K Spencer

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi First trimester maternal serum AFP and total hCG in aneuploidies other than trisomy 21
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:635-9. 2000
  2. ncbi The influence of fetal sex in screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:673-5. 2000
  3. ncbi Second trimester levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A in cases of trisomy 18
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, U K
    Prenat Diagn 19:1127-34. 1999
  4. ncbi The influence of parity and gravidity on first trimester markers of chromosomal abnormality
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:792-4. 2000
  5. ncbi Second-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and the relationship of maternal serum biochemical markers to pregnancy complications with adverse outcome
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:652-6. 2000
  6. ncbi The influence of fetal sex in screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester using AFP and free beta-hCG
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:648-51. 2000
  7. ncbi Screening for triploidy by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:495-9. 2000
  8. ncbi The influence of ethnic origin on first trimester biochemical markers of chromosomal abnormalities
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:491-4. 2000
  9. ncbi Screening for trisomy 13 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:411-6. 2000
  10. ncbi Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in fetal sex chromosome defects in the first trimester
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:390-4. 2000

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi First trimester maternal serum AFP and total hCG in aneuploidies other than trisomy 21
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:635-9. 2000
    ..AFP and total hCG are not likely to replace the markers free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies...
  2. ncbi The influence of fetal sex in screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:673-5. 2000
    ..Correction of risk algorithms for fetal sex, however, is probably not feasible, since ultrasound detection of fetal sex is only 70-90% accurate in the 10-14 week period...
  3. ncbi Second trimester levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A in cases of trisomy 18
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, U K
    Prenat Diagn 19:1127-34. 1999
    ..This approach is unlikely to be better than the excellent detection rates achievable with free beta-hCG, PAPP-A and nuchal translucency in the first trimester...
  4. ncbi The influence of parity and gravidity on first trimester markers of chromosomal abnormality
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:792-4. 2000
    ..None of these small changes with increasing gravidity or parity are statistically significant and hence correction for these variables is not necessary when considering first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities...
  5. ncbi Second-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and the relationship of maternal serum biochemical markers to pregnancy complications with adverse outcome
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:652-6. 2000
    ..0 MoM, suggesting increased risk of preterm delivery or impending fetal death, the clinical utility of such significant differences is probably poor...
  6. ncbi The influence of fetal sex in screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester using AFP and free beta-hCG
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:648-51. 2000
    ....
  7. ncbi Screening for triploidy by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:495-9. 2000
    ..We conclude that a large proportion of triploidy cases of both phenotypes could be identified in the first trimester using NT, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A with a combination of trisomy 21 risk and an atypicality approach...
  8. ncbi The influence of ethnic origin on first trimester biochemical markers of chromosomal abnormalities
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:491-4. 2000
    ..The impact of ethnic origin seems to be greater than that observed with second trimester biochemical markers and larger studies are required in order to develop robust algorithms for correcting for ethnic origin in the first trimester...
  9. ncbi Screening for trisomy 13 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:411-6. 2000
    ..We conclude that specific trisomy 13 risks should be part of developing risk algorithms combining maternal serum biochemistry and nuchal translucency for use in first trimester screening alongside those for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18...
  10. ncbi Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in fetal sex chromosome defects in the first trimester
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:390-4. 2000
    ..Using a previously derived multivariate risk algorithm for trisomy 21, incorporating NT, PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and maternal age, 96% of the Turner's cases and 62% of the other sex chromosomal anomalies would have been identified...
  11. ncbi Is maternal serum total hCG a marker of trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy?
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:311-7. 2000
    ..This observation explains much of the confusion around total hCG in the first trimester and shows the importance of selecting analyte pairs and population parameters appropriate to the time in gestation when screening is performed...
  12. ncbi The effect of temporal variation in biochemical markers of trisomy 21 across the first and second trimesters of pregnancy on the estimation of individual patient-specific risks and detection rates for Down's syndrome
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford RM3 0BE, UK
    Ann Clin Biochem 40:219-31. 2003
    ..In this paper, we assess the impact of this temporal shift on the estimation of patient-specific risks and the detection rates (DRs) for Down's syndrome pregnancies...
  13. ncbi Ethnicity and the need for correction of biochemical and ultrasound markers of chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester: a study of Oriental, Asian and Afro-Caribbean populations
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:365-9. 2005
    ....
