Heather J Zar

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Failure of chemoprophylaxis with standard antituberculosis agents in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases
    Darryl B Sneag
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1142-6. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine--a health priority
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:463-7. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: new advances
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 8:277-88. 2010
  4. doi request reprint A randomized controlled trial of intermittent compared with daily cotrimoxazole preventive therapy in HIV-infected children
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:2225-32. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in African children in a primary care setting by use of Xpert MTB/RIF on respiratory specimens: a prospective study
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet Glob Health 1:e97-e104. 2013
  6. pmc Pneumonia in low and middle income countries: progress and challenges
    H J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 68:1052-6. 2013
  7. pmc Incremental value of T-SPOT.TB for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in children in a high-burden setting: a multivariable analysis
    Daphne I Ling
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Thorax 68:860-6. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Challenges in treating pediatric asthma in developing countries
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 14:353-9. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Advances in tuberculosis 2011-2012
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 68:283-7. 2013
  10. pmc Rapid molecular diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children using nasopharyngeal specimens
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1088-95. 2012

Detail Information

Publications59

  1. ncbi request reprint Failure of chemoprophylaxis with standard antituberculosis agents in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases
    Darryl B Sneag
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1142-6. 2007
    ..Current guidelines of World Health Organization suggest that isoniazid (INH), the standard first-line chemoprophylaxis, be used for those exposed to MDR-TB...
  2. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine--a health priority
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:463-7. 2008
    ..Widespread availability and vaccination with PCV is urgently needed for all children under 2 years of age in South Africa. In addition, the use of PCV for all HIV-infected children under 9 years should be prioritised...
  3. doi request reprint Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: new advances
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 8:277-88. 2010
    ..Greater efforts to obtain a microbiologic diagnosis should be made in children, even in primary care settings. Further research to develop a more accurate, cost-effective and simple diagnostic test for childhood TB is urgently needed...
  4. doi request reprint A randomized controlled trial of intermittent compared with daily cotrimoxazole preventive therapy in HIV-infected children
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:2225-32. 2010
    ..We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intermittent CPT compared with daily CPT in HIV-infected children over a 5-year period...
  5. ncbi request reprint Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in African children in a primary care setting by use of Xpert MTB/RIF on respiratory specimens: a prospective study
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet Glob Health 1:e97-e104. 2013
    ..We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF in children in primary care...
  6. pmc Pneumonia in low and middle income countries: progress and challenges
    H J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 68:1052-6. 2013
    ..Widespread implementation of currently effective preventative and management strategies for pneumonia remains challenging in many low and middle income countries. ..
  7. pmc Incremental value of T-SPOT.TB for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in children in a high-burden setting: a multivariable analysis
    Daphne I Ling
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Thorax 68:860-6. 2013
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Challenges in treating pediatric asthma in developing countries
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 14:353-9. 2012
    ..Socioeconomic and structural barriers to care within health services remain obstacles to achieving optimal treatment of asthma for many children...
  9. doi request reprint Advances in tuberculosis 2011-2012
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 68:283-7. 2013
    ..Operational research to inform more widespread implementation of research findings is needed in order to benefit optimally from recent advances...
  10. pmc Rapid molecular diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children using nasopharyngeal specimens
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1088-95. 2012
    ..The diagnosis using a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), which can be non-invasively obtained, is desirable...
  11. ncbi request reprint Advances in childhood tuberculosis - contributions from the University of Cape Town
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 102:518-21. 2012
    ..Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is common in high TB burden countries, contributing a substantial proportion to the TB caseload. The HIV epidemic has had a large impact on the incidence, diagnosis and management of childhood TB...
  12. pmc High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South
    Mark F Cotton
    Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 8:40. 2008
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Chronic lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 43:1-10. 2008
    ..Preventative strategies include immunization, chemoprophylaxis, and micronutrient supplementation. Early use of HAART may prevent the development of chronic lung disease...
  14. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children--what's new?
