Fernando Baquero

Summary

Affiliation: Laboratory of Histocompatibility
Country: Spain

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water environments
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, CIBER ESP, Spain
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:260-5. 2008
  2. pmc The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens
    Alicia Fajardo
    Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 3:e1619. 2008
  3. doi request reprint The microbiome as a human organ
    F Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:2-4. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint Counteracting antibiotic resistance: breaking barriers among antibacterial strategies
    Fernando Baquero
    Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Ramon y Cajal Institute for Health Research IRYCIS, Department of Microbiology, CIBERESP, and The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases REIPI, C Colmenat km 9, 100, 28034 Madrid, Spain 34 913368832 32 913368809
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 18:851-61. 2014
  5. pmc Bloody coli: a gene cocktail in Escherichia coli O104:H4
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain
    MBio 4:e00066-13. 2013
  6. pmc Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria Madrid, Spain Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública Madrid, Spain Unidad de Resistencia a Antibióticos y Virulencia Bacteriana Asociada al Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Madrid, Spain
    Front Microbiol 4:15. 2013
  7. pmc Intelligibility in microbial complex systems: Wittgenstein and the score of life
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, IRYCIS, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, and Division of Extremophily and Evolutionary Biology, Centre for Astrobiology, INTA CSIC Madrid, Spain
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:88. 2012
  8. doi request reprint The 2010 Garrod Lecture: the dimensions of evolution in antibiotic resistance: ex unibus plurum et ex pluribus unum
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS and CIBERESP, Ctra de Colmenar Km 9, 100, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1659-72. 2011
  9. pmc Ecology and evolution as targets: the need for novel eco-evo drugs and strategies to fight antibiotic resistance
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Institute Ramón and Cajal for Health Research IRYCIS, CIBER Research Network in Epidemiology and Public Health CIBERESP, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3649-60. 2011
  10. doi request reprint High clonal diversity in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive isolates in Madrid, Spain (2000-07)
    Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramón y Cajal y CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:1165-9. 2009

Detail Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water environments
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, CIBER ESP, Spain
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:260-5. 2008
    ..A policy for preventing mixing human-originated and animal-originated bacteria with environmental organisms seems advisable...
  2. pmc The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens
    Alicia Fajardo
    Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 3:e1619. 2008
    ..Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature...
  3. doi request reprint The microbiome as a human organ
    F Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:2-4. 2012
    ..The therapeutics of microbiome-induced pathology include microbiota transplantation, a technique increasingly available. Perhaps a new medical specialty, microbiomology, is being born...
  4. ncbi request reprint Counteracting antibiotic resistance: breaking barriers among antibacterial strategies
    Fernando Baquero
    Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Ramon y Cajal Institute for Health Research IRYCIS, Department of Microbiology, CIBERESP, and The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases REIPI, C Colmenat km 9, 100, 28034 Madrid, Spain 34 913368832 32 913368809
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 18:851-61. 2014
    ..Such advances should be paralleled by a simultaneous progress in regulatory sciences and close coordination among all stakeholders. ..
  5. pmc Bloody coli: a gene cocktail in Escherichia coli O104:H4
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain
    MBio 4:e00066-13. 2013
    ..Next-generation sequencing technologies will be critical to detect particular "gene cocktails" as potentially pathogenic ensembles and to predict the risk of future outbreaks...
  6. pmc Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria Madrid, Spain Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública Madrid, Spain Unidad de Resistencia a Antibióticos y Virulencia Bacteriana Asociada al Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Madrid, Spain
    Front Microbiol 4:15. 2013
    ..The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level population biology of bacteria...
  7. pmc Intelligibility in microbial complex systems: Wittgenstein and the score of life
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, IRYCIS, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, and Division of Extremophily and Evolutionary Biology, Centre for Astrobiology, INTA CSIC Madrid, Spain
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:88. 2012
    ....
  8. doi request reprint The 2010 Garrod Lecture: the dimensions of evolution in antibiotic resistance: ex unibus plurum et ex pluribus unum
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS and CIBERESP, Ctra de Colmenar Km 9, 100, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1659-72. 2011
    ....
