Ana Gonzalez-Pinto

Summary

Country: Spain

Publications

  1. pmc Factors associated with chronic pain in patients with bipolar depression: a cross-sectional study
    Inmaculada Failde
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Cadiz, Avda Ana de Viya 52, Cadiz 11009, Spain
    BMC Psychiatry 13:112. 2013
  2. pmc Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, learning capacity and cognition in patients with first episode psychosis
    Sonia Ruiz de Azúa
    CIBERSAM Biomedical Research Center in Mental Health Net, University Hospital of Alava, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    BMC Psychiatry 13:27. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Psychosis and smoking cessation: difficulties in quitting associated with sex and substance abuse
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net, Santiago Apostol Hospital, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    Psychiatry Res 195:45-50. 2012
  4. pmc Number of prior episodes and the presence of depressive symptoms are associated with longer length of stay for patients with acute manic episodes
    Manuel Martín-Carrasco
    AstraZeneca Medical Department, Madrid, Spain
    Ann Gen Psychiatry 11:7. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Impact of cannabis and other drugs on age at onset of psychosis
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Department of Psychiatry, Santiago Apostol Hospital, CIBER SAM, Vitoria, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:1210-6. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Poor long-term prognosis in mixed bipolar patients: 10-year outcomes in the Vitoria prospective naturalistic study in Spain
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net, CIBERSAM, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 72:671-6. 2011
  7. doi request reprint Validity and reliability of the Hamilton depression rating scale (5 items) for manic and mixed bipolar disorders
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    CIBERSAM Stanley Institute International Mood Disorders Research Center, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Alava, Spain
    J Nerv Ment Dis 197:682-6. 2009
  8. doi request reprint Assessment of medication adherence in a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder
    A Gonzalez-Pinto
    CIBERSAM Stanley International Mood Disorders Research Centre, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    Pharmacopsychiatry 43:263-70. 2010
  9. pmc Cannabis and first-episode psychosis: different long-term outcomes depending on continued or discontinued use
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Department of Psychiatry, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Olaguibel 29, Vitoria, Spain
    Schizophr Bull 37:631-9. 2011
  10. doi request reprint Different profile of substance abuse in relation to predominant polarity in bipolar disorder: The Vitoria long-term follow-up study
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net CIBERSAM, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    J Affect Disord 124:250-5. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc Factors associated with chronic pain in patients with bipolar depression: a cross-sectional study
    Inmaculada Failde
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Cadiz, Avda Ana de Viya 52, Cadiz 11009, Spain
    BMC Psychiatry 13:112. 2013
    ..The study was designed to identify factors associated with the manifestation of pain in these patients...
  2. pmc Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, learning capacity and cognition in patients with first episode psychosis
    Sonia Ruiz de Azúa
    CIBERSAM Biomedical Research Center in Mental Health Net, University Hospital of Alava, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    BMC Psychiatry 13:27. 2013
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate whether Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are associated with cognitive impairment in FEP patients compared with healthy controls...
  3. doi request reprint Psychosis and smoking cessation: difficulties in quitting associated with sex and substance abuse
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net, Santiago Apostol Hospital, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    Psychiatry Res 195:45-50. 2012
    ..03, CI=0.001-0.77). Sex may act as a moderator in smoking cessation after a first psychotic episode. Smoking cessation interventions in these patients should consider sex differences and comorbidity with alcohol and cannabis use...
  4. pmc Number of prior episodes and the presence of depressive symptoms are associated with longer length of stay for patients with acute manic episodes
    Manuel Martín-Carrasco
    AstraZeneca Medical Department, Madrid, Spain
    Ann Gen Psychiatry 11:7. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  5. ncbi request reprint Impact of cannabis and other drugs on age at onset of psychosis
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Department of Psychiatry, Santiago Apostol Hospital, CIBER SAM, Vitoria, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:1210-6. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and cannabis use in patients with a first psychotic episode, and to analyze the mediating effect of comorbid use of other drugs and sex on age at onset of psychosis...