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 97:983-5. 2007
  15. ncbi request reprint Child lung health: a global concern. An introduction to the series
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 42:1085-6. 2007
  16. pmc Reversion and conversion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis IFN-gamma ELISpot results during anti-tuberculous treatment in HIV-infected children
    Tom G Connell
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:138. 2010
    ..The kinetics of IFN-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens in HIV-infected children during treatment have not however been previously investigated...
  17. ncbi request reprint Low rates of hepatotoxicity in HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral therapy with and without isoniazid prophylaxis
    Diane Gray
    Paediatric HIV Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 56:159-65. 2010
    ..4%) children, with no cases of fulminant hepatic failure. Severe hepatic events are uncommon in children on ART or isoniazid. There is no increased risk of hepatotoxicity with ART and concurrent isoniazid preventive therapy...
  18. pmc Xpert MTB/RIF testing of stool samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children
    Mark P Nicol
    Division of Medical Microbiology and Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, and National Health Laboratory Service of South Africa, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 57:e18-21. 2013
    ..Sputum Xpert detected 11/17 (65%) cases. Stool holds promise for PTB diagnosis in HIV-infected children. ..
  19. pmc Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on mortality and incidence of tuberculosis in children with HIV: randomised controlled trial
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMJ 334:136. 2007
    ..To investigate the impact of isoniazid prophylaxis on mortality and incidence of tuberculosis in children with HIV...
  20. doi request reprint Accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted to hospital in Cape Town, South Africa: a descriptive study
    Mark P Nicol
    Division of Medical Microbiology and Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:819-24. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess the accuracy of the test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children in an area with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalences...
  21. doi request reprint Management of community-acquired pneumonia in HIV-infected children
    Diane Gray
    G25 Paediatric HIV AIDS Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7:437-51. 2009
    ..Specific preventive interventions, including chemoprophylaxis for P. jiroveci pneumonia or for TB and early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, may significantly reduce the burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected children...
  22. ncbi request reprint Comparison of in-hospital morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected children after surgery
    Jonathan S Karpelowsky
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Surg Int 28:1007-14. 2012
    ..Increasingly HIV-infected children can be expected to require surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of HIV-infected and HIV-unexposed children undergoing surgery...
  23. pmc Outcome of HIV-exposed uninfected children undergoing surgery
    Jonathan S Karpelowsky
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Pediatr 11:69. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the morbidity and mortality of HIVe compared to both HIVn and HIV-infected (HIVi) children after a general surgical procedure...
  24. pmc Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules
    Stanzi M le Roux
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Med 7:67. 2009
    ..We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to three times a week, and predictors of adherence amongst HIV-infected children...
  25. ncbi request reprint Induced sputum versus gastric lavage for microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in infants and young children: a prospective study
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 365:130-4. 2005
    ..We aimed to compare the yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from repeated induced sputum with that from gastric lavage in young children from an area with a high rate of HIV and tuberculosis...
  26. doi request reprint Bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Cape Town, South Africa
    David M le Roux
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:904-6. 2011
    ..Children should be prioritized for early cART...
  27. doi request reprint Detection of tuberculosis in HIV-infected children using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay
    Mary Ann Davies
    Red Cross Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 23:961-9. 2009
    ..To evaluate an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children with suspected TB and to compare the performance of ELISPOT with the tuberculin skin test (TST)...
  28. doi request reprint Prevalence and outcome of cytomegalovirus-associated pneumonia in relation to human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Marco Zampoli
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:413-7. 2011
    ..To investigate the antemortem prevalence and outcome of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated pneumonia in African children...
  29. ncbi request reprint Pneumocystis pneumonia in South African children with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Brenda M Morrow
    Department of Paediatics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:535-9. 2010
    ..Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African children...
  30. ncbi request reprint Oral trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole levels in stable HIV-infected children
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 96:627-9. 2006
    ..However, oral therapy is desirable as the intravenous route is costly, time-consuming, more difficult to administer and carries a risk of needlestick injury...
