R Franco

Summary

Affiliation: Universitat de Barcelona
Country: Spain

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Partners for adenosine A1 receptors
    Rafael Franco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Mol Neurosci 26:221-32. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint The two-state dimer receptor model: a general model for receptor dimers
    Rafael Franco
    Dept Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 69:1905-12. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Receptor-receptor interactions involving adenosine A1 or dopamine D1 receptors and accessory proteins
    R Franco
    Molecular Neurobiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IDIBAPS Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neural Transm 114:93-104. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint The emergence of neurotransmitters as immune modulators
    Rafael Franco
    Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Diagonal 645, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Trends Immunol 28:400-7. 2007
  5. doi request reprint Novel pharmacological targets based on receptor heteromers
    Rafael Franco
    Institut d Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Brain Res Rev 58:475-82. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Basic concepts in G-protein-coupled receptor homo- and heterodimerization
    Rafael Franco
    Institut d Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas and Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    ScientificWorldJournal 7:48-57. 2007
  7. pmc G-protein-coupled receptor heteromers: function and ligand pharmacology
    R Franco
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Institut d Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Br J Pharmacol 153:S90-8. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Comodulation of CXCR4 and CD26 in human lymphocytes
    C Herrera
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Biol Chem 276:19532-9. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 envelope gp120 and viral particles block adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26
    A Valenzuela
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain
    Adv Exp Med Biol 421:185-92. 1997
  10. ncbi request reprint Adenosine A2B receptors behave as an alternative anchoring protein for cell surface adenosine deaminase in lymphocytes and cultured cells
    C Herrera
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 59:127-34. 2001

Detail Information

Publications122 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Partners for adenosine A1 receptors
    Rafael Franco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Mol Neurosci 26:221-32. 2005
    ..There is even the possibility of linking together GPCR heteromeric complexes with ion channel receptors in a receptor mosaic that might have special integrative value and might constitute the molecular basis for learning and memory...
  2. ncbi request reprint The two-state dimer receptor model: a general model for receptor dimers
    Rafael Franco
    Dept Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 69:1905-12. 2006
    ..In summary, the two-state dimer receptor model is good for fitting data of binding to dimeric receptors displaying either linear, concave upward, or concave downward Scatchard plots...
  3. ncbi request reprint Receptor-receptor interactions involving adenosine A1 or dopamine D1 receptors and accessory proteins
    R Franco
    Molecular Neurobiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IDIBAPS Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neural Transm 114:93-104. 2007
    ..Overall, the knowledge of the reason why such complex networks of receptor-receptor and receptor-protein interactions occur in striatal cells is crucial to develop new strategies to combat neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases...
  4. ncbi request reprint The emergence of neurotransmitters as immune modulators
    Rafael Franco
    Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Diagonal 645, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Trends Immunol 28:400-7. 2007
    ..Current and future developments in understanding the cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems will probably identify new avenues for treating immune-mediated diseases using agonists or antagonists of neurotransmitter receptors...
  5. doi request reprint Novel pharmacological targets based on receptor heteromers
    Rafael Franco
    Institut d Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Brain Res Rev 58:475-82. 2008
    ..This model provides a novel approach to characterize drugs interacting with the orthosteric center (agonists/antagonists) or with allosteric centers (allosteric regulators)...
  6. ncbi request reprint Basic concepts in G-protein-coupled receptor homo- and heterodimerization
    Rafael Franco
    Institut d Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas and Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    ScientificWorldJournal 7:48-57. 2007
    ..Heterodimer-specific drugs or dual drugs able to activate the two receptors in the heterodimer simultaneously emerge as novel and promising drugs for a variety of central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic applications...
  7. pmc G-protein-coupled receptor heteromers: function and ligand pharmacology
    R Franco
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Institut d Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Br J Pharmacol 153:S90-8. 2008
    ..This fact should be taken into account in the development of new drugs...
  8. ncbi request reprint Comodulation of CXCR4 and CD26 in human lymphocytes
    C Herrera
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Biol Chem 276:19532-9. 2001
    ..The physical association of CXCR4 and CD26, direct or part of a supramolecular structure, suggests a role on the function of the immune system and the pathophysiology of HIV infection...
