K Spencer

Summary

Publications

  1. doi request reprint First-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A: impact of maternal and pregnancy characteristics
    K O Kagan
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:493-502. 2008
  2. ncbi request reprint First-trimester ultrasound and biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of impending fetal death
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28:637-43. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint First trimester intact hCG as an early marker of trisomy 21: a promise unrecognised?
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Essex IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:1156-9. 2008
  4. doi request reprint Maternal serum inhibin-A and activin-A levels in the first trimester of pregnancies developing pre-eclampsia
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:622-6. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint First-trimester biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of small-for-gestational age fetuses
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:15-9. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Accuracy of self-reported smoking status in first trimester aneuploidy screening
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Research Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 33:245-50. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Analytical goal setting in aneuploidy screening: within person biological variability of first trimester biochemical markers
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Research Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 33:124-9. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Correction of first trimester biochemical aneuploidy screening markers for smoking status: influence of gestational age, maternal ethnicity and cigarette dosage
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Research Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 33:116-23. 2013
  9. pmc A link between high serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin and chorionic expression of its mature functional receptor (LHCGR) in Down's syndrome pregnancies
    Subhasis Banerjee
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital Medical School, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 3:25. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Ethnicity and the need for correction of biochemical and ultrasound markers of chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester: a study of Oriental, Asian and Afro-Caribbean populations
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:365-9. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint First-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A: impact of maternal and pregnancy characteristics
    K O Kagan
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:493-502. 2008
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint First-trimester ultrasound and biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of impending fetal death
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28:637-43. 2006
    ..To examine the clinical utility of the first-trimester markers of aneuploidy in their ability to predict future fetal loss...
  3. ncbi request reprint First trimester intact hCG as an early marker of trisomy 21: a promise unrecognised?
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Essex IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:1156-9. 2008
    ..Here we further study the levels prior to and after 10 weeks of gestation to further establish whether or not the intact hCG is effective as a very early screening marker...
  4. doi request reprint Maternal serum inhibin-A and activin-A levels in the first trimester of pregnancies developing pre-eclampsia
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:622-6. 2008
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint First-trimester biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of small-for-gestational age fetuses
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:15-9. 2008
    ..To examine the clinical utility of the first-trimester biochemical markers of aneuploidy in their ability to predict subsequent delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant...
  6. doi request reprint Accuracy of self-reported smoking status in first trimester aneuploidy screening
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Research Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 33:245-50. 2013
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Analytical goal setting in aneuploidy screening: within person biological variability of first trimester biochemical markers
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Research Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 33:124-9. 2013
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Correction of first trimester biochemical aneuploidy screening markers for smoking status: influence of gestational age, maternal ethnicity and cigarette dosage
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Research Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 33:116-23. 2013
    ..To examine the gestational age, maternal ethnicity and cigarette dosage effects of the reduction of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free-β human chorionic gonadotrophin (free hCGβ) in smokers...
  9. pmc A link between high serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin and chorionic expression of its mature functional receptor (LHCGR) in Down's syndrome pregnancies
    Subhasis Banerjee
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital Medical School, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 3:25. 2005
    ..However, the synthesis of high molecular weight mature LHCGR proteins was significantly reduced in DS compared to uncompromised pregnancies, suggesting a lack of utilization of circulating hCG in DS pregnancies...
  10. ncbi request reprint Ethnicity and the need for correction of biochemical and ultrasound markers of chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester: a study of Oriental, Asian and Afro-Caribbean populations
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:365-9. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Increased total cell-free DNA in the serum of pregnant women carrying a fetus affected by trisomy 21
    Kevin Spencer
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:580-3. 2003
    ..Analysis of the levels of cell-free fetal and total DNA in serum of women carrying a male fetus affected by trisomy 21, and comparison of these levels with those in women carrying a normal male fetus...