  31. ncbi request reprint The changing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in African adolescents from 1995 to 2002
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 18:560-5. 2007
    ..Symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in adolescents have increased over the past 7 yr in this geographical area. Allergic diseases are common in this group of adolescents and increasingly impair their quality of life...
  32. pmc Improved detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in upper and lower respiratory tract specimens from children with suspected pneumocystis pneumonia using real-time PCR: a prospective study
    Catherine M Samuel
    Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 11:329. 2011
    ..The main objectives of the study was (1) to compare the diagnostic yield of PCR with immunofluorescence (IF) and (2) to investigate the usefulness of upper compared to lower respiratory tract samples for diagnosing PCP in children...
  33. ncbi request reprint Clinical and immunological correlates of chest X-ray abnormalities in HIV-infected South African children with limited access to anti-retroviral therapy
    Richard D Pitcher
    Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 49:581-8. 2014
    ..The chest X-ray (CXR) abnormalities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in low/middle income countries (LMIC's) have not been well studied...
  34. pmc Pneumocystis pneumonia in South African children diagnosed by molecular methods
    Brenda M Morrow
    Department of Paediatics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital RCWMCH, University of Cape Town, 5th Floor Institute of Child Health Building, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch 7700, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Res Notes 7:26. 2014
    ..The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pneumocystis has enabled more reliable diagnosis. This study describes the incidence, clinical features and outcome of PCP in South African children diagnosed using PCR...
  35. ncbi request reprint Serum immunoglobulin E levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with pneumonia
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13:328-33. 2002
    ..HIV-infected children with pneumonia have higher serum IgE compared with seronegative patients. In HIV-positive children, IgE levels did not correlate with the degree of immunosuppression or with outcome...
  36. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis in the developing world
    Heather J Zar
    Department of School Adolescent and Child Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, 5th Floor, ICH Building, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 26:53-4. 2004
  37. pmc Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing
    Heidi E Smuts
    Division Medical Virology NHLS, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 11:65. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children...
  38. doi request reprint Predictors of postoperative complications in HIV-infected children undergoing surgery
    Jonathan Saul Karpelowsky
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town 7700, South Africa
    J Pediatr Surg 46:674-8. 2011
    ..An increasing number of HIV-infected children require a surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the development of complications in HIV-infected children undergoing surgery...
  39. doi request reprint Role of human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus NL63 and human bocavirus in infants and young children with acute wheezing
    Heidi Smuts
    Division Medical Virology NHLS, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Med Virol 80:906-12. 2008
    ..Viruses are an important cause of wheezing in preschool children; hMPV, HCoV NL63, and HBoV are less common than the usual respiratory pathogens...
  40. ncbi request reprint Childhood pneumonia--progress and challenges
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town and Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 96:890-900. 2006
    ..This article reviews changes in the epidemiology, management and prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing countries, specifically in Africa and South Africa, and addresses future challenges...
  41. pmc New specimens and laboratory diagnostics for childhood pulmonary TB: progress and prospects
    Mark P Nicol
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service of South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 12:16-21. 2011
    ..The recent development of an integrated specimen processing and real-time PCR testing platform for M. tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance is an important advance that requires evaluation in childhood TB...
  42. ncbi request reprint Incorrect use of a homemade spacer for treatment of recurrent wheezing in children--a cause for concern
    Heather J Zar
    Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 95:388, 390. 2005
  43. doi request reprint A comparison of the efficiency of five different commercial DNA extraction kits for extraction of DNA from faecal samples
    Shantelle Claassen
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Microbiol Methods 94:103-10. 2013
    ..DGGE and T-RFLP produced the highest diversity scores for DNA extracted using kit Z (H'=2.30 and 1.27) and kit QS (H'=2.16 and 0.94), which also extracted the highest DNA yields compared to the other kits assessed. ..