  9. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 envelope gp120 and viral particles block adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26
    A Valenzuela
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain
    Adv Exp Med Biol 421:185-92. 1997
    ..Since the interaction ecto-ADA/CD26 is required for the activation of T cells, it remains possible that HIV particle-mediated blockade of ecto-ADA/CD26 interaction may have significant consequences in the pathogenesis of AIDS disease...
  10. ncbi request reprint Adenosine A2B receptors behave as an alternative anchoring protein for cell surface adenosine deaminase in lymphocytes and cultured cells
    C Herrera
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 59:127-34. 2001
    ..Therefore, in lymphocytes, cell surface ADA, apart from degrading extracellular adenosine, regulates those actions of adenosine that are mediated via adenosine receptors of the A2B subtype...
  11. ncbi request reprint Solubilization of A1 adenosine receptor from pig brain: characterization and evidence of the role of the cell membrane on the coexistence of high- and low-affinity states
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    J Neurosci Res 26:461-73. 1990
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint The cluster-arranged cooperative model: a model that accounts for the kinetics of binding to A1 adenosine receptors
    R Franco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Biochemistry 35:3007-15. 1996
    ..Our model can likely explain the behavior of a number of heptaspanning and tyrosine-kinase receptors exhibiting complex binding kinetics...
  13. ncbi request reprint Adenosine deaminase interacts with A1 adenosine receptors in pig brain cortical membranes
    C Saura
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Neurochem 66:1675-82. 1996
    ..Thus, it seems that adenosine deaminase is necessary for coupling A1 adenosine receptors to heterotrimeric G proteins...
  14. pmc The heat shock cognate protein hsc73 assembles with A(1) adenosine receptors to form functional modules in the cell membrane
    S Sarrió
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 20:5164-74. 2000
    ..These results open the interesting possibility that signaling via G protein-coupled receptors may be regulated by heat shock proteins...
  15. ncbi request reprint A method for binding parameters estimation of A1 adenosine receptor subtype: a practical approach
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Anal Biochem 184:117-23. 1990
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Role of histidine residues in agonist and antagonist binding sites of A1 adenosine receptor
    G Allende
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Neurochem 60:1525-33. 1993
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  17. ncbi request reprint Adenosine deaminase affects ligand-induced signalling by interacting with cell surface adenosine receptors
    F Ciruela
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    FEBS Lett 380:219-23. 1996
    ..These findings demonstrate that, apart from the cleavage of adenosine, a further role of ecto-adenosine deaminase on the cell surface is to facilitate the signal transduction via A1R...
  18. ncbi request reprint The adenosine receptors present on the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells are of the A2b subtype
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Unitat de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular A Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 59:425-31. 1992
    ..These results indicate that the receptors present on the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells are exclusively of the A2b subtype...
  19. ncbi request reprint N-ethylmaleimide affects agonist binding to A1 adenosine receptors differently in the presence than in the absence of ligand
    G Allende
    Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, University of Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 181:213-8. 1991
    ..Thus, membranes pretreated with Gpp(NH)p exhibited both affinity states and with similar equilibrium binding parameter values to those of the crude membranes...
  20. ncbi request reprint Involvement of caveolin in ligand-induced recruitment and internalization of A(1) adenosine receptor and adenosine deaminase in an epithelial cell line
    S Gines
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Química Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 59:1314-23. 2001
    ..These results indicate that A(1)R and ADA form a stable complex in the cell surface of LLC-PK(1) cells and that agonist-induced internalization of the A(1) adenosine receptor and ADA is mediated by clathrin-independent endocytosis...
  21. ncbi request reprint The distribution of A1 adenosine receptor and 5'-nucleotidase in pig brain cortex subcellular fractions
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Neurochem Res 17:129-39. 1992
    ....
  22. pmc CD26, adenosine deaminase, and adenosine receptors mediate costimulatory signals in the immunological synapse
    R Pacheco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:9583-8. 2005
    ..This costimulatory signal in the immunological synapse leads to a marked increase (3- to 34-fold) in the production of the T helper 1 and proimmflamatory cytokines IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6...
