Tim Noakes

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The limits of human endurance: what is the greatest endurance performance of all time? Which factors regulate performance at extreme altitude?
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, South Africa
    Adv Exp Med Biol 618:255-76. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Effects of androgen manipulation on postprandial triglyceridaemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size and lipoprotein(a) in men
    M S Hislop
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cape Town Medical School, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Atherosclerosis 159:425-32. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint Hyponatremia in Distance Athletes: Pulling the IV on the 'Dehydration Myth'
    T D Noakes
    Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, 7700, ZA
    Phys Sportsmed 28:71-6. 2000
  4. pmc The forgotten Barcroft/Edholm reflex: potential role in exercise associated collapse
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 37:277-8. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Hyponatremia in distance runners: fluid and sodium balance during exercise
    Tim Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands, 7700, South Africa
    Curr Sports Med Rep 1:197-207. 2002
  6. pmc From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:511-4. 2004
  7. pmc The dipsomania of great distance: water intoxication in an Ironman triathlete
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:E16. 2004
  8. pmc Logical limitations to the "catastrophe" models of fatigue during exercise in humans
    T D Noakes
    University of Cape Town, Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science of South Africa, P O Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:648-9. 2004
  9. pmc Three independent biological mechanisms cause exercise-associated hyponatremia: evidence from 2,135 weighed competitive athletic performances
    T D Noakes
    University of Cape Town Medical Research Council Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, 7700, South Africa
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18550-5. 2005
  10. pmc From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans: summary and conclusions
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Sports Science of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 39:120-4. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications71

  1. ncbi request reprint The limits of human endurance: what is the greatest endurance performance of all time? Which factors regulate performance at extreme altitude?
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, South Africa
    Adv Exp Med Biol 618:255-76. 2007
    ..A key feature of this control is that it acts "in anticipation" specifically to insure that a catastrophic biological failure does not occur. The evidence for this interpretation is presented...
  2. ncbi request reprint Effects of androgen manipulation on postprandial triglyceridaemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size and lipoprotein(a) in men
    M S Hislop
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cape Town Medical School, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Atherosclerosis 159:425-32. 2001
    ..A suppression of Lp(a) as well as a reduced PPT and increased LDL size in predisposed individuals may be antiatherogenic effects of AAS...
  3. ncbi request reprint Hyponatremia in Distance Athletes: Pulling the IV on the 'Dehydration Myth'
    T D Noakes
    Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, 7700, ZA
    Phys Sportsmed 28:71-6. 2000
    ..I have termed this traditional litany the "dehydration myth" ((2,3)). It has been relentlessly perpetuated, always in the guise of good science...
  4. pmc The forgotten Barcroft/Edholm reflex: potential role in exercise associated collapse
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 37:277-8. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Hyponatremia in distance runners: fluid and sodium balance during exercise
    Tim Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands, 7700, South Africa
    Curr Sports Med Rep 1:197-207. 2002
    ....
  6. pmc From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:511-4. 2004
    ..A revolutionary theory is presented that proposes that exercise performance is regulated by the central nervous system specifically to ensure that catastrophic physiological failure does not occur during normal exercise in humans...
  7. pmc The dipsomania of great distance: water intoxication in an Ironman triathlete
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:E16. 2004
    ..This case report also shows that there is a delayed diuresis in this condition and that it is not caused by renal failure...
  8. pmc Logical limitations to the "catastrophe" models of fatigue during exercise in humans
    T D Noakes
    University of Cape Town, Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science of South Africa, P O Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:648-9. 2004
    ..The ultimate goal of this regulation is to preserve homeostasis in all physiological systems during exercise, regardless of intensity or duration or the environmental conditions in which it is undertaken...
  9. pmc Three independent biological mechanisms cause exercise-associated hyponatremia: evidence from 2,135 weighed competitive athletic performances
    T D Noakes
    University of Cape Town Medical Research Council Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, 7700, South Africa
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18550-5. 2005
    ..EAH can be prevented by insuring that athletes do not drink to excess during exercise, which has been known since 1985...
  10. pmc From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans: summary and conclusions
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Sports Science of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 39:120-4. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint In health and in a normoxic environment, VO2 max is/is not limited primarily by cardiac output and locomotor muscle blood flow
    Timothy David Noakes
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine University of Cape Town and Sports Science Institute of South Africa Newlands, South Africa
    J Appl Physiol 100:1742. 2006
  12. pmc Case proven: exercise associated hyponatraemia is due to overdrinking. So why did it take 20 years before the original evidence was accepted?