  6. doi request reprint Poor long-term prognosis in mixed bipolar patients: 10-year outcomes in the Vitoria prospective naturalistic study in Spain
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net, CIBERSAM, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 72:671-6. 2011
    ..There have been few prospective long-term naturalistic studies of patients with mixed episodes of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to examine 10-year outcomes in patients with at least 1 mixed episode...
  7. doi request reprint Validity and reliability of the Hamilton depression rating scale (5 items) for manic and mixed bipolar disorders
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    CIBERSAM Stanley Institute International Mood Disorders Research Center, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Alava, Spain
    J Nerv Ment Dis 197:682-6. 2009
    ..Best cut-off point of remission was: HAMD-21 < or =5 and HAMD-5 < or =1. HAMD-5 presents appropriate validity and reliability estimates. It is comparable to HAMD-21 and focuses more specifically on depressive symptoms...
  8. doi request reprint Assessment of medication adherence in a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder
    A Gonzalez-Pinto
    CIBERSAM Stanley International Mood Disorders Research Centre, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    Pharmacopsychiatry 43:263-70. 2010
    ..This study aimed to identify factors associated with medication adherence in bipolar disorder (BPD) patients...
  9. pmc Cannabis and first-episode psychosis: different long-term outcomes depending on continued or discontinued use
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Department of Psychiatry, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Olaguibel 29, Vitoria, Spain
    Schizophr Bull 37:631-9. 2011
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Different profile of substance abuse in relation to predominant polarity in bipolar disorder: The Vitoria long-term follow-up study
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net CIBERSAM, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    J Affect Disord 124:250-5. 2010
    ..There is a need for comparisons of long-term outcomes in bipolar disorder patients with predominantly manic symptoms vs. predominantly depressive symptoms, especially the course of comorbid alcohol/substance abuse...
  11. doi request reprint Can positive family factors be protective against the development of psychosis?
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Biomedical Research Center in Mental Health Net CIBERSAM, Hospital Santiago Apostol, Vitoria, Spain, University of the Basque Country
    Psychiatry Res 186:28-33. 2011
    ..This effect was not seen in subjects without a family history of psychosis. Therefore, our results support the importance of considering both family history of psychosis and family environment in the early stages of psychosis...
  12. doi request reprint Effectiveness of olanzapine monotherapy and olanzapine combination treatment in the long term following acute mania--results of a two year observational study in bipolar disorder (EMBLEM)
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    International Mood Disorders Research Centre, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    J Affect Disord 131:320-9. 2011
    ..This study compared the 2-year outcomes of patients with a manic/mixed episode of bipolar disorder taking olanzapine monotherapy or olanzapine in combination with other agents...
  13. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of mixed mania
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Stanley International Mood Disorders Research Center, Hospital Santiago Apostol, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    CNS Drugs 21:611-26. 2007
    ..Importantly, patients with mixed manic episodes have more adverse events of psychopharmacological treatment. In some cases, electroconvulsive therapy is required...
  14. ncbi request reprint Increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in first episode psychotic patients after treatment with atypical antipsychotics
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    University of the Basque Country, Biomedical Research Center in Mental Health Net CIBERSAM, Hospital Santiago Apostol, Vitoria, Spain
    Int Clin Psychopharmacol 25:241-5. 2010
    ..Results suggest that olanzapine can offset the low BDNF levels at the onset of first psychotic episodes, and improving psychotic symptoms. The increase in BDNF levels may be its mechanism of action in improving positive symptoms...
  15. doi request reprint Cognitive reserve as a predictor of two year neuropsychological performance in early onset first-episode schizophrenia
    Elena de la Serna
    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Spain
    Schizophr Res 143:125-31. 2013
    ....
  16. pmc Antioxidant defense system and family environment in adolescents with family history of psychosis
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Stanley Institute International Mood Disorders Research Center, University of the Basque Country, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, 03 RC 003, Hospital Santiago, Vitoria, Spain
    BMC Psychiatry 12:200. 2012
    ....