  23. ncbi request reprint Surface adenosine deaminase. A novel B-cell marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    M Martin
    Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Spain
    Hum Immunol 42:265-73. 1995
    ..Double labeling ADA/CD5 and ADA/CD19, as well as the correlation of ADA expression with the expression of other surface markers, indicate that surface ADA might be considered a novel marker for CLL...
  24. ncbi request reprint Effect of phospholipases and proteases on the [3H]N6-(R)-phenylisopropyladenosine ([3H]R-PIA) binding to A1 adenosine receptors from pig cerebral cortex
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    J Cell Biochem 47:278-88. 1991
    ..In conclusion it should be noted that phospholipids play a key role for the binding of R-PIA to A1 adenosine receptor. Also, a different disposition within the membrane of the coupled and uncoupled receptor is encountered...
  25. ncbi request reprint Adenosine receptors in myelin fractions and subfractions: the effect of the agonist (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine on myelin membrane microviscosity
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 57:1623-9. 1991
    ..These results suggest that adenosine receptors may have an important role in the functionality of myelin membranes...
  26. ncbi request reprint Thermodynamic analysis of agonist and antagonist binding to membrane-bound and solubilized A1 adenosine receptors
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 266:1463-74. 1993
    ..The thermodynamic similarities and differences are discussed in terms of receptor--G protein interaction...
  27. ncbi request reprint The binding of [3H]R-PIA to A1 adenosine receptors produces a conversion of the high- to the low-affinity state
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    FEBS Lett 286:221-4. 1991
    ..In view of these results equilibrium binding data were analyzed by the usual two-state model (assuming that there is an interconversion between them) and by the negative cooperativity model employing the Hill equation...
  28. ncbi request reprint Heterodimeric adenosine receptors: a device to regulate neurotransmitter release
    F Ciruela
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Avda Diagonal, 645, 08028, Barcelona, Spain
    Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2427-31. 2006
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Modulation of adenosine agonist [3H]N6-(R)-phenylisopropyladenosine binding to pig brain cortical membranes by changes of membrane fluidity and of medium physicochemical characteristics
    V Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    Eur J Pharmacol 225:7-14. 1992
    ..On the other hand, increases of the medium conductance did not lead to the disappearance of the low-affinity state although some decrease of the binding was observed at high Tris concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  30. ncbi request reprint Modulation of GH4 cell cycle via A1 adenosine receptors
    A Navarro
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Neurochem 69:2145-54. 1997
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26 is inhibited by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and viral particles
    A Valenzuela
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Immunol 158:3721-9. 1997
    ..Because ADA deficiency leads to severe combined immunodefiency syndrome, it remains possible that HIV particle-mediated blockade of ADA-CD26 interaction may have significant consequences in the pathogenesis of AIDS...
  32. ncbi request reprint Cell surface adenosine deaminase: much more than an ectoenzyme
    R Franco
    Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Prog Neurobiol 52:283-94. 1997
    ..On the other hand, ectoADA might act as a bridge between two different cells thus raising the possibility that it may be important for the development of the nervous system...
  33. pmc Dopamine D1 and adenosine A1 receptors form functionally interacting heteromeric complexes
    S Gines
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8606-11. 2000
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Metabotropic glutamate 1alpha and adenosine A1 receptors assemble into functionally interacting complexes
    F Ciruela
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 276:18345-51. 2001
    ....
  35. pmc Dopamine D4 receptor, but not the ADHD-associated D4.7 variant, forms functional heteromers with the dopamine D2S receptor in the brain
    S Gonzalez
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Psychiatry 17:650-62. 2012
    ..It is therefore postulated that dysfunctional D(2S)-D(4.7) heteromers may impair presynaptic dopaminergic control of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and explain functional deficits associated with ADHD...
  36. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV cytokine-dependent regulation on human activated lymphocytes
    F J Salgado
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
    Cytokine 12:1136-41. 2000
    ..The fact that translation and probably translocation of CD26 toward the cell surface can be regulated by IL-12 and TNF-alpha reveals new aspects about the control of this T(H1)marker...
  37. ncbi request reprint Expression of A2B adenosine receptors in human lymphocytes: their role in T cell activation
    M Mirabet
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Cell Sci 112:491-502. 1999
    ..These results show that A2BR expression is regulated in T cell activation and suggest that the role of adenosine in lymphocyte deactivation is mediated by A2BRs...