  12. ncbi request reprint Second-trimester uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index and maternal serum PP13 as markers of pre-eclampsia
    Kevin Spencer
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Prenat Diagn 27:258-63. 2007
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint The influence of different sample collection types on the levels of markers used for Down's syndrome screening as measured by the Kryptor Immunosassay system
    Kevin Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford RM3 0BE, UK
    Ann Clin Biochem 40:166-8. 2003
    ..The need to leave whole blood samples some 10 min for coagulation and a further 5 min for centrifugation adds additional processing time...
  14. ncbi request reprint Aneuploidy screening in the first trimester
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 145:18-32. 2007
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint ADAM12 as a marker of trisomy 18 in the first and second trimester of pregnancy
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 20:645-50. 2007
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Temporal changes in maternal serum biochemical markers of trisomy 21 across the first and second trimester of pregnancy
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital Gubbins Lane Romford Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Ann Clin Biochem 39:567-76. 2002
    ..Many maternal serum markers show concentration changes in Down's syndrome pregnancies but the magnitude of the change in median marker levels varies with gestation. To date these changes have not been accurately specified...
  17. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum ADAM12s as a marker of rare aneuploidies in the first or second trimester of pregnancy
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Research Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 27:1233-7. 2007
    ..To assess whether the maternal serum ADAM12s concentrations are altered in the first and second trimester of pregnancies complicated by rare aneuploides...
  18. ncbi request reprint Uptake of prenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies: impact of test results in a previous pregnancy
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Dept, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:1229-32. 2002
    ..To assess whether the uptake of prenatal screening for trisomy 21 in a subsequent pregnancy is influenced by being classified in the 'increased risk' or 'not at increased risk' group in the first pregnancy...
  19. ncbi request reprint Delta-NT or NT MoM: which is the most appropriate method for calculating accurate patient-specific risks for trisomy 21 in the first trimester?
    K Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 22:142-8. 2003
    ..To assess whether in screening for trisomy 21 by nuchal translucency (NT) the delta or the multiples of the median (MoM) approach is the most appropriate method for calculating accurate individual patient-specific risks...
  20. ncbi request reprint Maternal weight correction of maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG MoM when screening for trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy
    Kevin Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:851-5. 2003
    ..To assess the suitability of either the log-linear or reciprocal-linear regression procedure for maternal weight correction of biochemical marker MoMs in the first trimester...
  21. ncbi request reprint Second-trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free beta-hCG in pregnancies with trisomy 13
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:358-61. 2005
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint First trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: an evaluation of the DPC Immulite 2000 free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assays
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ann Clin Biochem 42:30-40. 2005
    ..With the recent launch of these assays on the DPC Immulite 2000 platform, it is appropriate and timely to investigate their clinical and analytical performance on a high throughput immunoassay analyser...
  23. ncbi request reprint The influence of maternal insulin-dependent diabetes on fetal nuchal translucency thickness and first-trimester maternal serum biochemical markers of aneuploidy
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:927-9. 2005
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Prediction of pre-eclampsia by uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography and maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, activin A and inhibin A at 22 + 0 to 24 + 6 weeks' gestation
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 27:658-63. 2006
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting women's preference for type of prenatal screening test for chromosomal anomalies
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 24:735-9. 2004
    ..To ascertain, by means of a questionnaire, women's preferences for four different approaches to prenatal screening for Down syndrome...
  26. ncbi request reprint Prediction of pregnancy complications by first-trimester maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and with second-trimester uterine artery Doppler
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:949-53. 2005
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint The impact of correcting for smoking status when screening for chromosomal anomalies using maternal serum biochemistry and fetal nuchal translucency thickness in the first trimester of pregnancy
    Kevin Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 24:169-73. 2004
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint First-trimester maternal serum PP-13, PAPP-A and second-trimester uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index as markers of pre-eclampsia
    K Spencer
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:128-34. 2007
    ..plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation alone or in combination with second-trimester uterine artery pulsitility measured by Doppler velocimetry is useful in predicting those women who will develop pre-eclampsia..