  17. doi request reprint Working memory as a predictor of negative symptoms and functional outcome in first episode psychosis
    Itxaso González-Ortega
    Department of Psychiatry, Alava University Hospital Santiago, Department of Neurosciences, University of the Basque Country, CIBERSAM, Vitoria, Spain
    Psychiatry Res 206:8-16. 2013
    ..Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between working memory and outcome. Therefore, negative symptoms should be a primary target of treatment to improve functional outcomes...
  18. doi request reprint Decreased glutathione levels predict loss of brain volume in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis in a two-year longitudinal study
    David Fraguas
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain
    Schizophr Res 137:58-65. 2012
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Cognitive impairment is related to oxidative stress and chemokine levels in first psychotic episodes
    Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa
    CIBERSAM, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Spain
    Schizophr Res 137:66-72. 2012
    ....
  20. doi request reprint Progressive brain changes in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis
    Celso Arango
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:16-26. 2012
    ..Progressive loss of brain gray matter (GM) has been reported in childhood-onset schizophrenia; however, it is uncertain whether these changes are shared by pediatric patients with different psychoses...
  21. doi request reprint Validation and use of the functioning assessment short test in first psychotic episodes
    Itxaso González-Ortega
    Department of Psychiatry, Santiago Apostol Hospital, Vitoria, Spain
    J Nerv Ment Dis 198:836-40. 2010
    ..The FAST showed strong psychometric properties and is a valid instrument for use in clinical practice, clinical trials, and research settings in subjects with first psychotic episodes...
  22. doi request reprint Manic and depressive symptoms and insight in first episode psychosis
    Saioa Aspiazu
    Santiago Apostol Hospital, Stanley Institute International Mood Disorders Research Center, 03 RC 003, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBER sam, EHU UPV, Vitoria, Spain
    Psychiatry Res 178:480-6. 2010
    ..Finally, the model assessing the social consequences of having a mental disorder showed unawareness to be greater when manic symptoms and disease severity were high...
  23. pmc Trait and state attributes of insight in first episodes of early-onset schizophrenia and other psychoses: a 2-year longitudinal study
    Mara Parellada
    Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Ibiza 43, Madrid 28009, Spain
    Schizophr Bull 37:38-51. 2011
    ..Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight...
  24. doi request reprint Predominance of symptoms over time in early-onset psychosis: a principal component factor analysis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
    Marta Rapado-Castro
    Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, C Ibiza 43, 28009 Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 71:327-37. 2010
    ..This study examined the dimensional structure of symptoms and the temporal stability of this structure during a 6-month follow-up...
  25. doi request reprint Predictors of recurrence in bipolar disorders in Spain (PREBIS study data)
    Consuelo de Dios
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital La Paz, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain
    J Affect Disord 141:406-14. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic, psychosocial and clinical predictors of mood recurrences in bipolar disorder (BD) euthymic outpatients followed-up for 12 months in a naturalistic setting...
  26. doi request reprint The role of white matter damage in late onset bipolar disorder
    Ariadna Besga
    Santiago Apostol Hospital, Vitoria, Spain
    Maturitas 70:160-3. 2011
    ..In early life onset the aetiology of these lesions is less clear, although probably genetic factors are more important than cardiovascular factors. Understanding the aetiopathogenesis is of key importance when dealing with this disease...
  27. ncbi request reprint Predictors of suicide in first-episode affective and nonaffective psychotic inpatients: five-year follow-up of patients from a catchment area in Vitoria, Spain
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Stanley Institute International Mood Disorders Research Center, Vitoria, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 68:242-7. 2007
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Treatment nonadherence and neurocognitive impairment in bipolar disorder
    Anabel Martinez-Aran
    Bipolar Disorders Program, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Spain
    J Clin Psychiatry 70:1017-23. 2009
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether poor treatment adherence is associated with cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients and whether other factors may be associated with both adherence and cognitive functioning...