  14. ncbi First-trimester maternal serum PP-13, PAPP-A and second-trimester uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index as markers of pre-eclampsia
    K Spencer
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:128-34. 2007
    ..plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation alone or in combination with second-trimester uterine artery pulsitility measured by Doppler velocimetry is useful in predicting those women who will develop pre-eclampsia..
  15. ncbi Maternal serum activin A and inhibin A in trisomy 18 pregnancies at 10-14 weeks
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:571-4. 2001
    ....
  16. ncbi First-trimester biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of small-for-gestational age fetuses
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:15-9. 2008
    ..To examine the clinical utility of the first-trimester biochemical markers of aneuploidy in their ability to predict subsequent delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant...
  17. ncbi Maternal serum levels of dimeric inhibin A in pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 in the first trimester
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:441-4. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that first trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 21, which is currently optimised using maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and fetal nuchal translucency, will not benefit from the inclusion of inhibin A...
  18. ncbi First-trimester ultrasound and biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of impending fetal death
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28:637-43. 2006
    ..To examine the clinical utility of the first-trimester markers of aneuploidy in their ability to predict future fetal loss...
  19. doi First-trimester placental growth factor as a marker for hypertensive disorders and SGA
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:565-70. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to examine first-trimester maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in pregnancies which later develop hypertensive and growth complications...
  20. doi First trimester maternal serum placental growth factor in trisomy 21 pregnancies
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:449-53. 2010
    ..To examine placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in first trimester maternal serum in trisomy 21 pregnancies and to investigate the potential value of PlGF in a first trimester screening test...
  21. doi Maternal serum inhibin-A and activin-A levels in the first trimester of pregnancies developing pre-eclampsia
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:622-6. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi First and second-trimester biochemical markers of chromosomal anomalies and their relationship to maternal haemoglobin levels
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:693-9. 2005
    ..To evaluate a previous hypothesis that maternal serum biochemical markers used in the assessment of Down syndrome risk are related to maternal haemoglobin concentrations...
  23. ncbi Second-trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free beta-hCG in pregnancies with trisomy 13
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:358-61. 2005
    ....
  24. ncbi Detection of maternal serum hCG glycoform variants in the second trimester of pregnancies affected by Down syndrome using a lectin immunoassay
    J A Talbot
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Clinical Sciences Building, Hope Hospital, Eccles Old Road, Salford, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:1-5. 2003
    ..To assess whether glycoform variants of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are present in altered concentrations in the maternal serum in pregnancies affected by Down syndrome...
  25. doi PP13 stability in first trimester maternal serum and whole blood
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:582-5. 2010
    ..Maternal serum placental protein 13 (PP13) has been proposed as a marker for prenatal screening of pre-eclampsia (PE) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to examine the stability of PP13 at different routine temperatures...
  26. ncbi Delta-NT or NT MoM: which is the most appropriate method for calculating accurate patient-specific risks for trisomy 21 in the first trimester?
    K Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 22:142-8. 2003
    ..To assess whether in screening for trisomy 21 by nuchal translucency (NT) the delta or the multiples of the median (MoM) approach is the most appropriate method for calculating accurate individual patient-specific risks...
  27. ncbi Maternal serum levels of total activin-A in first-trimester trisomy 21 pregnancies
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:270-3. 2001
    ..6071) and free beta-hCG (0.4255). The low median difference and the high overlap in values between trisomic and unaffected pregnancies make total activin-A of little practical use in first-trimester screening for trisomy 21...
  28. doi First trimester aneuploidy screening in the presence of a vanishing twin: implications for maternal serum markers
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:235-40. 2010
    ..To assess the impact of a vanishing twin on the levels of the biochemical markers used in the first trimester aneuploidy screening...
  29. ncbi First trimester maternal serum placenta growth factor (PIGF)concentrations in pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 or trisomy 18
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:718-22. 2001
    ....
  30. doi ADAM-12 stability in first trimester maternal serum
    N J Cowans
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Prenatal Research Unit, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:555-60. 2010
    ..In this study, we examine the stability of ADAM-12 with time and at different temperatures...
  31. ncbi First-trimester ultrasound and biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of preterm or early preterm delivery
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:147-52. 2008
    ..To examine the clinical utility of the first-trimester markers of aneuploidy in their ability to predict preterm delivery...