  29. ncbi request reprint First-trimester ultrasound and biochemical markers of aneuploidy and the prediction of preterm or early preterm delivery
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:147-52. 2008
    ..To examine the clinical utility of the first-trimester markers of aneuploidy in their ability to predict preterm delivery...
  30. ncbi request reprint A first trimester trisomy 13/trisomy 18 risk algorithm combining fetal nuchal translucency thickness, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A
    Kevin Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:877-9. 2002
    ..3% false positive rate allow 95% of these chromosomal defects to be identified at 11-14 weeks. Such algorithms will enhance existing first trimester screening algorithms for trisomy 21...
  31. ncbi request reprint Between pregnancy biological variability of first trimester markers of Down syndrome and the implications for screening in subsequent pregnancies: an issue revisited
    Kevin Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:874-6. 2002
    ..To assess the impact that between pregnancy biological variability has on the likelihood that women who are at increased risk in a first pregnancy being also at increased risk in a subsequent pregnancy...
  32. doi request reprint Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester: an update of the impact of chorionicity on maternal serum markers
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:49-52. 2008
    ..To examine the distribution of first-trimester biochemical markers of aneuploidy in twin pregnancies, and to assess whether there are differences in the distributions between monochorionic and dichorionic twins...
  33. doi request reprint First trimester aneuploidy screening in the presence of a vanishing twin: implications for maternal serum markers
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:235-40. 2010
    ..To assess the impact of a vanishing twin on the levels of the biochemical markers used in the first trimester aneuploidy screening...
  34. doi request reprint First and second trimester markers of fetal aneuploidy in pregnant women with HIV infection
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, UK
    Fetal Diagn Ther 29:135-8. 2011
    ....
  35. doi request reprint A re-evaluation of the influence of maternal insulin-dependent diabetes on fetal nuchal translucency thickness and first-trimester maternal serum biochemical markers of aneuploidy
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Barking Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:937-40. 2010
    ....
  36. doi request reprint Early vaginal bleeding has no impact on markers used in first trimester aneuploidy screening
    K Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:547-50. 2010
    ..To assess the impact of early vaginal bleeding on the levels of markers used in first trimester screening for aneuploidy...
  37. ncbi request reprint Screening for chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester: does repeat maternal serum screening improve detection rates?
    Kevin Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:903-6. 2002
    ..To evaluate whether repeat sampling and testing of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A during this period would result in an improved detection rate...
  38. doi request reprint Maternal serum screening marker levels in women with a previous aneuploidy pregnancy
    Kevin Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Barking Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 29:1242-3. 2009
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Is maternal renal disease a cause of elevated free beta-hCG in first trimester aneuploidy screening?
    Kevin Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 29:1045-9. 2009
    ..To asses whether supra elevated levels of maternal serum free beta hCG in the first trimester are associated with impaired renal function...
  40. ncbi request reprint Low levels of maternal serum PAPP-A in the first trimester and the risk of pre-eclampsia
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:7-10. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to establish the relative risk for pre-eclampsia at various PAPP-A levels as an aid to counselling and follow up of pregnancies...
  41. doi request reprint Maternal serum ADAM12s in the late first trimester of pregnancies with Trisomy 21
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, Essex IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:422-4. 2008
    ....
  42. doi request reprint First-trimester ADAM12s as early markers of trisomy 21: a promise still unfulfilled?
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Essex IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:338-42. 2008
    ..Here we study the levels of ADAM12s prior to and after 10 weeks of gestation to establish further the effectiveness or otherwise of ADAM12s as an early screening marker...
  43. doi request reprint Maternal serum ADAM12s as a potential marker of trisomy 21 prior to 10 weeks of gestation
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, Essex IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:209-11. 2008
    ..Here we study the levels prior to 10 weeks of gestation to establish further the effectiveness or otherwise of ADAM12s as an early screening marker...
