Tim Noakes

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Changes in oxygen consumption during and after a downhill run in masters long-distance runners
    Karen A Sharwood
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin J Sport Med 12:308-12. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Dipsogenic genes associated with weight changes during Ironman Triathlons
    Colleen J Saunders
    Medical Research Council of South Africa, MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Hum Mol Genet 15:2980-7. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Comments on Point:Counterpoint "Positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are/are not mediated primarily by augmented red cell volume"
    Timothy David Noakes
    J Appl Physiol 99:2453. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint UCT taught me how to challenge beliefs
    Timothy David Noakes
    S Afr Med J 102:430-2. 2012
  5. pmc Fatigue is a Brain-Derived Emotion that Regulates the Exercise Behavior to Ensure the Protection of Whole Body Homeostasis
    Timothy David Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town Cape Town, South Africa
    Front Physiol 3:82. 2012
  6. pmc Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening
    Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, UCT School of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Public Health 8:228. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Hydration in the marathon : using thirst to gauge safe fluid replacement
    Timothy D Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 37:463-6. 2007
  8. pmc Semmelweis and the aetiology of puerperal sepsis 160 years on: an historical review
    T D Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Epidemiol Infect 136:1-9. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Jim Peters' collapse in the 1954 Vancouver Empire Games marathon
    Tim Noakes
    University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:596-600. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint The limits of human endurance: what is the greatest endurance performance of all time? Which factors regulate performance at extreme altitude?
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, South Africa
    Adv Exp Med Biol 618:255-76. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. ncbi request reprint Changes in oxygen consumption during and after a downhill run in masters long-distance runners
    Karen A Sharwood
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin J Sport Med 12:308-12. 2002
    ..To determine whether oxygen consumption during submaximal running increases in proportion to years of accumulated training and racing in masters runners after a bout of downhill running...
  2. ncbi request reprint Dipsogenic genes associated with weight changes during Ironman Triathlons
    Colleen J Saunders
    Medical Research Council of South Africa, MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Hum Mol Genet 15:2980-7. 2006
    ..These findings suggest the involvement of the serotonergic pathways in the control of thirst and drinking behaviour and provide further evidence for the dipsogenic effect of circulating bradykinin...
  3. ncbi request reprint Comments on Point:Counterpoint "Positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are/are not mediated primarily by augmented red cell volume"
    Timothy David Noakes
    J Appl Physiol 99:2453. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint UCT taught me how to challenge beliefs
    Timothy David Noakes
    S Afr Med J 102:430-2. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Fatigue is a Brain-Derived Emotion that Regulates the Exercise Behavior to Ensure the Protection of Whole Body Homeostasis
    Timothy David Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town Cape Town, South Africa
    Front Physiol 3:82. 2012
    ....
  6. pmc Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening
    Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, UCT School of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Public Health 8:228. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour...
  7. ncbi request reprint Hydration in the marathon : using thirst to gauge safe fluid replacement
    Timothy D Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 37:463-6. 2007
    ..Drinking to maintain bodyweight may impair exercise performance by inducing a weight penalty and may increase the probability of exercise-associated hyponatraemia in slow marathon runners...
  8. pmc Semmelweis and the aetiology of puerperal sepsis 160 years on: an historical review
    T D Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Epidemiol Infect 136:1-9. 2008
    ..This statistical analysis supports Semmelweis's hypothesis that 'the cadaveric particles adhering to the hand had ... caused the preponderant mortality in the first Clinic'...
  9. ncbi request reprint Jim Peters' collapse in the 1954 Vancouver Empire Games marathon
    Tim Noakes
    University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:596-600. 2008
    ..But none of these conditions should cause prolonged unconsciousness, raising the possibility that Peters might have suffered from a transient encephalopathy, the exact nature of which is not understood...
  10. ncbi request reprint The limits of human endurance: what is the greatest endurance performance of all time? Which factors regulate performance at extreme altitude?
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, South Africa
    Adv Exp Med Biol 618:255-76. 2007
    ..A key feature of this control is that it acts "in anticipation" specifically to insure that a catastrophic biological failure does not occur. The evidence for this interpretation is presented...
  11. doi request reprint How did A V Hill understand the VO2max and the "plateau phenomenon"? Still no clarity?
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Sports Science of South Africa, PO Box 115 Newlands, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 42:574-80. 2008
    ..It is not clear which of Hill and Lupton's propositions have been proved "beyond any doubt"...
  12. doi request reprint Which lap is the slowest? An analysis of 32 world mile record performances
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 43:760-4. 2009
    ..The pacing strategies adopted by world-record breakers during the 1-mile footrace in order to evaluate different models for the biological basis of pacing was determined in this study...