  9. pmc Ecology and evolution as targets: the need for novel eco-evo drugs and strategies to fight antibiotic resistance
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Institute Ramón and Cajal for Health Research IRYCIS, CIBER Research Network in Epidemiology and Public Health CIBERESP, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3649-60. 2011
    ..Eco-evo drugs and interventions constitute a new avenue for research that might influence not only antibiotic resistance but the maintenance of a healthy interaction between humans and microbial systems in a rapidly changing biosphere...
  10. doi request reprint High clonal diversity in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive isolates in Madrid, Spain (2000-07)
    Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramón y Cajal y CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:1165-9. 2009
    ..All 78 erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates collected from blood cultures in our hospital (2000-07) were studied and the population structure was analysed by using different mathematical diversity indexes...
  11. pmc Dissemination and persistence of blaCTX-M-9 are linked to class 1 integrons containing CR1 associated with defective transposon derivatives from Tn402 located in early antibiotic resistance plasmids of IncHI2, IncP1-alpha, and IncFI groups
    Angela Novais
    Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IMSALUD, Madrid 28034, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2741-50. 2006
    ..The presence of bla(CTX-M-9) on broad-host-range IncP-1alpha plasmids might contribute to its dissemination to hosts that were not members of the family Enterobacteriaceae...
  12. pmc Global spread of the hyl(Efm) colonization-virulence gene in megaplasmids of the Enterococcus faecium CC17 polyclonal subcluster
    Ana R Freitas
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, Madrid 28034, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2660-5. 2010
    ..faecium isolates with different origins...
  13. doi request reprint Emergence of bla KPC-3-Tn4401a associated with a pKPN3/4-like plasmid within ST384 and ST388 Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in Spain
    Tânia Curiao
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1608-14. 2010
    ..KPC carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates have been increasingly detected in Europe. We report the first KPC-producing isolates characterized in Madrid, Spain...
  14. doi request reprint Multiclonal dispersal of KPC genes following the emergence of non-ST258 KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in Madrid, Spain
    Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 68:2487-92. 2013
    ..To analyse the ongoing epidemiology of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae after a non-ST258 KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in a university hospital in Madrid, Spain...
  15. pmc Polyclonal population structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Spain carrying mef and mef plus erm(B)
    Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, and CIBER ESP, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1964-9. 2008
    ..A polyclonal population structure was demonstrated within our Spanish mef-positive S. pneumoniae isolates, with few clonal complexes overrepresented within this collection...
  16. pmc Longer intestinal persistence of Enterococcus faecalis compared to Enterococcus faecium clones in intensive-care-unit patients
    Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 47:345-51. 2009
    ..faecalis showed a cumulative increase in CDPD, whereas E. faecium did not. CDPD and CPR were useful for measuring the dynamics of intestinal colonization with enterococcal clones...
  17. doi request reprint High prevalence in cystic fibrosis patients of multiresistant hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST228-SCCmecI capable of biofilm formation
    Auxiliadora Molina
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal y CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:961-7. 2008
    ..We analysed all MRSA isolates recovered from respiratory secretions of patients attending our CF unit (1994-2006)...
  18. pmc Trends in antimicrobial resistance in 1,968 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in Spanish hospitals (2001 to 2003): decreasing penicillin resistance in children's isolates
    Jesús Oteo
    Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Ministry of Health, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5571-7. 2004
    ..This decrease coincided with the introduction of a heptavalent conjugate pneumoccocal vaccine (June 2001) and with a global reduction in antibiotic consumption levels...
  19. pmc Antibiotic coresistance in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and in vitro activity of tigecycline
    María Isabel Morosini
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2695-9. 2006
    ..However, this in vitro promise requires support from clinical studies...
  20. pmc High rate of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing organisms in household contacts of infected community patients
    Aranzazu Valverde
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2796-9. 2008
    ..Patients with community infections and members of their households represent a reservoir for ESBL producers, increasing dispersal of resistance in healthy people...
  21. pmc Geographical and ecological analysis of resistance, coresistance, and coupled resistance to antimicrobials in respiratory pathogenic bacteria in Spain
    Emilio Perez-Trallero
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital Donosita, San Sebastian, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1965-72. 2005
    ....
  22. pmc Mutational events in cefotaximase extended-spectrum beta-lactamases of the CTX-M-1 cluster involved in ceftazidime resistance
    Angela Novais
    Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IMSALUD, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2377-82. 2008
    ..This suggests that in this context this mutation might be considered a primary site involved in resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins...
  23. pmc Spread of bla(CTX-M-14) is driven mainly by IncK plasmids disseminated among Escherichia coli phylogroups A, B1, and D in Spain
    Aranzazu Valverde
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:5204-12. 2009
    ..The increase in the incidence of such isolates is mostly due to the dissemination of IncK plasmids among E. coli isolates of phylogroups A, B1, and D...
  24. doi request reprint Assessment of prevalence and changing epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae fecal carriers using a chromogenic medium
    Raquel Paniagua
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Instituto de Investigación Ramón y Cajal IRYCIS, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67:376-9. 2010
    ..The chromID ESBL medium was reliable to screen ESBL fecal carriers with a general decrease in the laboratory workload. Time-to-time monitoring of ESBL fecal carriers is useful to ascertain current trend of ESBL epidemiology...
  25. ncbi request reprint Molecular analysis of yogurt containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in human intestinal microbiota
    Raimundo García-Albiach
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Madrid, Spain
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:91-6. 2008
    ..bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus to survive and proliferate in the human intestine and have found contradictory results...
  26. pmc Integron content of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains over 12 years in a single hospital in Madrid, Spain
    Elisabete Machado
    Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IMSALUD, Madrid 28034, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1823-9. 2005
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Combinations of PBPs and MurM protein variants in early and contemporary high-level penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Spain
    Rosa del Campo
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Ctra Colmenar Km 9 1, Madrid 28034, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 57:983-6. 2006
    ..In this work, we determined whether specific changes in PBPs were associated with specific MurM variants...
  28. pmc International spread and persistence of TEM-24 is caused by the confluence of highly penetrating enterobacteriaceae clones and an IncA/C2 plasmid containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21
    Angela Novais
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, Km 9 1, Madrid 28034, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:825-34. 2010
    ....
  29. pmc Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Spain: activities of garenoxacin against clinical isolates including strains with altered topoisomerases
    María Isabel Morosini
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2692-5. 2003
    ..5 to 1 micro g/ml) found in four isolates. The low impact of these mutations on garenoxacin activity envisages the possible coverage of S. pneumoniae populations resistant to preexisting quinolones...
  30. pmc Polymorphic mutation frequencies of clinical and environmental Stenotrophomonas maltophilia populations
    María Carmen Turrientes
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Unidad Asociada al CSIC Resistencia a los Antibióticos y Virulencia Bacteriana, Madrid, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1746-58. 2010
    ..In silico analysis of the amino acid changes present in the MutS proteins of these hypermutator strains in comparison with the normomutator isolates suggests that the cause of the defect in MutS might be a H683P amino acid change...
  31. pmc Dissemination of clonally related Escherichia coli strains expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15
    Teresa M Coque
    Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:195-200. 2008
    ..Most plasmids contained blaOXA-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and blaTEM-1. Worldwide dissemination of CTX-M-15 seems to be determined by clonal complexes ST131 and ST405 and multidrug-resistant IncFII plasmids...
  32. ncbi request reprint [Comparative in vitro activity of daptomycin against gram-positive microorganisms: SENTRY surveillance program, Spain (2002-2006)]
    Elena Loza
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Espana
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 26:489-94. 2008
    ..The possible therapeutic role of daptomycin is addressed in the light of Spanish susceptibility data...
  33. ncbi request reprint Complex molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae: a long-term perspective from a single institution in Madrid
    Aranzazu Valverde
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and CIBER ESP, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:64-72. 2008
    ..To analyse all extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from 2001 to 2004 in our institution and to compare this period with that of 1989 to 2000...
  34. ncbi request reprint Streptococcus pyogenes isolates with characterized macrolide resistance mechanisms in Spain: in vitro activities of telithromycin and cethromycin
    María Isabel Morosini
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Ctra de Colmenar, Km 9, 1, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:50-5. 2003
    ..According to the present results, telithromycin and cethromycin offer a wide coverage against S. pyogenes isolates in a geographic area with a high incidence of resistance to currently used macrolides...
  35. doi request reprint In vitro prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation with antibiotics used in cystic fibrosis patients
    Ana Fernández-Olmos
    Servicio de Microbiologia, and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS and Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 40:173-6. 2012
    ..aeruginosa isolates recovered during early colonisation stages in CF patients supports early aggressive antimicrobial treatment guidelines in first P. aeruginosa-colonised CF patients...
  36. pmc Population structure of Enterococcus faecium causing bacteremia in a Spanish university hospital: setting the scene for a future increase in vancomycin resistance?
    Teresa M Coque
    Departamento de Microbiologíca, Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, Km 9 1, Madrid 28034, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2693-700. 2005
    ..001). These findings reflect the importance of local environmental differences in the evolution of this CC, suggesting that the emergence of vancomycin resistance among AREF strains in Spain may be a question of time...
  37. ncbi request reprint Use of tigecycline for the treatment of prolonged bacteremia due to a multiresistant VIM-1 and SHV-12 beta--lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae epidemic clone
    Javier Cobo
    Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 60:319-22. 2008
    ..Time-kill studies demonstrated that the combination of both compounds was synergistic along the first 12 h, suppressing the regrowth observed after 3 to 6 h when colistin was tested alone...
  38. pmc Dispersal of carbapenemase blaVIM-1 gene associated with different Tn402 variants, mercury transposons, and conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Marta Tato
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, Km 9 1, Madrid 28034, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:320-7. 2010
    ..Knowledge of the complex epidemiology of bla(VIM-1) is necessary to control this emerging threat...
  39. pmc Population structure, antimicrobial resistance, and mutation frequencies of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from cystic fibrosis patients
    Rosa del Campo
    Servicio de Microbiología y Unidad de Fibrosis Quistica, Hospital Universitario, Ramon y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2207-14. 2005
    ..pneumoniae to the CF lung environment...
  40. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic resistance in 3113 blood isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in 40 Spanish hospitals participating in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (2000-2002)
    Jesús Oteo
    Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:1033-8. 2004
    ..Since 1998 the European Commission has funded EARSS. We present the antibiotic susceptibility results of invasive Staphylococcus aureus obtained in Spain (2000-2002)...
  41. pmc Fecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: a hidden reservoir in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients
    Desirèe Gijón
    Servicio de Microbiología and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 50:1558-63. 2012
    ..Dissemination of bla(VIM-1) class-1 integrons within highly transferable plasmids in a polyclonal population has potentially contributed to the maintenance and spread of CPE...
  42. pmc In vitro selection of variants resistant to beta-lactams plus beta-lactamase inhibitors in CTX-M beta-lactamases: predicting the in vivo scenario?
    Aida Ripoll
    Servicio de Microbiología and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:4530-6. 2011
    ..In summary, IR-CTX-M enzymes might evolve under exposure to BBLIs, and the probability is higher for enzymes belonging to the CTX-M-1 cluster. However, this process could be delayed by antagonistic pleiotropy...
  43. pmc Evolutionary trajectories of beta-lactamase CTX-M-1 cluster enzymes: predicting antibiotic resistance
    Angela Novais
    Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IMSALUD, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000735. 2010
    ....
  44. pmc Polymorphic mutation frequencies in Escherichia coli: emergence of weak mutators in clinical isolates
    Maria Rosario Baquero
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Bacteriol 186:5538-42. 2004
    ..7% were strongly hypermutable (f > or = 4 x 10(-7)). Weak mutators were apparently more frequent in southern Europe and in blood isolates (38%) than in urinary tract isolates (25%) and feces of healthy volunteers (11%)...
  45. pmc Emergence and dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae isolates producing CTX-M-1-like enzymes in Spain are associated with IncFII (CTX-M-15) and broad-host-range (CTX-M-1, -3, and -32) plasmids
    Angela Novais
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IMSALUD, Carretera de Colmenar, Km 9 1, Madrid 28034, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:796-9. 2007
    ..The identical genetic surroundings of blaCTX-M-32 and blaCTX-M-1 and their locations on related 40-kb IncN plasmids indicate the in vivo evolution of this element...
  46. pmc Multilocus sequence typing scheme for Enterococcus faecalis reveals hospital-adapted genetic complexes in a background of high rates of recombination
    Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2220-8. 2006
    ..faecalis. Our novel MLST scheme provides an excellent tool for investigating local and short-term epidemiology as well as global epidemiology, population structure, and genetic evolution of E. faecalis...
  47. pmc Dramatic increase in prevalence of fecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae during nonoutbreak situations in Spain
    Aranzazu Valverde
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4769-75. 2004
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Telithromycin activity is reduced by efflux in Streptococcus pyogenes
    Rafael Canton
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar, Km 9 1, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:489-95. 2005
    ..To investigate whether telithromycin is a substrate for efflux pumps in Streptococcus pyogenes...
  49. pmc Haemophilus influenzae bla(ROB-1) mutations in hypermutagenic deltaampC Escherichia coli conferring resistance to cefotaxime and beta-lactamase inhibitors and increased susceptibility to cefaclor
    Juan Carlos Galan
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2551-7. 2003
    ....
  50. pmc Association of composite IS26-sul3 elements with highly transmissible IncI1 plasmids in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli clones from humans
    Tânia Curiao
    Servicio de Microbiologia, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2451-7. 2011
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract
    Clotilde Vazquez
    Departamento de Nutrición y Obesidad, y CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición CIBERobn, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal y Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
    Nutr Hosp 28:1227-35. 2013
    ..Genetic diversity and resistance of Lactobacillus bulgaricus sbsp. delbrueckii collection with 100 isolates from different home-made yogurt in rural Bulgarian areas were determined...
  52. pmc Quality control for beta-lactam susceptibility testing with a well-defined collection of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Spain
    Rafael Canton
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, 28034 Madrid
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1912-8. 2003
    ..A K1-producing K. oxytoca was misidentified by 10% of laboratories as an ESBL producer. The use of well-defined resistant strains is useful for improving proficiency in susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories...
  53. pmc Antimicrobial-resistant invasive Escherichia coli, Spain
    Jesús Oteo
    Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:546-53. 2005
    ..Cotrimoxazole resistance remained stable at approximately 30%, even though its use was dramatically reduced...
  54. ncbi request reprint Mutation rate is reduced by increased dosage of mutL gene in Escherichia coli K-12
    Juan Carlos Galan
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal Unidad Asociada al CSIC Resistencia a Antibióticos y Virulencia Bacteriana and CIBER ESP, Madrid, Spain
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 275:263-9. 2007
    ..An increase in mutL gene copies was also able to partially compensate the hypermutator phenotype of a mutS-defective E. coli derivative...
  55. pmc Breakpoints for predicting Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility to inhaled tobramycin in cystic fibrosis patients: use of high-range Etest strips
    María I Morosini
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4480-5. 2005
    ..CLSI breakpoints should still be followed when intravenous tobramycin is used in CF patients, particularly during the course of exacerbations...
  56. pmc Contribution of IncFII and broad-host IncA/C and IncN plasmids to the local expansion and diversification of phylogroup B2 Escherichia coli ST131 clones carrying blaCTX-M-15 and qnrS1 genes
    Angela Novais
    Servicio de Microbiología and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria and Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:2763-6. 2012
    ....
  57. pmc In117, an unusual In0-like class 1 integron containing CR1 and bla(CTX-M-2) and associated with a Tn21-like element
    Aranzazu Valverde
    Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IMSALUD, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:799-802. 2006
    ..This element constitutes one of the few examples of CR1-bearing class 1 integrons that has been fully characterized...
  58. pmc Epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter isolates in a Spanish hospital during a 12-year period
    Rafael Canton
    Servicio de Microbiología Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1237-43. 2002
    ..The presence of the TEM-24-producing E. aerogenes French clone in our institution also demonstrates the intercountry dissemination of ESBL-producing isolates...
  59. pmc Emergence of a mutL mutation causing multilocus sequence typing-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a cystic fibrosis patient
    María García-Castillo
    Servicio de Microbiología and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 50:1777-8. 2012
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Preservation of topoisomerase genetic sequences during in vivo and in vitro development of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in isogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains
    Sylvia Valdezate
    Departamento de Bacteriologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:220-3. 2005
    ..To ascertain the participation of topoisomerase mutations in the development of ciprofloxacin resistance in isogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants...
  61. pmc High genetic diversity among Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains despite their originating at a single hospital
    Sylvia Valdezate
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid 28034, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 42:693-9. 2004
    ..However, few clones could be transmitted among different patients, yielding outbreak situations...
  62. pmc Frequency of mutation to rifampin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical strains: hexA and hexB polymorphisms do not account for hypermutation
    María Isabel Morosini
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1464-7. 2003
    ..pneumoniae control strain. The phenotypic Hex system proficiency, in terms of transforming efficiency, was also maintained irrespective of the variations in mutation frequency values...
  63. pmc Fosfomycin and rifampin disk diffusion tests for detection of Escherichia coli mutator strains
    Juan Carlos Galan
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Ctra de Colmenar, Km 9, 1, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4310-2. 2004
    ..Strains with <30 and <10 colonies in fosfomycin and rifampin inhibition zones are presumptively non-mutators...
  64. pmc Increased mutation frequencies in Escherichia coli isolates harboring extended-spectrum beta-lactamases
    Maria Rosario Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4754-6. 2005
    ..coli (26%) strains (P = 0.03). Among urinary tract isolates, the frequency of hypermutation was 40% in ESBL versus 26% in non-ESBL isolates (P = 0.03)...
  65. doi request reprint In vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections worldwide: 2005 results from Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)
    Fernando Baquero
    Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Surg Infect (Larchmt) 10:99-104. 2009
    ..The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) is examining aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from intra-abdominal infections. This report summarizes the 2005 annual data...
  66. pmc Dynamics of long-term colonization of respiratory tract by Haemophilus influenzae in cystic fibrosis patients shows a marked increase in hypermutable strains
    Federico Román
    Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1450-9. 2004
    ..These results suggest that H. influenzae bronchial colonization in CF patients is a dynamic process, but better-adapted clones can persist for long periods of time...
  67. ncbi request reprint Allodemics
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:591-2. 2002
  68. doi request reprint Beyond serial passages: new methods for predicting the emergence of resistance to novel antibiotics
    Jose Luis Martinez
    Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 11:439-45. 2011
    ..In this article, we review recent information pertinent for a more accurate prediction on the emergence and dispersal of antibiotic resistance...
  69. pmc Normal mutation rate variants arise in a Mutator (Mut S) Escherichia coli population
    María Carmen Turrientes
    Department of Microbiology, Ramón y Cajal Institute for Health Research, Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 8:e72963. 2013
    ..In conclusion, we postulate that the observed reductions in mutation rate are coincidental to, rather than, the selective force responsible for this evolution. ..
  70. ncbi request reprint The mismatch repair system (mutS, mutL and uvrD genes) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: molecular characterization of naturally occurring mutants
    Antonio Oliver
    Unidad de Microbiología Molecular, Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9 1, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Mol Microbiol 43:1641-50. 2002
    ..The results shown here indicate that the putative P. aeruginosa mutS, mutL and uvrD genes are mutator genes and that their alteration results in a mutator phenotype...
  71. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of 4 swab transport systems for the recovery of ATCC and clinical strains with characterized resistance mechanisms
    María Isabel Morosini
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 56:19-24. 2006
    ..Resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates do not affect survival with any of the STS...