  44. doi request reprint ADAM12s in maternal serum as a potential marker of pre-eclampsia
    Kevin Spencer
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, Essex IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:212-6. 2008
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint The effect of temporal variation in biochemical markers of trisomy 21 across the first and second trimesters of pregnancy on the estimation of individual patient-specific risks and detection rates for Down's syndrome
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford RM3 0BE, UK
    Ann Clin Biochem 40:219-31. 2003
    ..In this paper, we assess the impact of this temporal shift on the estimation of patient-specific risks and the detection rates (DRs) for Down's syndrome pregnancies...
  46. ncbi request reprint The influence of ethnic origin on first trimester biochemical markers of chromosomal abnormalities
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:491-4. 2000
    ..The impact of ethnic origin seems to be greater than that observed with second trimester biochemical markers and larger studies are required in order to develop robust algorithms for correcting for ethnic origin in the first trimester...
  47. ncbi request reprint Screening for trisomy 13 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:411-6. 2000
    ..We conclude that specific trisomy 13 risks should be part of developing risk algorithms combining maternal serum biochemistry and nuchal translucency for use in first trimester screening alongside those for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18...
  48. ncbi request reprint Uterine artery Doppler and mid-trimester maternal plasma homocysteine in subsequent pre-eclampsia
    C K H Yu
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, Medical School, London, UK
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 16:134-9. 2004
    ..To investigate whether mid-trimester maternal plasma homocysteine concentration is elevated in women who develop pre-eclampsia and in those women identified at high risk by abnormal uterine artery Doppler examination...
  49. ncbi request reprint Screening for triploidy by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:495-9. 2000
    ..We conclude that a large proportion of triploidy cases of both phenotypes could be identified in the first trimester using NT, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A with a combination of trisomy 21 risk and an atypicality approach...
  50. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum levels of dimeric inhibin A in pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 in the first trimester
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:441-4. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that first trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 21, which is currently optimised using maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and fetal nuchal translucency, will not benefit from the inclusion of inhibin A...
  51. doi request reprint ADAM-12 stability in first trimester maternal serum
    N J Cowans
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Prenatal Research Unit, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:555-60. 2010
    ..In this study, we examine the stability of ADAM-12 with time and at different temperatures...
  52. doi request reprint First-trimester markers for the prediction of pre-eclampsia in women with a-priori high risk
    A Khalil
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College London Hospitals, Institute for Women s Health, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 35:671-9. 2010
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in fetal sex chromosome defects in the first trimester
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:390-4. 2000
    ..Using a previously derived multivariate risk algorithm for trisomy 21, incorporating NT, PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and maternal age, 96% of the Turner's cases and 62% of the other sex chromosomal anomalies would have been identified...
  54. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum activin A and inhibin A in trisomy 18 pregnancies at 10-14 weeks
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:571-4. 2001
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Second trimester levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A in cases of trisomy 18
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex, U K
    Prenat Diagn 19:1127-34. 1999
    ..This approach is unlikely to be better than the excellent detection rates achievable with free beta-hCG, PAPP-A and nuchal translucency in the first trimester...
  56. ncbi request reprint The influence of parity and gravidity on first trimester markers of chromosomal abnormality
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:792-4. 2000
    ..None of these small changes with increasing gravidity or parity are statistically significant and hence correction for these variables is not necessary when considering first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities...
  57. ncbi request reprint First and second-trimester biochemical markers of chromosomal anomalies and their relationship to maternal haemoglobin levels
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:693-9. 2005
    ..To evaluate a previous hypothesis that maternal serum biochemical markers used in the assessment of Down syndrome risk are related to maternal haemoglobin concentrations...
  58. doi request reprint First trimester maternal serum placental growth factor in trisomy 21 pregnancies
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:449-53. 2010
    ..To examine placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in first trimester maternal serum in trisomy 21 pregnancies and to investigate the potential value of PlGF in a first trimester screening test...
  59. doi request reprint First-trimester placental growth factor as a marker for hypertensive disorders and SGA
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:565-70. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to examine first-trimester maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in pregnancies which later develop hypertensive and growth complications...