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 40:567-72. 2006
  13. ncbi request reprint The limits of endurance exercise
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands, 7925, South Africa
    Basic Res Cardiol 101:408-17. 2006
    ..Given good health and an adequate food supply to prevent starvation and scurvy, these limits are set by the mind, not by the body. For it is the mind that determines who chooses to start and who best stays the distance...
  14. ncbi request reprint Evidence that a central governor regulates exercise performance during acute hypoxia and hyperoxia
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    J Exp Biol 204:3225-34. 2001
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint 1996 J.B. Wolffe Memorial Lecture. Challenging beliefs: ex Africa semper aliquid novi
    T D Noakes
    MRC UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:571-90. 1997
    ..The challenge for future generations of exercise physiologists is to identify how the body anticipates the possibility of organ damage and evokes the appropriate control mechanism(s) at the appropriate instant...
  16. ncbi request reprint Exercise and the cold
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine of the Medical Research Council and the University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands
    Ergonomics 43:1461-79. 2000
    ..Practical recommendations for behaviour that will enhance survival during prolonged exposure to cold on land or to immersion in cold water are considered...
  17. ncbi request reprint Dose-related elevations in venous pH with citrate ingestion do not alter 40-km cycling time-trial performance
    E J Schabort
    Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands
    Eur J Appl Physiol 83:320-7. 2000
    ..However, these changes influenced neither the time-trial time nor the sprinting performance times...
  18. ncbi request reprint Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance
    L Havemann
    University of Cape Town Medical Research Council Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Appl Physiol 100:194-202. 2006
    ..In conclusion, the HFD-CHO dietary strategy increased fat oxidation, but compromised high intensity sprint performance, possibly by increased sympathetic activation or altered contractile function...
  19. ncbi request reprint High-fat diet versus habitual diet prior to carbohydrate loading: effects of exercise metabolism and cycling performance
    E V Lambert
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine in the Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 11:209-25. 2001
    ..05). High-fat feeding for 10 days prior to CHO-loading was associated with an increased reliance on fat, a decreased reliance on muscle glycogen, and improved time trial performance after prolonged exercise...
  20. pmc Growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene and performance and post-race rectal temperature during the South African Ironman triathlon
    B Walpole
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 40:145-50; discussion 145-50. 2006
    ..Growth hormone has multiple effects, especially on metabolism during exercise and recovery from exercise. Its production during exercise has also been shown to stimulate sweat rate and heat loss...
  21. ncbi request reprint Maximal oxygen uptake: "classical" versus "contemporary" viewpoints: a rebuttal
    T D Noakes
    Department of Exercise and Sports Science, Medical Research Council, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:1381-98. 1998
    ..The model is compatible with all the published findings of cardiovascular function during exercise in hypobaric hypoxia, in which there is a greater likelihood that myocardial hypoxia will develop...
  22. pmc Preload maintenance protects against a depression in left ventricular systolic, but not diastolic, function immediately after ultraendurance exercise
    M Y Hassan
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 40:536-40; discussion 540. 2006
    ..To investigate indices of left ventricular (LV) function before and after a 224 km Ironman triathlon, specifically in the presence of unaltered haemodynamic loading...
  23. ncbi request reprint No association of the ACTN3 gene R577X polymorphism with endurance performance in Ironman Triathlons
    C J Saunders
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine of the Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Ann Hum Genet 71:777-81. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the R577X polymorphism within the ACTN3 gene was not associated with ultra-endurance performance in the 2000 and 2001 South African Ironman Triathlons...
  24. pmc Effects of supramaximal exercise on the electromyographic signal
    A M Hunter
    MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 37:296-9. 2003
    ..To determine the neuromuscular recruitment characteristics during supramaximal exercise...
  25. ncbi request reprint Jim Peters' collapse in the 1954 Vancouver Empire Games marathon
    Tim Noakes
    University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:596-600. 2008
    ..But none of these conditions should cause prolonged unconsciousness, raising the possibility that Peters might have suffered from a transient encephalopathy, the exact nature of which is not understood...