  38. doi request reprint Adenosine deaminase enhances T-cell response elicited by dendritic cells loaded with inactivated HIV
    Nuria Climent
    Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
    Immunol Cell Biol 87:634-9. 2009
    ..As IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-6 promote the Th1 versus Th2 phenotype and improve T helper proliferation responses and antigen-specific CTL responses ADA may be considered a promising candidate for therapeutic vaccine adjuvant...
  39. ncbi request reprint Adenosine A2A receptor stimulation potentiates nitric oxide release by activated microglia
    Josep Saura
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, IIBB, CSIC, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 95:919-29. 2005
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Enzymatic and extraenzymatic role of ecto-adenosine deaminase in lymphocytes
    R Franco
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Immunol Rev 161:27-42. 1998
    ..The most interesting aspect is the possible participation of the ecto-enzyme in cell-to-cell contacts during ontogenesis and maturation of immunocompetent cells...
  41. ncbi request reprint Heptaspanning membrane receptors and cytoskeletal/scaffolding proteins: focus on adenosine, dopamine, and metabotropic glutamate receptor function
    Francisco Ciruela
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Mol Neurosci 26:277-92. 2005
    ..Finally, given the complexity of neurological disorders such as ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy, exploitation of these HSMR-associated interactions might prove to be efficient in the treatment of such disorders...
  42. doi request reprint Human adenosine deaminase as an allosteric modulator of human A(1) adenosine receptor: abolishment of negative cooperativity for [H](R)-pia binding to the caudate nucleus
    Eduard Gracia
    Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, University of Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 107:161-70. 2008
    ..The physiological role of the interaction is to make receptors more sensitive to adenosine. This powerful regulation has important implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A(1)Rs...
  43. pmc Immunological dysfunction in HIV-1-infected individuals caused by impairment of adenosine deaminase-induced costimulation of T-cell activation
    José M Martinez-Navio
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Immunology 128:393-404. 2009
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Gi protein coupling to adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromers in human brain caudate nucleus
    Vicent Casado
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, University of Barcelona, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, CIBERNED, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 114:972-80. 2010
    ..This fact might be taken into account when characterizing CGS 21680 actions in human cells expressing A(1) receptors when the compound is used at micromolar concentrations...
  45. ncbi request reprint Novel ergopeptides as dual ligands for adenosine and dopamine receptors
    Marc Vendrell
    Combinatorial Chemistry Unit, Barcelona Science Park, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology Unit, IDIBAPS, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, IRB Barcelona, Barcelona Science Park, Barcelona, Spain
    J Med Chem 50:3062-9. 2007
    ..Molecules with this pharmacological profile are potentially useful for studying dopamine-adenosine cross-talk in the central nervous system and for testing the therapeutic potential of multivalent drugs for Parkinson's disease...
  46. doi request reprint Useful pharmacological parameters for G-protein-coupled receptor homodimers obtained from competition experiments. Agonist-antagonist binding modulation
    Vicent Casado
    Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Avda Diagonal 465, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Biochem Pharmacol 78:1456-63. 2009
    ..Comparing fitting the data by assuming a classical monomeric receptor model or a dimer model, it is shown that dimer receptor models provide more clues useful in drug discovery than monomer-based models...
  47. ncbi request reprint Determination of the characteristics, properties and homogeneity of rat brain microsomes. Binding of lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and 5' nucleotidase to microsomal membranes
    R Franco
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Biochem Int 16:689-99. 1988
    ..Lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities were always found in free and membrane-bound form. In contrast, 5'-nucleotidase activity was always encountered bound to microsomal membranes...
  48. ncbi request reprint Theoretical study of the protonation and tautomerization of adenosine, formycin, and their 2-NH2 and 2-F derivatives: functional implications in the mechanism of reaction of adenosine deaminase
    M Orozco
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 35:257-64. 1989
    ..1) is one of the most studied analogues of adenosine. It is a natural product extracted from Nocardia interforma (2) with proven antiviral (3-5), antibiotic (2), immunodepressant (6), antitumor (6), and antimetabolic (5) activities...
  49. doi request reprint A hybrid indoloquinolizidine peptide as allosteric modulator of dopamine D1 receptors
    Aroa Soriano
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 332:876-85. 2010
    ..Compounds able to decrease the potency while preserving the efficacy of D(1) receptor agonists are promising for exploration in psychotic pathologies...
  50. doi request reprint Adenosine A2A receptor-antagonist/dopamine D2 receptor-agonist bivalent ligands as pharmacological tools to detect A2A-D2 receptor heteromers
    Aroa Soriano
    Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Avenida Diagonal 645, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Med Chem 52:5590-602. 2009
    ..The dopamine/adenosine bivalent action could constitute a novel concept in Parkinson's disease pharmacotherapy...
  51. pmc Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction
    Silvia Gines
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Biochem J 361:203-9. 2002
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the ADA-CD26 interaction on the cell surface has a role in lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion...
  52. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms involved in the adenosine A and A receptor-induced neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells and striatal primary cultures
    Meritxell Canals
    Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 92:337-48. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Glutamate released by dendritic cells as a novel modulator of T cell activation
    Rodrigo Pacheco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology and Institut d Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Immunol 177:6695-704. 2006
    ..These data suggest that, during T cell-DC interaction, glutamate is a novel and highly effective regulator in the initiation of T cell-mediated immune responses...
  54. ncbi request reprint Expression of ecto-adenosine deaminase and CD26 in human T cells triggered by the TCR-CD3 complex. Possible role of adenosine deaminase as costimulatory molecule
    M Martin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Immunol 155:4630-43. 1995
    ..The set of results strongly indicates that ADA binding to CD26 produces a costimulatory response in T cell activation events...
  55. doi request reprint Metabotropic glutamate type 5, dopamine D2 and adenosine A2a receptors form higher-order oligomers in living cells
    Nuria Cabello
    IDIBAPS, CIBERNED and Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 109:1497-507. 2009
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Enzymatic and extraenzymatic role of adenosine deaminase 1 in T-cell-dendritic cell contacts and in alterations of the immune function
    Rafael Franco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Spain
    Crit Rev Immunol 27:495-509. 2007
    ..In fact, ADA1 is a member of the adenosine deaminase growth factor (ADGF) family. Some molecular mechanisms that occur in ADA-related SCID and the role ADA1 may play in acquired immunodeficiency are also reviewed here...
  57. ncbi request reprint The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor
    Laia Canela
    Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer and Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Cell Neurosci 36:1-12. 2007
    ..Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function...
  58. ncbi request reprint Light resonance energy transfer-based methods in the study of G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization
    Jorge Gandia
    Unitat de Farmacologia, Departament de Patologia i Terapèutica Experimental, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    Bioessays 30:82-9. 2008
    ..In the present review, we address the individual strengths and weaknesses of both RET approaches, providing information on their possible future use in the study of G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization...
  59. ncbi request reprint Role of glutamate on T-cell mediated immunity
    Rodrigo Pacheco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neuroimmunol 185:9-19. 2007
    ..A role of glutamate as a key immunomodulator in the initiation and development of T-cell-mediated immunity in peripheral tissues as well as in the central nervous system is suggested...
  60. ncbi request reprint Combining mass spectrometry and pull-down techniques for the study of receptor heteromerization. Direct epitope-epitope electrostatic interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors
    Francisco Ciruela
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, E 08028, Spain
    Anal Chem 76:5354-63. 2004
    ..The present results are the first example of epitope-epitope electrostatic interaction underlying receptor heteromerization, a new, expanding area of protein-protein interactions...
  61. ncbi request reprint Dimer-based model for heptaspanning membrane receptors
    Rafael Franco
    Department Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, A Diagonal, 645 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Trends Biochem Sci 30:360-6. 2005
    ..This model can aid our understanding of the operation of heptaspanning receptors and receptor channels, and, potentially, be important for improving the treatment of cardiovascular, neurological and neuropsychyatric diseases...
  62. ncbi request reprint Adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor-receptor heteromerization: qualitative and quantitative assessment by fluorescence and bioluminescence energy transfer
    Meritxell Canals
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Martí y Franquès 1, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 278:46741-9. 2003
    ..In the most probable one, helix 5 and/or helix 6 and the N-terminal portion of I3 from D2R approached helix 4 and the C-terminal portion of the C-tail from the A2AR, respectively...
  63. pmc G-protein-coupled receptor heteromers or how neurons can display differently flavoured patterns in response to the same neurotransmitter
    Rafael Franco
    Molecular Neurobiology Unit, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, School of Biology, University of Barcelona, Spain
    Br J Pharmacol 158:23-31. 2009
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Theoretical study about the variability of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease viruses
    R Franco
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
    Int J Biochem 24:325-9. 1992
    ..4. A hypothetical genealogic tree for these strains is suggested, where CSP and C3Ind are close and also A10 and A12. O1K is closer to A10 and A12 than to CSP or C3Ind...
  65. ncbi request reprint Presence of adenosine deaminase on the surface of mononuclear blood cells: immunochemical localization using light and electron microscopy
    J M Aran
    Departament de Bioquimica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    J Histochem Cytochem 39:1001-8. 1991
    ..Since the enzyme expression differed depending on the type of cell examined, new hypotheses about the mechanisms involving purine metabolism in immune dysfunctions or immunodeficiency syndromes may be considered...
  66. doi request reprint Detection of higher-order G protein-coupled receptor oligomers by a combined BRET-BiFC technique
    Jorge Gandia
    Departament Patologia i Terapèutica Experimental, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Pavelló de Govern, L Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
    FEBS Lett 582:2979-84. 2008
    ..These results provide new insights into the molecular composition of G protein-coupled receptor oligomers...
  67. pmc Direct involvement of sigma-1 receptors in the dopamine D1 receptor-mediated effects of cocaine
    Gemma Navarro
    Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18676-81. 2010
    ....
  68. pmc Interactions between calmodulin, adenosine A2A, and dopamine D2 receptors
    Gemma Navarro
    Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 284:28058-68. 2009
    ..These results may have implications for basal ganglia disorders, since A(2A)-D(2) receptor heteromers are being considered as a target for anti-parkinsonian agents...
  69. pmc Increased alpha-defensins 1-3 production by dendritic cells in HIV-infected individuals is associated with slower disease progression
    Marta Rodríguez-García
    Service of Immunology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS ONE 5:e9436. 2010
    ..Since DC-HIV interaction plays a critical role during the first steps of HIV infection, we investigated the possible impact of alpha-defensins1-3 production by DC on disease progression...
  70. doi request reprint The association of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 with the neuronal Ca2+-binding protein 2 modulates receptor function
    Laia Canela
    IDIBAPS, CIBERNED and Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 111:555-67. 2009
    ..Overall, these findings indicate that NECAB2 by its physical interaction with mGlu(5b) receptor modulates receptor function...
  71. pmc Marked changes in signal transduction upon heteromerization of dopamine D1 and histamine H3 receptors
    Carla Ferrada
    Molecular Neurobiology Unit, IDIBAPS, CIBERNED, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Br J Pharmacol 157:64-75. 2009
    ..In the present study we investigated the existence of D1-H3 receptor heteromers and their biochemical characteristics...
  72. pmc Interactions between histamine H3 and dopamine D2 receptors and the implications for striatal function
    Carla Ferrada
    Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Neuropharmacology 55:190-7. 2008
    ..This study demonstrates an important role of postsynaptic H(3) receptors in the modulation of dopaminergic transmission by means of a negative modulation of D(2) receptor function...
  73. doi request reprint GPCR homomers and heteromers: a better choice as targets for drug development than GPCR monomers?
    Vicent Casado
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, CIBERNED Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas and Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Pharmacol Ther 124:248-57. 2009
    ....
  74. doi request reprint Detection of heteromers formed by cannabinoid CB1, dopamine D2, and adenosine A2A G-protein-coupled receptors by combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence energy transfer
    Gemma Navarro
    Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, y Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    ScientificWorldJournal 8:1088-97. 2008
    ..Here a combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence energy transfer techniques was used to identify the occurrence of D2R-CB1R-A2AR hetero-oligomers in living cells...