  60. ncbi request reprint Detection of maternal serum hCG glycoform variants in the second trimester of pregnancies affected by Down syndrome using a lectin immunoassay
    J A Talbot
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Clinical Sciences Building, Hope Hospital, Eccles Old Road, Salford, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:1-5. 2003
    ..To assess whether glycoform variants of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are present in altered concentrations in the maternal serum in pregnancies affected by Down syndrome...
  61. ncbi request reprint The influence of fetal sex in screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:673-5. 2000
    ..Correction of risk algorithms for fetal sex, however, is probably not feasible, since ultrasound detection of fetal sex is only 70-90% accurate in the 10-14 week period...
  62. ncbi request reprint One-stop clinic for assessment of risk for trisomy 21 at 11-14 weeks: a prospective study of 15 030 pregnancies
    R Bindra
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 20:219-25. 2002
    ....
  63. doi request reprint PP13 stability in first trimester maternal serum and whole blood
    N J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:582-5. 2010
    ..Maternal serum placental protein 13 (PP13) has been proposed as a marker for prenatal screening of pre-eclampsia (PE) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to examine the stability of PP13 at different routine temperatures...
  64. ncbi request reprint First trimester maternal serum AFP and total hCG in aneuploidies other than trisomy 21
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:635-9. 2000
    ..AFP and total hCG are not likely to replace the markers free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies...
  65. ncbi request reprint Is maternal serum total hCG a marker of trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy?
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:311-7. 2000
    ..This observation explains much of the confusion around total hCG in the first trimester and shows the importance of selecting analyte pairs and population parameters appropriate to the time in gestation when screening is performed...
  66. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum levels of total activin-A in first-trimester trisomy 21 pregnancies
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:270-3. 2001
    ..6071) and free beta-hCG (0.4255). The low median difference and the high overlap in values between trisomic and unaffected pregnancies make total activin-A of little practical use in first-trimester screening for trisomy 21...
  67. ncbi request reprint First-trimester ADAM12 and PAPP-A as markers for intrauterine fetal growth restriction through their roles in the insulin-like growth factor system
    Nicholas J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 27:264-71. 2007
    ..We therefore wish to examine if the levels of either of these proteases are related to various growth related adverse pregnancy outcomes...
  68. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotrophin (HhCG) in the first trimester of pregnancies affected by Down syndrome, using a sialic acid-specific lectin immunoassay
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:656-62. 2002
    ..Maternal serum HhCG is unlikely to be of additional value when screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester...
  69. ncbi request reprint Integrated ultrasound and biochemical screening for trisomy 21 using fetal nuchal translucency, absent fetal nasal bone, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 to 14 weeks
    Simona Cicero
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:306-10. 2003
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester: does chorionicity impact on maternal serum free beta-hCG or PAPP-A levels?
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:715-7. 2001
    ..03 vs 1.00). It is concluded that the existing pseudo risk twin correction algorithm is appropriate for both monochorionic and dichorionic twins in providing accurate first trimester risks for trisomy 21...
  71. ncbi request reprint Second-trimester prenatal screening for Down syndrome and the relationship of maternal serum biochemical markers to pregnancy complications with adverse outcome
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:652-6. 2000
    ..0 MoM, suggesting increased risk of preterm delivery or impending fetal death, the clinical utility of such significant differences is probably poor...
  72. ncbi request reprint Age related detection and false positive rates when screening for Down's syndrome in the first trimester using fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free betahCG and PAPP-A
    K Spencer
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, UK
    BJOG 108:1043-6. 2001
    ..This information may be useful in counselling women with an increased risk result in first trimester screening...
  73. ncbi request reprint Screening for chromosomal abnormalities in the first trimester using ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry in a one-stop clinic: a review of three years prospective experience
    Kevin Spencer
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    BJOG 110:281-6. 2003
    ..To evaluate the performance of a one-stop multidisciplinary clinic of screening for fetal chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester of pregnancy by a combination of maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasonography...