  32. doi A re-evaluation of the influence of maternal insulin-dependent diabetes on fetal nuchal translucency thickness and first-trimester maternal serum biochemical markers of aneuploidy
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Barking Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:937-40. 2010
    ....
  33. doi Early first-trimester maternal serum placental growth factor in trisomy 21 pregnancies
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 37:515-9. 2011
    ..To measure maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in trisomy 21 cases and controls in samples drawn before 11 weeks' gestation...
  34. ncbi Age related detection and false positive rates when screening for Down's syndrome in the first trimester using fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free betahCG and PAPP-A
    K Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    BJOG 108:1043-6. 2001
    ..This information may be useful in counselling women with an increased risk result in first trimester screening...
  35. ncbi Temporal changes in maternal serum biochemical markers of trisomy 21 across the first and second trimester of pregnancy
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital Gubbins Lane Romford Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Ann Clin Biochem 39:567-76. 2002
    ..Many maternal serum markers show concentration changes in Down's syndrome pregnancies but the magnitude of the change in median marker levels varies with gestation. To date these changes have not been accurately specified...
  36. ncbi Maternal serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotrophin (HhCG) in the first trimester of pregnancies affected by Down syndrome, using a sialic acid-specific lectin immunoassay
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:656-62. 2002
    ..Maternal serum HhCG is unlikely to be of additional value when screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester...
  37. ncbi Between pregnancy biological variability of first trimester markers of Down syndrome: implications for screening in subsequent pregnancies
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:445-7. 2001
    ..5-2 times more likely to repeat this event in their next pregnancy. This observation may be useful in counselling women in the first trimester screening of a subsequent pregnancy...
  38. doi Maternal serum CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 levels in pregnancies affected by trisomy 21
    F Akinlade
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 32:644-8. 2012
    ..To investigate the levels of tumour markers CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 in the first trimester maternal serum of euploid control and trisomy 21 pregnancies...
  39. doi Maternal serum placental growth factor in second trimester trisomy 21 pregnancies
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Essex, United Kingdom
    Prenat Diagn 32:117-21. 2012
    ..To investigate the levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in second trimester maternal serum in trisomy 21 cases and euploid controls - an unclear subject in the published literature...
  40. doi PP13 as a marker of pre-eclampsia: A two platform comparison study
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Placenta 32:S37-41. 2011
    ..To evaluate the role of PP13 as a marker for pre-eclampsia (PE) by comparing two different immunoassay platforms...
  41. ncbi Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester using free beta-hCG and PAPP-A, combined with fetal nuchal translucency thickness
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:91-5. 2000
    ..Twin screening using both modalities should be considered when introducing first trimester screening...
  42. ncbi First-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in a predominantly Chinese population
    T Y Leung
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China SAR, and Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:14-7. 2007
    ....
  43. doi Early vaginal bleeding has no impact on markers used in first trimester aneuploidy screening
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:547-50. 2010
    ..To assess the impact of early vaginal bleeding on the levels of markers used in first trimester screening for aneuploidy...
  44. doi A comparison of two immunoassay methods for the measurement of maternal serum placental growth factor in early pregnancy
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Fetal Diagn Ther 31:254-9. 2012
    ..To compare the DELFIA Xpress and Quantikine ELISA placental growth factor (PlGF) immunoassay platforms by analysing the same set of early first-trimester maternal serum samples from cases with trisomy 21 and euploid controls...
  45. ncbi Prediction of pre-eclampsia by uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography and maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, activin A and inhibin A at 22 + 0 to 24 + 6 weeks' gestation
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 27:658-63. 2006
    ....
  46. ncbi Factors affecting women's preference for type of prenatal screening test for chromosomal anomalies
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 24:735-9. 2004
    ..To ascertain, by means of a questionnaire, women's preferences for four different approaches to prenatal screening for Down syndrome...
  47. doi Stability of first trimester placental growth factor in serum and whole blood
    N J Cowans
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 31:1193-7. 2011
    ..Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a proposed first-trimester screening marker for pre-eclampsia. This study investigates the stability of PlGF in serum and whole blood at typical routine storage temperatures...
  48. ncbi Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester: does chorionicity impact on maternal serum free beta-hCG or PAPP-A levels?
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:715-7. 2001
    ..03 vs 1.00). It is concluded that the existing pseudo risk twin correction algorithm is appropriate for both monochorionic and dichorionic twins in providing accurate first trimester risks for trisomy 21...