  26. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of maximal exercise performance, fatigue, and depression in athletes with acquired chronic training intolerance
    A St Clair Gibson
    UCT MRC Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin J Sport Med 16:39-45. 2006
    ....
  27. pmc Complex systems model of fatigue: integrative homoeostatic control of peripheral physiological systems during exercise in humans
    E V Lambert
    University of Cape Town, Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science of South Africa, P O Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 39:52-62. 2005
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Effects of ingesting a sports bar versus glucose polymer on substrate utilisation and ultra-endurance performance
    H G Rauch
    MRC UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, University of Cape Town Medical School, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands
    Int J Sports Med 20:252-7. 1999
    ..In conclusion, ingestion of the sports bar enhanced fat metabolism during prolonged, submaximal exercise, but impaired subsequent high-intensity time-trial performance...
  29. pmc Hyponatraemic encephalopathy despite a modest rate of fluid intake during a 109 km cycle race
    J P Dugas
    UTC MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 39:e38; discussion e38. 2005
    ..To report a case of exertional hyponatraemic encephalopathy that occurred despite a modest rate of fluid intake during a 109 km cycling race...
  30. doi request reprint The physiological regulation of pacing strategy during exercise: a critical review
    R Tucker
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 43:e1. 2009
    ..The review further investigates how such a pacing strategy might be regulated for optimal performance, while ensuring that irreversible physiological damage is not incurred...
  31. ncbi request reprint Carbohydrate-loading and exercise performance. An update
    J A Hawley
    Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 24:73-81. 1997
    ..Glycogen supercompensation may also improve endurance performance in which a set distance is covered as quickly as possible. In such exercise, high carbohydrate diets have been reported to improve performance by 2 to 3%...
  32. ncbi request reprint Drinking guidelines for exercise: what evidence is there that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable", "to replace the weight lost during exercise" or "ad libitum"?
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Sports Sci 25:781-96. 2007
    ..These concerns need to be addressed before the novel IOC guidelines are accepted uncritically. Otherwise the predictable consequences of the premature adoption of the 1996 ACSM guidelines will be repeated...
  33. doi request reprint Testing for maximum oxygen consumption has produced a brainless model of human exercise performance
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Deaprtment of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 42:551-5. 2008
  34. doi request reprint Which lap is the slowest? An analysis of 32 world mile record performances
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 43:760-4. 2009
    ..The pacing strategies adopted by world-record breakers during the 1-mile footrace in order to evaluate different models for the biological basis of pacing was determined in this study...
  35. ncbi request reprint Event-related potentials, reaction time, and response selection of skilled and less-skilled cricket batsmen
    M Sharhidd Taliep
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands 7700, Cape Town, South Africa
    Perception 37:96-105. 2008
    ..This appears to be the first study showing a link between skill and cerebral cortical activity during a perceptual cricket batting task and it could pave the way for future studies on mental processing in cricket batsmen...
  36. doi request reprint How did A V Hill understand the VO2max and the "plateau phenomenon"? Still no clarity?
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Sports Science of South Africa, PO Box 115 Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 42:574-80. 2008
    ..It is not clear which of Hill and Lupton's propositions have been proved "beyond any doubt"...
  37. pmc Semmelweis and the aetiology of puerperal sepsis 160 years on: an historical review
    T D Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Epidemiol Infect 136:1-9. 2008
    ..This statistical analysis supports Semmelweis's hypothesis that 'the cadaveric particles adhering to the hand had ... caused the preponderant mortality in the first Clinic'...
  38. doi request reprint Exercising with reserve: evidence that the central nervous system regulates prolonged exercise performance
    J Swart
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 43:782-8. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of an amphetamine (methylphenidate) on exercise performance at a fixed rating of perceived exertion of 16...
  39. pmc Factors associated with menstrual dysfunction and self-reported bone stress injuries in female runners in the ultra- and half-marathons of the Two Oceans
    L K Micklesfield
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, UCT School of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 41:679-83. 2007
    ..To investigate factors associated with menstrual dysfunction, self-reported bone stress injuries and energy balance in women runners...
  40. doi request reprint Exercising with reserve: exercise regulation by perceived exertion in relation to duration of exercise and knowledge of endpoint
    J Swart
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 43:775-81. 2009
    ..In addition, we examined the RPE during exercise bouts of markedly different duration...