  75. doi request reprint Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers in neurodegenerative diseases and neural plasticity
    Rafael Franco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades neurodegenerativas, Institut d Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neural Transm 116:983-7. 2009
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors mediate a dual role of glutamate in T cell activation
    Rodrigo Pacheco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 279:33352-8. 2004
    ..This is a novel non-inhibitory action mechanism for glutamate in lymphocyte activation. mGlu1R and mGlu5R thus mediate opposite glutamate effects in human lymphocytes...
  77. pmc ATP-sensitive K(+) channels regulate the concentrative adenosine transporter CNT2 following activation by A(1) adenosine receptors
    Sylvie Duflot
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, E 08071 Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 24:2710-9. 2004
    ..Mediation of purinergic responses and a connection between the intracellular energy status and the need for an exogenous adenosine supply are novel roles for K(ATP) channels...
  78. ncbi request reprint A1 adenosine receptors accumulate in neurodegenerative structures in Alzheimer disease and mediate both amyloid precursor protein processing and tau phosphorylation and translocation
    Ester Angulo
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, University of Barcelona, Spain
    Brain Pathol 13:440-51. 2003
    ..Furthermore, activation of A1R led to and ERK-dependent increase of tau phosphorylation and translocation towards the cytoskeleton. These results indicate that adenosine receptors are potential targets for AD...
  79. ncbi request reprint Ligand-induced caveolae-mediated internalization of A1 adenosine receptors: morphological evidence of endosomal sorting and receptor recycling
    Marisol Escriche
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, 08028, Barcelona, Spain
    Exp Cell Res 285:72-90. 2003
    ..These results give insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and traffic of A(1)R and RAMPs...
  80. ncbi request reprint Presynaptic control of striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission by adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromers
    Francisco Ciruela
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurosci 26:2080-7. 2006
    ....
  81. ncbi request reprint Homodimerization of adenosine A2A receptors: qualitative and quantitative assessment by fluorescence and bioluminescence energy transfer
    Meritxell Canals
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 88:726-34. 2004
    ..As A2AR and dopamine D2 receptors do indeed interact, these results indicate that A2AR homodimers are the functional species at the cell surface and that they coexist with A2AR/D2 receptor heterodimers...
  82. ncbi request reprint Striatal adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors form functional heteromeric complexes that mediate the motor effects of cannabinoids
    Paulina Carriba
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2249-59. 2007
    ..These biochemical and behavioral findings demonstrate that the profound motor effects of cannabinoids depend on physical and functional interactions between striatal A2A and CB1 receptors...
  83. ncbi request reprint Working memory deficits in transgenic rats overexpressing human adenosine A2A receptors in the brain
    Lydia Gimenez-Llort
    Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Institute of Neuroscience, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 87:42-56. 2007
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint A role for interleukin-12 in the regulation of T cell plasma membrane compartmentation
    Francisco J Salgado
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    J Biol Chem 278:24849-57. 2003
    ..Thus, CD26 could be part of a shuttling mechanism for CD45 that regulates membrane tyrosine-phosphatase activities, e.g. to control IL-12 receptor-dependent signal transduction...
  85. ncbi request reprint Up-regulation of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in early stages of Alzheimer's disease
    Ester Angulo
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 91:547-57. 2004
    ..Thus, Kv3.4 likely represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease...
  86. ncbi request reprint Metabotropic glutamate type 1alpha receptor localizes in low-density caveolin-rich plasma membrane fractions
    Javier Burgueno
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Quimica, IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 86:785-91. 2003
    ..Overall, these results clearly show a molecular and functional association of mGlu1alpha receptor with caveolins...
  87. doi request reprint Detection of heteromerization of more than two proteins by sequential BRET-FRET
    Paulina Carriba
    Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, University of Barcelona, Avda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Nat Methods 5:727-33. 2008
    ..SRET is an invaluable technique to identify heteromeric complexes of more than two neurotransmitter receptors, which will allow us to better understand how signals are integrated at the molecular level...
  88. doi request reprint Cocaine self-administration markedly increases dopamine D2 receptor negative cooperativity for dopamine binding: A receptor dimer-based analysis
    Rafael Franco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, Barcelona, Spain
    Synapse 64:566-9. 2010
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint The adenosine A2A receptor interacts with the actin-binding protein alpha-actinin
    Javier Burgueno
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 278:37545-52. 2003
    ..These findings suggest an alpha-actinin-dependent association between the actin cytoskeleton and A2AR trafficking...