  29. pmc Reduced antioxidant defense in early onset first-episode psychosis: a case-control study
    Juan Antonio Mico
    Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Psychiatry, School of Medicine, CIBERSAM, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental University of Cádiz, Spain
    BMC Psychiatry 11:26. 2011
    ..Our objective is to determine the activity of the antioxidant defense system at admission in patients with early onset first psychotic episodes compared with a control group...
  30. ncbi request reprint Suicidal risk in bipolar I disorder patients and adherence to long-term lithium treatment
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Stanley Institute International Mood Disorders Research Center, Vitoria, Spain
    Bipolar Disord 8:618-24. 2006
    ..Among the well-established treatments for bipolar disorder (BPD), lithium continues to offer an unusually broad spectrum of benefits that may include reduction of suicidal risk...
  31. doi request reprint Gender differences in outcomes of acute mania: a 12-month follow-up study
    Laia Miquel
    Sant Joan de Deu SSM, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Catalonia, Spain
    Arch Womens Ment Health 14:107-13. 2011
    ..Women had a faster time to mania improvement and a higher risk of developing a depressive episode during the 12-month follow-up period...
  32. doi request reprint DRD3, but not COMT or DRD2, genotype affects executive functions in healthy and first-episode psychosis adolescents
    Igor Bombin
    Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Spain
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147:873-9. 2008
    ..The lack of association between COMT and DRD2 genotypes and cognition in our sample may be partially explained by the young age of the sample and the clinical heterogeneity of the patients...
  33. doi request reprint Bipolar disorder differences between genders: special considerations for women
    Patricia Vega
    Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Santiago Apostol, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
    Womens Health (Lond Engl) 7:663-74; quiz 675-6. 2011
    ..Moreover, a better understanding of how to treat women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and lactation will undoubtedly lead to improved outcomes for both the mother and her child...
  34. doi request reprint Relationship between negative symptoms and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients
    Aitor Palomino
    CIBERNED, Neuroscience Department and Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, University of the Basque Country, 48940, Vizcaya, Spain
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 44:29-33. 2013
    ....
  35. doi request reprint New treatment guidelines for acute bipolar mania: a critical review
    Alessandra M A Nivoli
    Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Affect Disord 140:125-41. 2012
    ..e.: electroconvulsive therapy)...
  36. doi request reprint Long-term efficacy of a psychological intervention program for patients with refractory bipolar disorder: a pilot study
    Ana González-Isasi
    Department of Psychiatry, Santiago Apostol Hospital, Vitoria, Spain
    Psychiatry Res 176:161-5. 2010
    ..Therefore, the effectiveness of psychotherapy tends to increase with time, and this improvement is not significant until 12 months of follow-up...
  37. doi request reprint Neurocognition in bipolar disorders--a closer look at comorbidities and medications
    Vicent Balanzá-Martínez
    Section of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain
    Eur J Pharmacol 626:87-96. 2010
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Treatment of bipolar I rapid cycling patients during dysphoric mania with olanzapine
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Psychiatric Department, Santiago Apostol Hospital, Osakidetza Mental Health System, Vitoria, Spain
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 22:450-4. 2002
    ..96 kg in women, 2.20 +/- 2.28 kg in men). Our results suggest that olanzapine combined with mood stabilizers is safe and effective in the treatment of the manic and the depressive symptoms of dysphoric mania with a rapid cycling course...
  39. doi request reprint Polarity index of pharmacological agents used for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder
    Dina Popovic
    Bipolar Disorders Program, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 22:339-46. 2012
    ..The polarity index provides a measure of how much antidepressant versus antimanic a drug is in bipolar disorder prophylaxis, and may guide the choice of maintenance therapy in bipolar patients...