  72. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of molecular typed cystic fibrosis Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates and differences with noncystic fibrosis isolates
    Rafael Canton
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Pediatr Pulmonol 35:99-107. 2003
    ..maltophilia isolates when compared with respiratory isolates from non-CF patients. Moreover, persistently recovered CF S. maltophilia isolates were more resistant than sporadic non-CF isolates...
  73. pmc Genes encoding TEM-4, SHV-2, and CTX-M-10 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are carried by multiple Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in a single hospital (Madrid, 1989 to 2000)
    Teresa M Coque
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:500-10. 2002
    ....
  74. doi request reprint Generational coexistence and ancestor's inhibition in bacterial populations
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, CIBERESP, Center for Astrobiology CSIC INTA, FIBio RYC, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 33:958-67. 2009
    ....
  75. pmc Microevolutionary events involving narrow host plasmids influences local fixation of vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus populations
    Ana R Freitas
    REQUIMTE, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    PLoS ONE 8:e60589. 2013
    ....
  76. pmc Eukaryotic microorganisms in cold environments: examples from Pyrenean glaciers
    Laura García-Descalzo
    Microbial Evolution Laboratory, Centro de Astrobiología Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
    Front Microbiol 4:55. 2013
    ..The relative abundances of protist groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with the altitude and area of glaciers and with pH of ice, but little or no relationships to other chemical characteristics were found...
  77. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial resistance amongst isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in the PROTEKT antimicrobial surveillance programme during 1999-2000
    Rafael Canton
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Ctra Colmenar, Km 9, 100, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 50:9-24. 2002
    ..06-0.25 mg/L) in Australia, Indonesia, Hungary, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland. Regardless of methicillin susceptibility, resistance to linezolid, teicoplanin or vancomycin was not apparent globally...
  78. ncbi request reprint From pieces to patterns: evolutionary engineering in bacterial pathogens
    Fernando Baquero
    Department of Microbiology, University Hospital Ramon y Cajal, IMSALUD 28034, Madrid, Spain
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:510-8. 2004
  79. pmc Interactions among strategies associated with bacterial infection: pathogenicity, epidemicity, and antibiotic resistance
    Jose L Martinez
    Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:647-79. 2002
    ..The evolutionary consequences of the release of antibiotics into the environment are largely unknown, but most probably restoration of the microbiota from the preantibiotic era is beyond our current abilities...
  80. ncbi request reprint The making of "The Genoma Music."
    Aurora Sanchez Sousa
    Unidad de Micologia, Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Carretera de Colmenar Km 9, 100, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Rev Iberoam Micol 22:242-8. 2005
    ..The Genoma Music Project is essentially a creative metaphor of the basic unity between the human mind and the natural ordered structure of life...
  81. pmc Very low cefotaxime concentrations select for hypermutable Streptococcus pneumoniae populations
    Maria Cristina Negri
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:528-30. 2002
    ..The present study presents a model (not necessarily reflecting the clinical setting) illustrating the risk of selection of mutators in the evolution of multiple resistance...
  82. ncbi request reprint Multi-resistant Gram-negative bacilli: from epidemics to endemics
    Rafael Canton
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 16:315-25. 2003
    ..This review focuses on recent data that may help to understand the emergence and dissemination of multi-drug resistant bacilli and the current trend from epidemic to endemic situations...
  83. pmc Identification of in vivo HSP90-interacting proteins reveals modularity of HSP90 complexes is dependent on the environment in psychrophilic bacteria
    Laura García-Descalzo
    Centro de Astrobiologia CSIC INTA, Ctra Ajalvir km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
    Cell Stress Chaperones 16:203-18. 2011
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint The role of apoptosis in Listeria monocytogenes neural infection: listeriolysin O interaction with neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells
    Maria C Parra
    Department of Microbiology, Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Ctra de Colmenar Km 9100, 28034 Madrid, Spain
    Infect Genet Evol 8:59-67. 2008
    ..Neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells represent an interesting model cell line to further the understanding of Listeria pathogenesis within the central nervous system...
  85. ncbi request reprint [Seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis A in the community of Madrid during the year 2002]
    Sonia Junquera
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 22:448-51. 2004
    ....
