susceptibility of Leishmania donovani to miltefosine in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Vijay Kumar Prajapati
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP, India Unit of Epidemiology and Control of Tropical Diseases, Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium National Institute of Pathology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Safdarjung Hospital Campus, New Delhi, India Unit of Molecular Parasitology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Department of Biomedical Sciences, Antwerp University, Antwerp, Belgium
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:750-4. 2013
    ..Our work highlights the need for careful monitoring of MIL susceptibility for implementation in national VL elimination programs...
  39. pmc Reassessment of immune correlates in human visceral leishmaniasis as defined by cytokine release in whole blood
    Om Prakash Singh
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:961-6. 2012
    ....
  40. doi request reprint Ambisome plus miltefosine for Indian patients with kala-azar
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:115-7. 2011
    ..Clinical Trials.gov identification number: NCT00371995...
  41. pmc Targeted killing of Leishmania donovani in vivo and in vitro with amphotericin B attached to functionalized carbon nanotubes
    Vijay Kumar Prajapati
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:874-9. 2011
    ..This study describes the antileishmanial efficacy of the novel drug formulation of amphotericin B (AmB) attached to functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) and compares it with AmB...
  42. pmc IL-10 neutralization promotes parasite clearance in splenic aspirate cells from patients with visceral leishmaniasis
    Shalini Gautam
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Infect Dis 204:1134-7. 2011
    ..These findings provide direct support for targeting IL-10 as an approach to therapy in human VL...
  43. ncbi request reprint Oral miltefosine for Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Institutes of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    N Engl J Med 347:1739-46. 2002
    ..We performed a clinical trial in India comparing miltefosine with the most effective standard treatment, amphotericin B...
  44. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of leishmanin skin test in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Kamlesh Gidwani
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:566-7. 2009
    ..Also, a lack of sensitivity of the LST was observed in cured VL patients. An LST antigen produced from L. donovani strains from India should be explored...
  45. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal seroepidemiologic study of visceral leishmaniasis in hyperendemic regions of Bihar, India
    Kamlesh Gidwani
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:345-6. 2009
    ..However, there was no significant difference in disease conversion among children (5-15 years of age) and adults (> 15 years of age). Seropositivity among asymptomatic persons is not a predictor for development of VL...
  46. pmc Seasonal variation in the prevalence of sand flies infected with Leishmania donovani
    Puja Tiwary
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
    PLoS ONE 8:e61370. 2013
    ..Estimation of the infectivity in the vector population, collected in different seasons, may be useful to better understanding the transmission dynamics of VL as well as to plan vector control measures...
  47. pmc In vitro antileishmanial drug susceptibility of clinical isolates from patients with Indian visceral leishmaniasis--status of newly introduced drugs
    Vijay Kumar Prajapati
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:655-7. 2012
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Endocrine changes in male HIV patients
    L P Meena
    Department of General Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP
    J Assoc Physicians India 59:365-6, 371. 2011
    ..To determine the frequency of adrenal, thyroid and gonadal dysfunction in HIV positive male patients and to evaluate the endocrine function at different level of CD4 cell counts...
  49. ncbi request reprint Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 42:608-13. 2006
    ..However, cost is a major constraint in the use of lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD), which is a less expensive lipid formulation, has not been tested for the treatment of VL in India...
  50. ncbi request reprint Oral miltefosine for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:S26-33. 2006
    ..5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) was established with a cure rate (94%) similar to that seen in adults. Miltefosine is the first oral antileishmanial drug with a high degree of safety and efficacy for the treatment of VL...
  51. ncbi request reprint Amphotericin B treatment for Indian visceral leishmaniasis: conventional versus lipid formulations
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 38:377-83. 2004
    ....
  52. pmc Evaluation of blood agar microtiter plates for culturing leishmania parasites to titrate parasite burden in spleen and peripheral blood of patients with visceral leishmaniasis
    Radheshyam Maurya
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1932-4. 2010
    ..Plates could be easily monitored, and growth could be rapidly detected. Moreover, parasite number may be estimated using this technique...
  53. pmc Leishmania donovani: immunostimulatory cellular responses of membrane and soluble protein fractions of splenic amastigotes in cured patient and hamsters
    Shraddha Kumari
    Parasitology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, CSIR, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
    PLoS ONE 7:e30746. 2012
    ..Results suggest the presence of Th-1 type immunostimulatory molecules in these sub-fractions which may further be exploited for developing a successful subunit vaccine from the less explored pathogenic stage against VL...