  44. ncbi request reprint The impact of HIV infection and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis on bacterial isolates from children with community-acquired pneumonia in South Africa
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 49:78-83. 2003
    ..17 of 79 (22 per cent), p = 0.009]. The rising prevalence of HIV infection and the use of TMP-SMX prophylaxis may alter the spectrum of colonizing and pathogenic bacteria in children in developing countries...
  45. ncbi request reprint Improvements in lung function of a pediatric cystic fibrosis population in a developing country
    Brenda M Morrow
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town UCT, Cape Town, WC, South Africa
    J Pediatr (Rio J) 84:403-9. 2008
    ..To document the change in pulmonary function of a pediatric cystic fibrosis population managed at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between January 1999 and December 2006...
  46. ncbi request reprint Pneumonia in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in developing countries: epidemiology, clinical features, and management
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 10:176-82. 2004
    ..This article reviews recent findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of HIV-infected and -uninfected children with pneumonia in developing countries...
  47. ncbi request reprint Clinical indicators of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in South African children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus
    Geoffrey L Fatti
    Department of Human Biology, and Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Infect Dis 10:282-5. 2006
    ..Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci is common in HIV-infected children, producing substantial morbidity and mortality. Initiation of timely, effective therapy depends on clinical identification of children with PCP...
  48. ncbi request reprint Respiratory infections in children in developing countries
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Division of Paediatric Pulmonology, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Ann 31:133-8. 2002
  49. ncbi request reprint A 500-ml plastic bottle: an effective spacer for children with asthma
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13:217-22. 2002
    ..It is concluded that a modified 500-ml plastic bottle is an effective spacer; modification and use of this device should be incorporated into international guidelines for the management of children with asthma...
  50. ncbi request reprint Global burden of pediatric respiratory illness and the implications for management and prevention
    Heather J Zar
    School Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 36:457-61. 2003
  51. doi request reprint Promising directions in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis
    Elizabeth Whittaker
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Expert Rev Respir Med 6:385-95. 2012
    ..Further research is needed to develop a rapid point-of-care, reliable and affordable diagnostic test for childhood tuberculosis that can be widely used...
  52. ncbi request reprint Neonatal chlamydial infections: prevention and treatment
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 7:103-10. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Nosocomial pneumonia in pediatric patients: practical problems and rational solutions
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, 46 Sawkins Road, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 4:73-83. 2002
    ..Of these, hand hygiene, appropriate infection control policies, and judicious use of antibacterials are essential...
  54. doi request reprint Chest radiographic presenting features and radiographic progression of pneumocystis pneumonia in South African children
    Richard D Pitcher
    Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 46:1015-22. 2011
    ..To describe the radiographic features of PCP in South African children, including the progression of changes and the impact of HIV-infection and respiratory co-infections...
  55. ncbi request reprint Global paediatric pulmonology: out of Africa
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 7:S226-8. 2006
    ..Greater access to newer vaccines and, in HIV-infected children, to anti-retroviral therapy and prophylaxis is necessary to further reduce the burden of childhood respiratory illness in Africa...
  56. ncbi request reprint Etiology of sickle cell chest
    Heather J Zar
    Department of School Adolescent and Child Health, Red Cross Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, 7th floor ICH Building, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 26:188-90. 2004
  57. ncbi request reprint Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in African children with HIV-1
    Shabir A Madhi
    Lancet 365:749-50; author reply 750-1. 2005
  58. ncbi request reprint Training pediatric pulmonologists for the future: academic is a state of mind not just a location
    Robert B Mellins
    Pediatric Pulmonary Division, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 26:9-11. 2004
  59. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity and specificity of nested and real-time PCR for the detection of Pneumocystis jiroveci in clinical specimens
    Miriam J Alvarez-Martinez
    Microbiology Department, Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 56:153-60. 2006
    ..Real-time PCR has a statistically significantly better specificity than nested PCR (P = .015) and is likely to generate fewer false positives...