  74. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13(+6) weeks in relation to the presence or absence of the fetal nasal bone on ultrasonography in chromosomally abnormal fetuses: an updated analysis of integrated ultrasound and biochemical screening
    Simona Cicero
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:977-83. 2005
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint The use of nuchal translucency measurement and second trimester biochemical markers in screening for Down's syndrome
    G D Michailidis
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    BJOG 108:1047-52. 2001
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Between pregnancy biological variability of first trimester markers of Down syndrome: implications for screening in subsequent pregnancies
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:445-7. 2001
    ..5-2 times more likely to repeat this event in their next pregnancy. This observation may be useful in counselling women in the first trimester screening of a subsequent pregnancy...
  77. ncbi request reprint Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester using free beta-hCG and PAPP-A, combined with fetal nuchal translucency thickness
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:91-5. 2000
    ..Twin screening using both modalities should be considered when introducing first trimester screening...
  78. ncbi request reprint Multicenter study of first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 in 75 821 pregnancies: results and estimation of the potential impact of individual risk-orientated two-stage first-trimester screening
    K H Nicolaides
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 25:221-6. 2005
    ..In addition, the potential impact of a new individual risk-orientated two-stage approach to first-trimester screening was examined...
  79. ncbi request reprint First-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in a predominantly Chinese population
    T Y Leung
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China SAR, and Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:14-7. 2007
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Screening for trisomy 21 in twins using first trimester ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry in a one-stop clinic: a review of three years experience
    Kevin Spencer
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Essex, Romford, UK
    BJOG 110:276-80. 2003
    ..To evaluate the performance of screening for fetal trisomy 21 in the first trimester of twin pregnancies by a combination of maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasonography...
  81. ncbi request reprint Prospective first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 in 30,564 pregnancies
    Kyriaki Avgidou
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:1761-7. 2005
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint First-trimester maternal serum activin A in pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction
    C Y T Ong
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital Medical School, Denmark Hill, London, UK
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 15:176-80. 2004
    ..To investigate whether the reported increase in maternal serum activin A concentration in pre-eclampsia is evident from the first trimester...
  83. ncbi request reprint Screening for trisomy 21 by fetal tricuspid regurgitation, nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks
    O Falcon
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 27:151-5. 2006
    ....
  84. doi request reprint First-trimester maternal placental protein 13 levels in pregnancies resulting in adverse outcomes
    Nicholas J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, Essex IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:121-5. 2008
    ..5 and < 2.5 kg) birth weight (LBW), macrosomia (the > 90th centile), large birth weight (>4.5 kg), preterm (35-36 weeks) and very early (<34 weeks) delivery (PTD), and intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD)...
  85. ncbi request reprint Accuracy of Down syndrome risks produced in a first-trimester screening programme incorporating fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal serum biochemistry
    Kevin Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex, RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:244-6. 2002
    ..9995). It is concluded that risks produced by the Fetal Medicine Foundation combined risk algorithm agree very closely with Down syndrome prevalence and can be used with confidence when counselling women of their risk...
  86. ncbi request reprint Is there an association between maternal ABO and rhesus blood groups and the first-trimester serum markers free beta-hCG and PAPP-A used for the detection of fetal aneuploidy?
    Nicholas J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Harold Wood Hospital, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE
    Prenat Diagn 27:64-7. 2007
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint First trimester maternal serum placenta growth factor (PIGF)concentrations in pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 or trisomy 18
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:718-22. 2001
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint The influence of fetal sex in screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester using AFP and free beta-hCG
    K Spencer
    Endocrine Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Harold Wood Hospital, Gubbins Lane, Romford, Essex RM3 0BE, UK
    Prenat Diagn 20:648-51. 2000
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint First trimester sex hormone-binding globulin and subsequent development of preeclampsia or other adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Kevin Spencer
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital Medical School, Denmark Hill, London, UK
    Hypertens Pregnancy 24:303-11. 2005
    ..To investigate whether first trimester maternal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations are altered in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications...