  54. pmc Identification and characterization of a novel Leishmania donovani antigen for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Subodh Kumar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:601-5. 2012
    ..Further analysis showed that it is a member of the heat shock protein family of 70 kDa, designated as BHUP1, and has great potential in the diagnosis of VL...
  55. pmc Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomized trial
    Kamlesh Gidwani
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1296. 2011
    ..This study quantified the effect of LNs on exposure to the sand fly vector of VL in India and Nepal during a two year community intervention trial...
  56. pmc An oral formulation of amphotericin B attached to functionalized carbon nanotubes is an effective treatment for experimental visceral leishmaniasis
    Vijay Kumar Prajapati
    Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Infect Dis 205:333-6. 2012
    ..In this study, using the hamster model, we have shown that this novel formulation of AmB can be administered orally, resulting in 99% inhibition of parasite growth following a 5-day course at 15 mg/kg body weight...
  57. ncbi request reprint Cure of antimony-unresponsive Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis with oral miltefosine
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:698-700. 2006
    ..Oral miltefosine appears to be an important alternative for the treatment of PKDL in India and confirmatory studies in controlled clinical trials are needed...
  58. pmc Unusual case of resistance to amphotericin B in visceral leishmaniasis in a region in India where leishmaniasis is not endemic
    Pankaj Srivastava
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Clin Microbiol 49:3088-91. 2011
    ..Overexpression and underexpression of proteins were observed in the 65- to 80-kDa range and at 20 kDa, respectively...
  59. doi request reprint The epidemiology of Leishmania donovani infection in high transmission foci in India
    Shri P Singh
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 15:12-20. 2010
    ..The prevalence of asymptomatic infections with Leishmania donovani and their role in transmission dynamics are not well understood. We report data from a sero-survey in Bihar...
  60. pmc Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Leishmania donovani polypeptides in cases of human visceral leishmaniasis: its usefulness in prognosis
    Promod Kumar
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:1119-23. 2002
    ..Moreover, the persistence of reactivity with the 65- and 70-kDa bands in the sera of all groups shows its promise as a diagnostic and prognostic tool...
  61. pmc PCR-RFLP based method for molecular differentiation of sand fly species Phlebotomus argentipes, Phlebotomus papatasi, and Sergentomyia babu found in India
    Puja Tiwary
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, U P, India
    J Med Entomol 49:1515-8. 2012
    ..Each of the restriction enzyme produced a species specific restriction patterns, which can easily be used to identify specific sand fly species. This technique can be used in the identification of sand fly species...
  62. pmc A novel 12.6-kDa protein of Leishmania donovani for the diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Dinesh Kumar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:1359-64. 2011
    ..Unfortunately, up to 32% healthy individuals from endemic region test positive with this antigen. There is an urgent need to search for a more specific antigen with sensitivity similar to rK39...
  63. pmc Prevalence of sand flies and Leishmania donovani infection in a natural population of female Phlebotomus argentipes in Bihar State, India
    Puja Tiwary
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:467-72. 2012
    ..Sergentomyia species are the most common species of sand fly. Knowledge of the infection rate in female P. argentipes may help in predicting severity of disease and in vector elimination programs...
  64. pmc Evaluation of ex vivo human immune response against candidate antigens for a visceral leishmaniasis vaccine
    Rajiv Kumar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:808-13. 2010
    ..Further studies may help prioritize antigens for clinical development of a subunit vaccine against VL...
  65. pmc Evaluation of rk39 immunochromatographic test with urine for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Jaya Chakravarty
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, U P, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:537-9. 2011
    ..With serum, sensitivity was 100% whereas the specificity was 100%, 92.4% and 95.55% for the respective control groups. In the present format, the immunochromatographic strips cannot be used for the diagnosis of VL using urine samples...
  66. doi request reprint Lay perceptions of kala-azar, mosquitoes and bed nets in Bihar, India
    Rabindra N Mishra
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 15:36-41. 2010
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint High incidence of zidovudine induced anaemia in HIV infected patients in eastern India
    Dipti Agarwal
    ART Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Indian J Med Res 132:386-9. 2010
    ..This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of ZDV induced anaemia in HIV infected patients initiated on ZDV containing antiretroviral therapy regimen and also to find out the correlates, if any, for causing ZDV induced anaemia...
  68. ncbi request reprint Visceral leishmaniasis - current therapeutic modalities
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:345-52. 2006
    ....