  41. doi request reprint Heart rate recovery as a guide to monitor fatigue and predict changes in performance parameters
    R P Lamberts
    Department of Human Biology, The Sport Science Institute of South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Scand J Med Sci Sports 20:449-57. 2010
    ..059). These findings suggest that HRR has the potential to monitor changes in endurance performance and contribute to a more accurate prescription of training load in well-trained and elite cyclists...
  42. ncbi request reprint Metabolic setpoint control mechanisms in different physiological systems at rest and during exercise
    A St Clair Gibson
    Brain Sciences Research Group, MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, P O Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    J Theor Biol 236:60-72. 2005
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate monitoring during submaximal exercise
    L R Keytel
    MRC UCT Exercise Science and Sports Medicine Unit, University of Cape Town Medical School, Newlands, South Africa
    J Sports Sci 23:289-97. 2005
    ..Based on these results, we conclude that it is possible to estimate physical activity energy expenditure from heart rate in a group of individuals with a great deal of accuracy, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass and fitness...
  44. ncbi request reprint The influence of sensory cues on the perception of exertion during exercise and central regulation of exercise performance
    D B Hampson
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sports Science Institute of South Africa
    Sports Med 31:935-52. 2001
    ..Future research is needed to precisely quantify the extent to which efferent feedforward commands and afferent feedback determine pacing strategies such that an exercise event can be completed without irreversible tissue damage...
  45. ncbi request reprint Insulin sensitivity measured by the minimal model: no associations with fasting respiratory exchange ratio in trained athletes
    J H Goedecke
    UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Metabolism 50:1286-93. 2001
    ..35, P =.006). In conclusion, S(i) and fasting plasma insulin concentration were not associated with fasting RER at rest and during exercise of increasing intensity in trained athletes who have high S(i)...
  46. ncbi request reprint Determinants of the variability in respiratory exchange ratio at rest and during exercise in trained athletes
    J H Goedecke
    University of Cape Town Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, University of Cape Town Medical School, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E1325-34. 2000
    ..Resting RER was also a significant determinant of RER at 25 (r = 0.60) and 50% (r = 0.44) W(peak)...
  47. ncbi request reprint Reduced neuromuscular activity and force generation during prolonged cycling
    A St Clair Gibson
    MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town Medical School, Cape Town, 7725 South Africa
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281:R187-96. 2001
    ..These changes occurred when <20% of available muscle was recruited and suggest the presence of a central neural governor that reduces the active muscle recruited during prolonged exercise...
  48. ncbi request reprint The -55 C/T polymorphism within the UCP3 gene and performance during the South African Ironman Triathlon
    D E Hudson
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Sports Med 25:427-32. 2004
    ..Thus no association was found between the -55 C/T polymorphism within the uncoupling protein 3 gene and the ultra-endurance performance of triathletes who completed either the 2000 or 2001 South African Ironman triathlons...
  49. pmc Skeletal muscle pathology in endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance
    L A Grobler
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:697-703. 2004
    ..Case studies have alluded to an association between long term, high volume endurance training and racing, acquired training intolerance, and chronic skeletal muscle pathology...
  50. pmc Weight changes, medical complications, and performance during an Ironman triathlon
    K A Sharwood
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, P O Box 115, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:718-24. 2004
    ..It is not known if athletes competing in cooler conditions with free access to fluid terminate exercise at similar levels of weight loss...
  51. pmc Evidence for complex system integration and dynamic neural regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment during exercise in humans
    A St Clair Gibson
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:797-806. 2004
    ..The end point of the exercise bout is the controlling variable. This is an example of a complex, non-linear, dynamic system in which physiological systems interact to regulate activity before, during, and after the exercise bout...
  52. pmc A signalling role for muscle glycogen in the regulation of pace during prolonged exercise
    H G L Rauch
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science Institute, Boundary Road, Newlands, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 39:34-8. 2005
    ..In this study we examined the pacing strategy and the end muscle glycogen contents in eight cyclists, once when they were carbohydrate loaded and once when they were non-loaded...
  53. ncbi request reprint Neural control of force output during maximal and submaximal exercise
    A St Clair Gibson
    The Medical Research Council, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 31:637-50. 2001
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Quadriceps and hamstrings peak torque ratio changes in persons with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency
    A St Clair Gibson
    Department of Physiology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 30:418-27. 2000
    ..Cross-sectional analytical study in which subjects served as their own controls...