  90. doi request reprint The impact of fetal gender on first trimester nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A MoM in normal and trisomy 21 pregnancies
    Nicholas J Cowans
    Prenatal Screening Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Barley Lane, Goodmayes, IG3 8YB, UK
    Prenat Diagn 29:578-81. 2009
    ..To investigate if fetal sex has an impact on 1st trimester combined screening for aenuploidy...
  91. doi request reprint The effect of Rhesus status on first-trimester pregnancy screening markers free beta human chorionic gonadotropin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and nuchal translucency
    Nicholas J Cowans
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Essex, UK
    Prenat Diagn 29:505-7. 2009
    ..To examine whether maternal Rhesus status has any effect on the levels of first-trimester markers free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and nuchal translucency (NT)...
  92. ncbi request reprint Dose dependency between cigarette consumption and reduced maternal serum PAPP-A levels at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation
    K O Kagan
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 27:849-53. 2007
    ..To examine whether in smokers there is a significant dose dependency between the number of cigarettes per day and levels of free ss-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation...
  93. ncbi request reprint Second-trimester sex hormone-binding globulin and subsequent development of pre-eclampsia
    C K H Yu
    Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King s College Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 16:158-62. 2004
    ..To investigate whether maternal plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations are reduced in women who subsequently develop pre-eclampsia...
  94. doi request reprint PAPP-A and free ss-hCG stability in first trimester serum using PerkinElmer AutoDELFIA and DELFIA Xpress systems
    Nicholas J Cowans
    Prenatal Research Unit, Clinical Biochemistry Department, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, UK
    Prenat Diagn 30:127-32. 2010
    ..In this study we aim to investigate the stability of free-beta-hCG and PAPP-A over time in serum and whole blood in typical routine temperatures...
  95. ncbi request reprint On being at higher risk: a qualitative study of prenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies
    Bob Heyman
    City University, London, UK
    Soc Sci Med 62:2360-72. 2006
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint Women as moral pioneers? Experiences of first trimester antenatal screening
    Clare Williams
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, King s College London, Rm 5 4, Waterloo Bridge Wing, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NN, UK
    Soc Sci Med 61:1983-92. 2005
    ..It seems that whatever other implications they may have, first trimester screening technologies will continue the tradition of pregnant women acting as 'moral pioneers' in increasingly complex settings...
  97. ncbi request reprint ADAM 12 as a second-trimester maternal serum marker in screening for Down syndrome
    Michael Christiansen
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Prenat Diagn 27:611-5. 2007
    ..The maternal serum concentration of ADAM 12 is a potential first-trimester maternal serum marker of Down syndrome (DS). Here we examine the potential of ADAM 12 as a second-trimester maternal serum marker of DS...
  98. ncbi request reprint Point-of-care screening for chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester of pregnancy
    Kevin Spencer
    Clin Chem 48:403-4. 2002
  99. doi request reprint Physiological distribution of placental growth factor and soluble Flt-1 in early pregnancy
    George Makrydimas
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ioannina University Hospital, 45500 Ioannina, Greece
    Prenat Diagn 28:175-9. 2008
    ..To examine the distribution of placental growth factor (PlGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) in maternal and embryonic fluid compartments in early pregnancy...
  100. ncbi request reprint Higher median levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the first trimester of pregnancy in a Chinese ethnic group. Implication for first trimester combined screening for Down's syndrome in the Chinese population
    Tak Yeung Leung
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Fetal Diagn Ther 21:140-3. 2006
    ..To study the effect of ethnic Chinese on the medians of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the first trimester of pregnancy...
  101. ncbi request reprint Predicting complications of pregnancy with first-trimester maternal serum free-betahCG, PAPP-A and inhibin-A
    Natasa Tul
    Perinatology Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Prenat Diagn 23:990-6. 2003
    ..To find whether fbetahCG, PAPP-A and inhibin-A levels in maternal serum or fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at the first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 (T21) might detect women at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes...