Ascension Marcos

Summary

Country: Spain

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Changes in the immune system are conditioned by nutrition
    A Marcos
    Grupo de Inmunonutrición, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Instituto del Frio CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Clin Nutr 57:S66-9. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint The effect of milk fermented by yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on the immune response of subjects under academic examination stress
    Ascension Marcos
    Grupo Inmunonutrición, Depo de Metabolismo y Nutrición, Instituto del Frio, CSIC, C Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Nutr 43:381-9. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Inflammatory proteins are related to total and abdominal adiposity in a healthy adolescent population: the AVENA Study
    Julia Warnberg
    Immunonutrition Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:505-12. 2006
  4. doi request reprint Video game playing time and cardiometabolic risk in adolescents: the AFINOS study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Med Clin (Barc) 139:290-2. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Behavioural correlates of active commuting to school in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS (Physical Activity as a Preventive Measure Against Overweight, Obesity, Infections, Allergies, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents) study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Calle José Antonio Novais 10, E 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Public Health Nutr 14:1779-86. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Sleep duration and emerging cardiometabolic risk markers in adolescents. The AFINOS study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Sleep Med 12:997-1002. 2011
  7. doi request reprint Changes in cardiometabolic risk factors, appetite-controlling hormones and cytokines after a treatment program in overweight adolescents: preliminary findings from the EVASYON study
    Javier Romeo
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Pediatr Diabetes 12:372-80. 2011
  8. pmc Physical activity as a preventive measure against overweight, obesity, infections, allergies and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: AFINOS Study protocol
    Oscar L Veiga
    Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Canto Blanco Ctra de Colmenar Km 11 E 28049, Madrid, Spain
    BMC Public Health 9:475. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Objectively-measured and self-reported physical activity and fitness in relation to inflammatory markers in European adolescents: the HELENA Study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Spanish National Research Council, Calle José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Atherosclerosis 221:260-7. 2012
  10. pmc Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    BMC Public Health 10:274. 2010

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. ncbi request reprint Changes in the immune system are conditioned by nutrition
    A Marcos
    Grupo de Inmunonutrición, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Instituto del Frio CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Clin Nutr 57:S66-9. 2003
    ..The implications of nutrition on immune function in these disorders are briefly reviewed...
  2. ncbi request reprint The effect of milk fermented by yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on the immune response of subjects under academic examination stress
    Ascension Marcos
    Grupo Inmunonutrición, Depo de Metabolismo y Nutrición, Instituto del Frio, CSIC, C Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Nutr 43:381-9. 2004
    ..A suppressed immune response has been documented in students under examination stress...
  3. ncbi request reprint Inflammatory proteins are related to total and abdominal adiposity in a healthy adolescent population: the AVENA Study
    Julia Warnberg
    Immunonutrition Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:505-12. 2006
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Video game playing time and cardiometabolic risk in adolescents: the AFINOS study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Med Clin (Barc) 139:290-2. 2012
    ..We aimed to examine the association of video games playing time with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adolescents...
  5. doi request reprint Behavioural correlates of active commuting to school in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS (Physical Activity as a Preventive Measure Against Overweight, Obesity, Infections, Allergies, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents) study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Calle José Antonio Novais 10, E 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Public Health Nutr 14:1779-86. 2011
    ..To examine the associations between lifestyle factors and active commuting to school in Spanish adolescents...
  6. doi request reprint Sleep duration and emerging cardiometabolic risk markers in adolescents. The AFINOS study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Sleep Med 12:997-1002. 2011
    ..To examine the associations between sleep duration and emerging inflammatory and endothelial function risk factors in adolescents...
  7. doi request reprint Changes in cardiometabolic risk factors, appetite-controlling hormones and cytokines after a treatment program in overweight adolescents: preliminary findings from the EVASYON study
    Javier Romeo
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Pediatr Diabetes 12:372-80. 2011
    ..We investigated the effects of the EVASYON program on body fatness, cardiometabolic risk factors, gut appetite-controlling hormones and serum levels of cytokines in adolescents with overweight or obesity (OW/OB)...
  8. pmc Physical activity as a preventive measure against overweight, obesity, infections, allergies and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: AFINOS Study protocol
    Oscar L Veiga
    Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Canto Blanco Ctra de Colmenar Km 11 E 28049, Madrid, Spain
    BMC Public Health 9:475. 2009
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Objectively-measured and self-reported physical activity and fitness in relation to inflammatory markers in European adolescents: the HELENA Study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Spanish National Research Council, Calle José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Atherosclerosis 221:260-7. 2012
    ..We examined the independent associations of objective and subjective measurements of PA and fitness with low-grade inflammation in European adolescents...
  10. pmc Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    BMC Public Health 10:274. 2010
    ..Excessive television (TV) viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents...
  11. pmc Design and evaluation of a treatment programme for Spanish adolescents with overweight and obesity. The EVASYON Study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    BMC Public Health 9:414. 2009
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Haematological reference values in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study
    Javier Romeo
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Haematol 83:586-94. 2009
    ..To provide reference values for haematological indices in Spanish adolescents according to age and gender...
  13. doi request reprint Drinking pattern and socio-cultural aspects on immune response: an overview
    Javier Romeo
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Instituto del Frio, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Proc Nutr Soc 69:341-6. 2010
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Convergent validity of a questionnaire for assessing physical activity in Spanish adolescents with overweight
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute Frío Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain
    Med Clin (Barc) 136:13-5. 2011
    ..To evaluate the convergent validity of the PAQ-A for assessing physical activity (PA) in overweight (including obese) adolescents...
  15. doi request reprint Eating habits and total and abdominal fat in Spanish adolescents: influence of physical activity. The AVENA study
    Sonia Gómez-Martínez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    J Adolesc Health 50:403-9. 2012
    ..To evaluate the association between specific dietary habits and body fatness in Spanish adolescents, and to analyze the role of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in this association...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effects of moderate beer consumption on blood lipid profile in healthy Spanish adults
    Javier Romeo
    Grupo Inmunonutrición, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Instituto del Frio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C Jose Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18:365-72. 2008
    ..To analyse the association of moderate beer consumption on the blood lipid profile in healthy Spanish adults...
  17. doi request reprint Sedentary behaviors and emerging cardiometabolic biomarkers in adolescents
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain
    J Pediatr 160:104-10.e2. 2012
    ..To examine the associations of objectively measured sedentary time and television (TV) viewing time with emerging inflammatory and endothelial function markers in adolescents...
  18. doi request reprint Active commuting to school and cognitive performance in adolescents: the AVENA study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology, and Nutrition, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 165:300-5. 2011
    ..To examine the associations between active commuting to school and cognitive performance in adolescents...
  19. ncbi request reprint Cytokine production by blood mononuclear cells from in-patients with anorexia nervosa
    Esther Nova
    Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología CSIC UCM, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Br J Nutr 88:183-8. 2002
    ..The results suggest that a mechanism involving modifications in the secretion pattern of proinflammatory cytokines could explain some immune function findings in underweight AN patients...
  20. ncbi request reprint 24-hour changes in circulating prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in young male rats subjected to calorie restriction
    Fernando Chacon
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    Chronobiol Int 21:393-404. 2004
    ..Availability of nutrients presumably affects the mechanisms that modulate the circadian variation of the pituitary-gonadal axis in growing male rats...
  21. doi request reprint Influence of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on lymphocyte subsets in infants at risk of coeliac disease: the PROFICEL study
    Tamara Pozo-Rubio
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Nutr 52:637-46. 2013
    ..We sought to assess the effect of the interaction between milk-feeding practices and the HLA-DQ genotype on peripheral lymphocyte subsets and their activation markers in infants at familial risk for CD...
  22. doi request reprint Influence of early environmental factors on lymphocyte subsets and gut microbiota in infants at risk of celiac disease; the PROFICEL study
    Tamara Pozo-Rubio
    Immunonutrition Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Nutr Hosp 28:464-73. 2013
    ..This includes environmental factors that are currently believed to impact on the immune system and gut microbiota development...
  23. doi request reprint Validity of the Bouchard activity diary in Spanish adolescents
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Calle José Antonio Novais 10, E 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Public Health Nutr 13:261-8. 2010
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of the Bouchard activity diary (AD) in Spanish adolescents using an activity monitor to compare total PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) obtained by both instruments...
  24. doi request reprint Physical activity, exercise and low-grade systemic inflammation
    Julia Warnberg
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Proc Nutr Soc 69:400-6. 2010
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Obesity, inflammation and the immune system
    Fátima Pérez de Heredia
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition of the Spanish National Research Council ICTAN CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Proc Nutr Soc 71:332-8. 2012
    ..In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications...
  26. pmc Immune development and intestinal microbiota in celiac disease
    Tamara Pozo-Rubio
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Spanish National Research Council ICTAN CSIC, Calle José Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Clin Dev Immunol 2012:654143. 2012
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in different stages of life
    Esther Nova
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Br J Nutr 98:S90-5. 2007
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: a review
    Javier Romeo
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Br J Nutr 98:S111-5. 2007
    ..This review summarises published data describing the effects that light to moderate amounts of polyphenol-rich beverages like wine or beer seem to have on immunity in healthy adults...
  29. doi request reprint Nutrition, inflammation, and cognitive function
    Julia Warnberg
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Instituto del Frio, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1153:164-75. 2009
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Association between excessive body fat and eating-disorder risk in adolescents: the AFINOS Study
    Ana Maria Veses
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute Frio ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Med Clin (Barc) 136:620-2. 2011
    ..Overweight and obesity, together with eating disorders, are important public health concerns in adolescence. The aim of this study was to assess the association between excessive body fat and the risk of eating disorders...
  31. ncbi request reprint Reliability and validity of a school recess physical activity recall in Spanish youth
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Dept of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Pediatr Exerc Sci 22:218-30. 2010
    ..15 +/- 3.67 min, p = .313). The RPAR showed an adequate reliability and a reasonable validity for assessing PA during the school recess in youth...
  32. ncbi request reprint Immunocompetence to assess nutritional status in eating disorders
    Esther Nova
    Immunonutrition Group, , C Jose Antonio Novais, 10 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2:433-44. 2006
    ..The role of cytokines and several hormones are reviewed for their implication in immune homeostasis...
  33. doi request reprint Neuroimmunomodulation by nutrition in stress situations
    Javier Romeo
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Instituto del Frio, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos y Nutrición ICTAN, Scientific National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Neuroimmunomodulation 15:165-9. 2008
    ..The present article will briefly review nutrition approaches on stress-related immune response and CNS communication...
  34. ncbi request reprint Lifestyle-related determinants of inflammation in adolescence
    Julia Warnberg
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Br J Nutr 98:S116-20. 2007
    ..Less data is available to allow us to elucidate how physical activity/fitness or dietary patterns may have a direct effect on inflammation in apparently healthy, disease-free young populations...
  35. doi request reprint Low-grade inflammation and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents
    Julia Warnberg
    Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Curr Opin Lipidol 19:11-5. 2008
    ..The prevalence of overweight and the metabolic syndrome is increasing in young people. This review aims to summarize current research in children and adolescents on inflammatory markers related to components of the metabolic syndrome...
  36. ncbi request reprint Socioeconomic status influences physical fitness in European adolescents independently of body fat and physical activity: the HELENA study
    D Jimenez Pavon
    Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences INEF, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Nutr Hosp 25:311-6. 2010
    ..The influence of socioeconomic status on health-related fitness is not clear...
  37. doi request reprint Beneficial effects of a synbiotic supplement on self-perceived gastrointestinal well-being and immunoinflammatory status of healthy adults
    Esther Nova
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Science and Technology of Food and Nutrition ICTAN, Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    J Med Food 14:79-85. 2011
    ..In conclusion, consumption of the synbiotic product improves self-perceived bowel habits and might facilitate a better profile of adhesion molecules in healthy adults...
  38. doi request reprint Changes in gut microbiota due to supplemented fatty acids in diet-induced obese mice
    Jorge R Mujico
    Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition ICTAN CSIC, C Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Br J Nutr 110:711-20. 2013
    ..Supplementation of the HFD with S1 counteracted HFD-induced gut dysbiosis, together with an improvement in body weight. These data support a role for certain fatty acids as interesting nutrients related to obesity prevention. ..
  39. ncbi request reprint Changes in the immune system after moderate beer consumption
    Javier Romeo
    Grupo Inmunonutrición, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Ann Nutr Metab 51:359-66. 2007
    ..However, intervention studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved. This study was aimed to determine the effects of moderate beer consumption on the immune function of healthy adults, taking into account gender differences...
  40. doi request reprint Dietary strategies of immunomodulation in infants at risk for celiac disease
    Esther Nova
    Immunonutrition Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio ICTAN National Research Council CSIC, C Jose Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Proc Nutr Soc 69:347-53. 2010
    ..Moreover, the timing and dose of gluten introduction also seem to be relevant and long-term prospective cohort studies are being carried out in order to elucidate its role in celiac disease development...
  41. doi request reprint [Validity of four questionnaires to assess physical activity in Spanish adolescents]
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Grupo de Inmunonutrición, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Instituto del Frío Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos y Nutrición, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Espana
    Gac Sanit 23:512-7. 2009
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Sedentary behavior, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. The AFINOS study
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Grupo Inmunonutrición, Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutricion, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos y Nutricion, Instituto del Frio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Rev Esp Cardiol 63:277-85. 2010
    ..A secondary aim was to evaluate the degree of association between overall and abdominal adiposity and CRFs...
  43. ncbi request reprint [Reliability and validity of the PAQ-A questionnaire to assess physical activity in Spanish adolescents]
    David Martinez-Gomez
    Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutrición Grupo de Inmunonutrición, Instituto del Frio, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos y Nutrición ICTAN, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Madrid, Espana
    Rev Esp Salud Publica 83:427-39. 2009
    ..The aim of the current study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PAQ-A questionnaire in Spanish adolescents using the measurement of PA by accelerometer as criterion...
  44. ncbi request reprint Twenty-four-hour rhythms of mitogenic responses, lymphocyte subset populations and amino acid content in submaxillary lymph nodes of growing male rats subjected to calorie restriction
    Ana I Esquifino
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    J Neuroimmunol 156:66-73. 2004
    ..Availability of nutrients presumably affects the mechanisms that modulate the circadian variation of immune responsiveness in growing rats...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of a nutritional intervention with yogurt on lymphocyte subsets and cytokine production capacity in anorexia nervosa patients
    Esther Nova
    Dept of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio CSIC, C Jose Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Nutr 45:225-33. 2006
    ..The benefits of probiotic therapy in immunocompromised subjects still need strong scientific evidences...