  69. pmc Study of parasite kinetics with antileishmanial drugs using real-time quantitative PCR in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Medhavi Sudarshan
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, UP, India
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1751-5. 2011
    ..This study describes parasite kinetics in the blood of visceral leishmaniasis patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) or a preformed fat emulsion of amphotericin B (ApL) using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
  70. ncbi request reprint Advances in the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:593-8. 2002
    ..In recent years, there has been a steady erosion in the efficacy of pentavalent antimony to cure visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. In addition, several new antileishmanial formulations have become available...
  71. pmc Diarrhea, CD4 counts and enteric infections in a hospital - based cohort of HIV-infected patients around Varanasi, India
    Suresh V S Attili
    Department of Medicine Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi 221005, India
    BMC Infect Dis 6:39. 2006
    ....
  72. pmc Correlation between CD4 counts of HIV patients and enteric protozoan in different seasons - an experience of a tertiary care hospital in Varanasi (India)
    Lekha Tuli
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    BMC Gastroenterol 8:36. 2008
    ..This study is the first of its kind in this area where an attempt was made to correlate seasonal variation and intestinal protozoan infestations...
  73. ncbi request reprint Detection of leishmanial antigen in the urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis by a latex agglutination test
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:269-71. 2005
    ..Positive and negative predictive values were 0.994 and 0.788, respectively. KAtex is a promising test, and in a simplified and improved format it could be applied meaningfully in the diagnosis of VL...
  74. pmc Identification and Characterization of a Novel, 37-Kilodalton Leishmania donovani antigen for diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Subodh Kumar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:772-5. 2011
    ..The antigen identified via a proteomics-based approach has a strong potential for further development as a diagnostic tool for VL...
  75. pmc Availability of miltefosine for the treatment of kala-azar in India
    Shyam Sundar
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 6 SK Gupta Nagar, Lanka, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Bull World Health Organ 83:394-5. 2005
  76. ncbi request reprint Compararative evaluation of rK9, rK26 and rK39 antigens in the serodiagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Tribhuban Mohan Mohapatra
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, India
    J Infect Dev Ctries 4:114-7. 2010
    ..chagasi) and crude soluble antigen (CSA) for the serodiagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients by quantitative ELISA...
  77. ncbi request reprint Adenosine deaminase activity in sera of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Kiran Tripathi
    Department of Microbiology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Chim Acta 388:135-8. 2008
    ....
  78. pmc Genetic heterogeneity in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani from India
    Pankaj Srivastava
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India 221005
    J Clin Microbiol 49:3687-90. 2011
    ..In contrast to earlier reports, our data suggest that significant genetic polymorphisms exist in L. donovani strains in Bihar, India. Our results confirm the presence of 2 zymodemes in India...
  79. ncbi request reprint NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity of visceral leishmaniasis patients
    Promod Kumar
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Med Microbiol 51:832-6. 2002
    ..These results suggest that low NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities may account for persistence of Leishmania parasites in visceral leishmaniasis...
  80. ncbi request reprint Ultrasonography for diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV infected people
    Dipti Agarwal
    ART Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Indian J Med Res 132:77-80. 2010
    ..There is an increasing incidence of abdominal tuberculosis with the advent of HIV infection. This study was aimed at determining the pattern of presentation of abdominal tuberculosis on ultrasonography (USG) in HIV positive patients...
  81. pmc Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Pankaj Srivastava
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:1-6. 2011
    ..A simple, rapid, non invasive, accurate and cost effective marker of active VL, which can be used in field conditions, is necessary to improve diagnosis of VL...
  82. ncbi request reprint Refractoriness to the treatment of sodium stibogluconate in Indian kala-azar field isolates persist in in vitro and in vivo experimental models
    Anuradha Dube
    Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, Post Box No 173, Lucknow 226 001, India
    Parasitol Res 96:216-23. 2005
    ..Two isolates were also transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) for the development of in vitro assay for studying antileishmanial activities of new and reference drugs in macrophages by flow cytometry...
  83. ncbi request reprint A phase II dose-ranging study of sitamaquine for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Tara K Jha
    Kala azar Research Center, Muzaffarpur, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:1005-11. 2005
    ..Nephrotic syndrome (3% [3 of 120]) and glomerulonephritis (2% [2 of 120]) were also reported and require further investigation. Oral sitamaquine demonstrated efficacy in Indian VL and was well tolerated...