  13. ncbi request reprint A modern classification of the exercise-related heat illnesses
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Sci Med Sport 11:33-9. 2008
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Changes in body mass alone explain almost all of the variance in the serum sodium concentrations during prolonged exercise. Has commercial influence impeded scientific endeavour?
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 45:475-7. 2011
    ..The possibility is that commercial influence delayed the acceptance of our findings for two decades...
  15. ncbi request reprint Reduced peripheral resistance and other factors in marathon collapse
    Timothy D Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 37:382-5. 2007
    ..Additional therapeutic interventions should be reserved for those who fail to respond adequately (blood pressure >100mm Hg; normal heart rate) to this simple treatment...
  16. doi request reprint Time to move beyond a brainless exercise physiology: the evidence for complex regulation of human exercise performance
    Timothy David Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Newlands, 7700, South Africa
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 36:23-35. 2011
    ..The complexity of this regulation cannot be appreciated if the body is studied as a collection of disconnected components, as is the usual approach in the modern exercise sciences...
  17. doi request reprint Is drinking to thirst optimum?
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, South Africa
    Ann Nutr Metab 57:9-17. 2010
    ..The act of drinking is a basic survival instinct that has been regulated by complex, unconscious controls ever since the first fish-like creatures moved onto land and should not require conscious adjustment...
  18. doi request reprint Is it time to retire the A.V. Hill Model?: A rebuttal to the article by Professor Roy Shephard
    Timothy D Noakes
    Discovery Health Chair of Exercise and Sports Science, UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 41:263-77. 2011
    ..However, this cannot occur in a discipline that is dominated by an authoritarian Kuhnian philosophy...
  19. ncbi request reprint The central governor model of exercise regulation applied to the marathon
    Timothy D Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 37:374-7. 2007
    ..These findings are best explained by the action of a central (brain) neural control that regulates performance in the marathon 'in anticipation' specifically to prevent biological harm...
  20. ncbi request reprint Drinking guidelines for exercise: what evidence is there that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable", "to replace the weight lost during exercise" or "ad libitum"?
    T D Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Sports Sci 25:781-96. 2007
    ..These concerns need to be addressed before the novel IOC guidelines are accepted uncritically. Otherwise the predictable consequences of the premature adoption of the 1996 ACSM guidelines will be repeated...
  21. doi request reprint Testing for maximum oxygen consumption has produced a brainless model of human exercise performance
    T D Noakes
    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Deaprtment of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Sports Med 42:551-5. 2008
  22. ncbi request reprint Training techniques to improve endurance exercise performances
    Zuko N Kubukeli
    Medical Research Council University of Cape Town Research Unit on Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 32:489-509. 2002
    ..How the optimum duration of a taper is influenced by preceding training intensity and percentage reduction in training volume warrants investigation...
  23. ncbi request reprint The effects of medium-chain triacylglycerol and carbohydrate ingestion on ultra-endurance exercise performance
    Julia H Goedecke
    Medical Research Council Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7725, South Africa
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15:15-27. 2005
    ..In conclusion, MCTs ingested prior to exercise and co-ingested with CHO during exercise did not alter substrate metabolism and significantly compromised sprint performance during prolonged ultra-endurance cycling exercise...
  24. ncbi request reprint The bradykinin beta 2 receptor (BDKRB2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) genes and endurance performance during Ironman Triathlons
    Colleen J Saunders
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine of the Medical Research Council of South Africa, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Hum Mol Genet 15:979-87. 2006
    ..6% of the variance in the overall race time for the triathlon. In conclusion, both the NOS3 and BDKRB2 genes are associated with the actual performance during the Ironman Triathlons...
  25. ncbi request reprint Anticipatory pacing strategies during supramaximal exercise lasting longer than 30 s
    Les Ansley
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town and Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands 7225, Cape Town, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:309-14. 2004
    ..This study assessed whether pacing strategies are adopted during supramaximal exercise bouts lasting longer than 30 s...
  26. ncbi request reprint Acute changes in endocrine and fluid balance markers during high-intensity, steady-state, and prolonged endurance running: unexpected increases in oxytocin and brain natriuretic peptide during exercise
    Tamara Hew-Butler
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7725 South Africa
    Eur J Endocrinol 159:729-37. 2008
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Fluid replacement during marathon running
    Tim Noakes
    The MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin J Sport Med 13:309-18. 2003
    ..A more reasonable approach is to urge these participants not to drink as much as possible but to drink ad libitum (according to the dictates of thirst) no more than 400-800 mL/hour...