  40. ncbi request reprint Dimensions of mania: differences between mixed and pure episodes
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Hospital Santiago Psychiatric Department Vitoria, Spain
    Eur Psychiatry 19:307-10. 2004
    ..The presence of at least five dimensions in mania has recently been established. This study extends previous findings by comparing the dimensions of pure vs. mixed mania...
  41. ncbi request reprint [Involuntary hospitalization in the first psychotic episodes: associated factors]
    J L Figuerido
    Servicio de Psiquiatria, Hospital Santiago Apostol, Servicio Vasco de Salud Osakidetza, Vitoria Gasteiz
    Actas Esp Psiquiatr 28:275-8. 2000
    ..The aim of this study is to determine which are the characteristics and associated factors in first psychotic episodes not due to medical illness...
  42. ncbi request reprint Age-dependence of Schneiderian psychotic symptoms in bipolar patients
    A Gonzalez-Pinto
    Santiago Apostol Hospital, Consultas Externas de Psiquiatri a, C Olaguibel 29, 01004 Gasteiz, Vitoria, Spain
    Schizophr Res 61:157-62. 2003
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint The role of age in the development of Schneiderian symptoms in patients with a first psychotic episode
    A Gonzalez-Pinto
    Consultas Externas de Psiquiatria, Santiago Apostol Hospital, C Olaguibel 29, 01004 Vitoria Gasteiz, Spain
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 109:264-8. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to test for a linear association between age and the probability of occurrence of FRS in patients with a first psychotic episode (FPE)...
  44. ncbi request reprint Principal components of mania
    A Gonzalez-Pinto
    Santiago Apostol Hospital, C Olaguibel, 29, 01004 Vitoria, Spain
    J Affect Disord 76:95-102. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensions of manic disorder by using classical scales to study the signs and symptoms of affective disorders...
  45. ncbi request reprint Purging behaviors and comorbidity as predictive factors of quality of life in anorexia nervosa
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Department of Psychiatry, Santiago Apostol Hospital, Osakidetza Mental Health System, Olaguibel 29, 01004 Vitoria, Spain
    Int J Eat Disord 36:445-50. 2004
    ..This study examined the predictive factors for the physical and mental summary components (PCS and MCS) of quality of life (SF-36) in patients with anorexia nervosa...
  46. doi request reprint New treatment guidelines for acute bipolar depression: a systematic review
    Alessandra M A Nivoli
    Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Affect Disord 129:14-26. 2011
    ..Many guidelines have been updated in the last 5 years, after the last review of bipolar disorder (BD) treatment guidelines...
  47. pmc Anticonvulsants in the treatment of aggression in the demented elderly: an update
    Benedikt Amann
    Benito Menni, CASM, Research Unit, CIBERSAM, St Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
    Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 5:14. 2009
    ..At least 50% of the dramatically growing number of patients with dementia exerts aggressive and agitated symptoms during the course of clinical progression, particularly at moderate clinical severity...
  48. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of venlafaxine-ECT combination in treatment-resistant depression
    Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
    Hospital Santiago Apostol, Department of Psychiatry, Vitoria, Spain
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 14:206-9. 2002
    ..At higher doses, with propofol used as anesthetic, the possibility of asystole cannot be ruled out. A possible additive effect of high-dose venlafaxine and propofol-blocking sodium channels are discussed...
  49. ncbi request reprint Validity and reliability of the Spanish versions of the Bech-Rafaelsen's mania and melancholia scales for bipolar disorders
    E Vieta
    Clinic Hospital, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBER SAM, Barcelona, Spain
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 117:207-15. 2008
    ..To assess classical psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Bech-Rafaelsen's mania (MAS) and melancholia (MES) scales...
  50. ncbi request reprint Tardive dyskinesia associated with higher mortality in psychiatric patients: results of a meta-analysis of seven independent studies
    J Ballesteros
    Department of Neuroscience, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Vizcaya, Spain
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 20:188-94. 2000
    ..It remains to be elucidated whether it is a risk factor on its own or just a surrogate for any unknown organic liability...