  84. pmc rK39 antigen for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by using human saliva
    Manisha Vaish
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:598-600. 2012
    ..In serum, specificity was 97%, 88.5%, and 89% by ELISA and 100%, 94.7%, and 95.5% by ICT in nonendemic, endemic, and different diseases, respectively. Saliva is not suitable for diagnosis of VL because of low sensitivity...
  85. doi request reprint A clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine for use in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis
    Jaya Chakravarty
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Vaccine 29:3531-7. 2011
    ..This clinical trial shows that the LEISH-F1+MPL-SE vaccine is safe and immunogenic in healthy subjects with and without history of previous infection with Leishmania donovani...
  86. ncbi request reprint Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 6:2821-9. 2005
    ..A shift from monotherapy to multi-drug combinations of short courses delivered at no or affordable cost, through directly observed therapy, seems to be the only way to develop the treatment of this disease...
  87. ncbi request reprint Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to Kala-azar in a rural area of Bihar state, India
    Shri P Singh
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:505-8. 2006
    ..Poor knowledge of the study subjects about the disease and breeding sites of the vector underscores the need for health educational campaigns if the elimination program is to succeed...
  88. pmc Detection of Leptomonas sp. parasites in clinical isolates of Kala-azar patients from India
    Pankaj Srivastava
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP, India
    Infect Genet Evol 10:1145-50. 2010
    ..and L. donovani in this isolate. We consider that mixed infection may be present in the patients themselves, Leptomonas persisting in them because of the immuno-suppression associated with Kala-azar...
  89. ncbi request reprint Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac status in Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients
    Rakesh Shrivastava
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:429-32. 2007
    ..Effusions were small, haemodynamically insignificant and resolved spontaneously. We conclude that pericardial effusion may occur in VL patients with heavy parasitaemia...
  90. pmc Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:951-8. 2002
  91. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis and treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005
    J Assoc Physicians India 51:195-201. 2003
  92. ncbi request reprint Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:917-24. 2006
    ..The public health community should work to broaden access to preferential liposomal amphotericin B pricing by public sector VL treatment programs...
  93. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of kala-azar--an important stride
    Shyam Sundar
    J Assoc Physicians India 51:753-5. 2003
  94. ncbi request reprint Drug uptake and modulation of drug resistance in Leishmania by an aquaglyceroporin
    Benjamin Gourbal
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:31010-7. 2004
    ..major, and the resulting cells became 10-fold more resistant to Sb(III). This is the first report of the uptake of a metalloid drug by an aquaglyceroporin in Leishmania, suggesting a strategy to reverse resistance in the field...
  95. pmc Splenic accumulation of IL-10 mRNA in T cells distinct from CD4+CD25+ (Foxp3) regulatory T cells in human visceral leishmaniasis
    Susanne Nylen
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:805-17. 2007
    ..The elevated levels of IL-10 in VL plasma significantly enhanced the growth of L. donovani amastigotes in human macrophages. The data implicate IL-10-producing CD25(-)Foxp3(-) T cells in the pathogenesis of human VL...
  96. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use
    F Javier Pérez-Victoria
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, Spanish Research Council C S I C, Technological Park of Health Sciences, Avda del Conocimiento s n, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
    Drug Resist Updat 9:26-39. 2006
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint The molecular characterization of clinical isolates from Indian Kala-azar patients by MLEE and RAPD-PCR
    Madhumita Manna
    Leishmania Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India
    Med Sci Monit 11:BR220-7. 2005
    ..Tropica causes nearly 25% of current kala-azar cases in India. It was also suggested that this might be in some way related to the unresponsiveness to pentavalent antimonials in the field...
  98. pmc Leishmaniasis: new approaches to disease control
    Clive R Davies
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    BMJ 326:377-82. 2003
  99. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms of antimony resistance in Leishmania
    Shyam Sundar
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, UP India
    J Med Microbiol 56:143-53. 2007
    ..Unravelling the molecular mechanisms of clinical resistance could allow the prevention and circumvention of resistance, as well as rational drug design for the treatment of drug-resistant Leishmania...
  100. ncbi request reprint Comparative evaluation of freeze-dried and liquid antigens in the direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (ITMA-DAT/VL)
    Diane Jacquet
    Applied Technology and Production Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1777-84. 2006
    ..We evaluated a DAT with freeze-dried (FD) antigen and compared it with the LQ antigen version...