  90. pmc Interactions between intracellular domains as key determinants of the quaternary structure and function of receptor heteromers
    Gemma Navarro
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 285:27346-59. 2010
    ..These findings allowed us to propose the first molecular model of the quaternary structure of a receptor heteromultimer...
  91. ncbi request reprint Actin-binding protein alpha-actinin-1 interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5b and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor
    Nuria Cabello
    Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Avda Diagonal 645, Barcelona 08028, Spain
    J Biol Chem 282:12143-53. 2007
    ..Together, these findings indicate that there is an alpha-actinin-1-dependent mGlu(5b) receptor association with the actin cytoskeleton modulating receptor cell surface expression and functioning...
  92. doi request reprint Indoloquinolizidine-peptide hybrids as multiple agonists for D1 and D2 dopamine receptors
    Marc Vendrell
    Combinatorial Chemistry Unit, Barcelona Science Park, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    ChemMedChem 4:1514-22. 2009
    ....
  93. ncbi request reprint Adenosine receptor-mediated modulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens depends on glutamate neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor stimulation
    Davide Quarta
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 91:873-80. 2004
    ..Furthermore, these results underscore the role of A(1) vs. A(2A) receptor antagonism in the central effects of caffeine...
  94. pmc Synergistic interaction between adenosine A2A and glutamate mGlu5 receptors: implications for striatal neuronal function
    Sergi Ferre
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, U SA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11940-5. 2002
    ..The results suggest that a functional mGluR5/A2AR interaction is required to overcome the well-known strong tonic inhibitory effect of dopamine on striatal adenosine A2AR function...
  95. ncbi request reprint Adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromers: new targets for caffeine in the brain
    Sergi Ferre
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Front Biosci 13:2391-9. 2008
    ..The analysis of the function of A1-A2A receptor heteromers during chronic treatment with caffeine gives new clues about the well-known phenomenon of tolerance to the psychostimulant effects of caffeine...
  96. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms and therapeutical implications of intramembrane receptor/receptor interactions among heptahelical receptors with examples from the striatopallidal GABA neurons
    Luigi F Agnati
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Pharmacol Rev 55:509-50. 2003
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Adenosine receptor-dopamine receptor interactions in the basal ganglia and their relevance for brain function
    Kjell Fuxe
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience, Retzius vag 8, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Physiol Behav 92:210-7. 2007
    ..Thus, A2A receptor antagonists and A2A receptor agonists, respectively, may offer novel treatments of Parkinson's disease (reduced D2 receptor signaling) and of schizophrenia and drug addiction (increased D2 receptor signaling)...
  98. ncbi request reprint Regulation of heptaspanning-membrane-receptor function by dimerization and clustering
    Rafael Franco
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona, Martí Franques 1, Spain
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:238-43. 2003
    ..This concept gives a new perspective to the understanding of neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity...
  99. pmc Identification of dopamine D1-D3 receptor heteromers. Indications for a role of synergistic D1-D3 receptor interactions in the striatum
    Daniel Marcellino
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 17177, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 283:26016-25. 2008
    ..The present study shows that a main functional significance of the D(3) receptor is to obtain a stronger dopaminergic response in the striatal neurons that co-express the two receptors...
  100. ncbi request reprint Old and new ways to calculate the affinity of agonists and antagonists interacting with G-protein-coupled monomeric and dimeric receptors: the receptor-dimer cooperativity index
    Vincent Casadó
    IDIBAPS and CIBERNED Centro de Investigación en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, CIBERNED, Madrid, Spain
    Pharmacol Ther 116:343-54. 2007
    ..The new procedure can be applied to any receptor forming dimers; from receptor tyrosine kinases to intracellular receptors (e.g., estrogen receptor) and in general for ligand binding to proteins forming dimers...
  101. ncbi request reprint Adenosine receptor heteromers and their integrative role in striatal function
    Sergi Ferre
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    ScientificWorldJournal 7:74-85. 2007
    ..For instance, the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromers work as integrators of two different neurotransmitters in the striatal spine module...