  86. pmc Importance of local variations in antibiotic consumption and geographical differences of erythromycin and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Cesar Garcia-Rey
    Medical Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 40:159-64. 2002
    ..Consumption of once-a-day macrolides was key for local erythromycin resistance variations. Cephalosporins were slightly more important penicillin resistance drivers than aminopenicillins were...
  87. ncbi request reprint High diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from Portugal
    Elisabete Machado
    REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:1370-4. 2007
    ..To investigate the occurrence and the diversity of Ambler class A ESBLs among Enterobacteriaceae from different Portuguese clinical settings over a 2 year period (2002-04)...
  88. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections worldwide: the 2003 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)
    David L Paterson
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:965-73. 2005
    ....
  89. pmc Hypermutation and the preexistence of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants: implications for susceptibility testing and treatment of chronic infections
    Antonio Oliver
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Son Dureta, C Andrea Doria N 55, 07014 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4226-33. 2004
    ..We discuss the clinical implications of our analysis of these observations...
  90. ncbi request reprint Predicting antibiotic resistance
    Jose L Martinez
    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública and Unidad Asociada al CSIC Resistencia a los Antibióticos y Virulencia Bacteriana, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:958-65. 2007
    ..To this end, we propose the establishment of methodological guidelines that will allow researchers to predict the emergence of resistance to a new antibiotic before its clinical introduction...
  91. ncbi request reprint Demographic analysis of antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae: worldwide results from PROTEKT 1999-2000
    Daryl Hoban
    Health Sciences Centre, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Winnipeg, Man, Canada
    Int J Infect Dis 9:262-73. 2005
    ..The influence of demographic factors upon antimicrobial resistance among 3362 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from 25 countries was investigated, using univariate comparison and multivariate logistic regression...
  92. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections worldwide: 2004 results from SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends)
    Flavia Rossi
    Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo LIM 03, Brazil
    J Antimicrob Chemother 58:205-10. 2006
    ..This 2004 report summarizes the most recently completed annual data from SMART...
  93. pmc Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngeal isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Spain: mechanisms of resistance and clonal diversity
    Sebastian Alberti
    Unidad de Investigacion, Edificio D, 1 Planta, Hospital Universitario Son Dureta, Andrea Doria, 55, Palma de Mallorca 07014, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:418-20. 2005
    ..The mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in these isolates was based on point mutations in topoisomerase IV subunit C encoded by parC, mainly replacement of serine-79 by alanine...
  94. ncbi request reprint [Antibiotic resistance: what to do now?]
    Jose Campos
    Med Clin (Barc) 119:656-8. 2002
  95. ncbi request reprint New aac(6')-I genes in Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus durans: effect on {beta}-lactam/aminoglycoside synergy
    Rosa del Campo
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:1053-5. 2005
  96. pmc Diversity of Tn1546 and its role in the dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Portugal
    Carla Novais
    REQUIMTE, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 4050 Porto, Portugal
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1001-8. 2008
    ..Apparent Tn1546 heterogeneity among enterococci from human, animal, and environmental sources might reflect frequent genetic exchange events and evolution of particular widely disseminated genetic elements...
  97. ncbi request reprint [High-risk clonal complexes CC2 and CC9 are widely distributed among Enterococcus faecalis hospital isolates recovered in Spain]
    Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa
    Servicio de Microbiología Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal Madrid España
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 25:513-8. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to define the presence of CC2 and CC9 among E. faecalis strains isolated in Spain...
  98. ncbi request reprint Differences in biofilm development and antibiotic susceptibility among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from cystic fibrosis samples and blood cultures
    María García-Castillo
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal Ctra Colmenar Km 9 1, Madrid 28034, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:301-4. 2007
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint [Antibiotic resistance in 622 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid in 33 Spanish hospitals participating in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (2000)]
    Jesús Oteo
    Centro Nacional de Microbiología Instituto de Salud Carlos III Majadahonda Madrid España
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 21:12-9. 2003
    ..This report present the results obtained for S. pneumoniae in the year 2000 in Spain...