  55. ncbi request reprint Measurement of maximal oxygen uptake from two different laboratory protocols in runners and squash players
    A St Clair Gibson
    Department of Physiology, University of Cape Town Medical School, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1226-9. 1999
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Sodium replacement and fluid shifts during prolonged exercise in humans
    B Sanders
    Medical Research Council and University of Cape Town, Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands, 7725, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 84:419-25. 2001
    ..9 l.h-1, complete Na+ replacement maintains plasma volume and reduces dehydration, but when fluid intake matches sweat rate, has little effect on plasma osmolality...
  57. pmc Serum electrolyte concentrations and hydration status are not associated with exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) in distance runners
    M P Schwellnus
    University of Cape Town, UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Boundary Road, Newlands 7700, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 38:488-92. 2004
    ..To determine whether acute exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) in distance runners is related to changes in serum electrolyte concentrations and hydration status...
  58. ncbi request reprint The effects of different air velocities on heat storage and body temperature in humans cycling in a hot, humid environment
    A G Saunders
    Department of Human Biology, UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Acta Physiol Scand 183:241-55. 2005
    ....
  59. doi request reprint Rates of fluid ingestion alter pacing but not thermoregulatory responses during prolonged exercise in hot and humid conditions with appropriate convective cooling
    J P Dugas
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 105:69-80. 2009
    ..Rates greater than ad libitum did not result in further improvements. Ad libitum fluid ingestion is optimal as it prevents athletes from ingesting too little or too much fluid...
  60. ncbi request reprint Fluid replacement during marathon running
    Tim Noakes
    The MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin J Sport Med 13:309-18. 2003
    ..A more reasonable approach is to urge these participants not to drink as much as possible but to drink ad libitum (according to the dictates of thirst) no more than 400-800 mL/hour...
  61. ncbi request reprint Reliability of a 5-m multiple shuttle test
    M K Boddington
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town and Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands
    J Sports Sci 19:223-8. 2001
    ..The delta distance and fatigue index are not as reliable and should be interpreted with caution...
  62. pmc Non-random fluctuations in power output during self-paced exercise
    R Tucker
    Brain Sciences Research Group, MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town and Sport Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 40:912-7; discussion 917. 2006
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint EMG amplitude in maximal and submaximal exercise is dependent on signal capture rate
    A M Hunter
    MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sport Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Sports Med 24:83-9. 2003
    ..Therefore apparatus capturing EMG data at low frequencies from these values cannot be used for quantitative data analyses...
  64. ncbi request reprint The COL5A1 gene and Achilles tendon pathology
    G G Mokone
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Scand J Med Sci Sports 16:19-26. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the alpha 1 type V collagen (COL5A1) gene, which encodes for a tendon protein, is associated with the symptoms of ATP...
  65. ncbi request reprint The COL12A1 and COL14A1 genes and Achilles tendon injuries
    A V September
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Sports Med 29:257-63. 2008
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Effects of a novel bicycle saddle on symptoms and comfort in cyclists
    L R Keytel
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town Medical School, Sports Science Institute of South Africa
    S Afr Med J 92:295-8. 2002
    ..Given the number and range of cycling injuries believed to result from the saddle, this is surprising. This study investigated the effects of a novel bicycle saddle on saddle-related comfort and symptoms during cycling...
  67. ncbi request reprint A modern classification of the exercise-related heat illnesses
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Sci Med Sport 11:33-9. 2008
    ....
  68. pmc Overconsumption of fluids by athletes
    Timothy David Noakes
    BMJ 327:113-4. 2003
  69. ncbi request reprint Linear relationship between the perception of effort and the duration of constant load exercise that remains
    Timothy David Noakes
    J Appl Physiol 96:1571-2; author reply 1572-3. 2004
  70. ncbi request reprint Comments on Point:Counterpoint "Positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are/are not mediated primarily by augmented red cell volume"
    Timothy David Noakes
    J Appl Physiol 99:2453. 2005
  71. ncbi request reprint Viewpoint: Fatigue mechanisms determining exercise performance: integrative physiology is systems physiology
    Timothy David Noakes
    J Appl Physiol 104:1544-5. 2008