  28. doi request reprint Measuring submaximal performance parameters to monitor fatigue and predict cycling performance: a case study of a world-class cyclo-cross cyclist
    Robert P Lamberts
    Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 108:183-90. 2010
    ..In conclusion, these data suggest that the LSCT is able to track changes in training status and detect the consequences of sharp increases in training loads which seem to be associated with accumulating fatigue...
  29. doi request reprint Changes in heart rate recovery after high-intensity training in well-trained cyclists
    Robert P Lamberts
    Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, The Sport Science Institute of South Africa, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 105:705-13. 2009
    ..96; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, HRR is a sensitive marker which tracks changes in training status in already well-trained cyclists and has the potential to have an important role in monitoring and prescribing training...
  30. doi request reprint The rate of increase in rating of perceived exertion predicts the duration of exercise to fatigue at a fixed power output in different environmental conditions
    Helen Crewe
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 103:569-77. 2008
    ..92). This study shows that the rate of increase in RPE predicts the duration of exercise to exhaustion at a constant power output in different environmental conditions...
  31. ncbi request reprint Mind and muscle: the cognitive-affective neuroscience of exercise
    Dan J Stein
    Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    CNS Spectr 12:19-22. 2007
    ..The hypothesis that Homo sapiens evolved as a specialist endurance runner provides an intriguing context against which to research the proximal mechanisms relevant to a cognitive-affective neuroscience of exercise...
  32. doi request reprint Excessive skeletal muscle recruitment during strenuous exercise in McArdle patients
    Dale E Rae
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 110:1047-55. 2010
    ..Excessive muscle recruitment for a given load could be one of the mechanisms explaining the exercise intolerance of these patients...
  33. ncbi request reprint Athletes with exercise-associated fatigue have abnormally short muscle DNA telomeres
    Malcolm Collins
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1524-8. 2003
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint The role of information processing between the brain and peripheral physiological systems in pacing and perception of effort
    Alan St Clair Gibson
    Brain Sciences Research Group, MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Sports Med 36:705-22. 2006
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Reduced eccentric loading of the knee with the pose running method
    Regan E Arendse
    MRC UCT Exercise Science and Sports Medicine Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:272-7. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical changes during natural heel-toe running with learned midfoot and Pose running...
  36. ncbi request reprint Impaired exercise performance in the heat is associated with an anticipatory reduction in skeletal muscle recruitment
    Ross Tucker
    MRC UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, 7725, Newlands, South Africa
    Pflugers Arch 448:422-30. 2004
    ..This adaptation appears to form part of an anticipatory response which adjusts muscle recruitment and power output to reduce heat production, thereby ensuring that thermal homeostasis is maintained during exercise in the heat...
  37. ncbi request reprint The ACE gene and endurance performance during the South African Ironman Triathlons
    Malcolm Collins
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1314-20. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the ID polymorphism is associated with the performance of the fastest finishers of the South African Ironman Triathlons...
  38. ncbi request reprint Electro-membrane microcurrent therapy reduces signs and symptoms of muscle damage
    Michael I Lambert
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, P O Box 115, Newlands, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:602-7. 2002
    ..Acustat electro-membrane microcurrent therapy has been used to treat postoperative pain and soft tissue injury; however, its efficacy in reducing symptoms of muscle damage is not known...
  39. ncbi request reprint Effect of distance feedback on pacing strategy and perceived exertion during cycling
    Yumna Albertus
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, the University of Cape Town and the Sports Science Institute of SOUTH AFRICA, Cape Town, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:461-8. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether providing incorrect distance feedback would alter pacing strategies, perceived exertion, and heart rate during 20-km cycling time trials (TT)...
  40. ncbi request reprint Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise and endurance performance
    Andrew N Bosch
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology University of Cape Town and Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road Newlands 7700, South Africa
    Indian J Med Res 121:634-8. 2005
  41. ncbi request reprint Serum electrolytes in Ironman triathletes with exercise-associated muscle cramping
    Nicole U Sulzer
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1081-5. 2005
    ..To compare serum electrolyte concentrations of cramping and control Ironman triathletes...
  42. ncbi request reprint Variability in exercise capacity and metabolic response during endurance exercise after a low carbohydrate diet
    Amanda Claassen
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7725, South Africa
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15:97-116. 2005
    ..Maintenance of euglycemia in the CHO-depleted state might have an ergogenic effect, however, the effect is highly variable between individuals and independent of changes in CHO oxidation...
  43. ncbi request reprint Updated fluid recommendation: position statement from the International Marathon Medical Directors Association (IMMDA)
    Tamara Hew-Butler
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin J Sport Med 16:283-92. 2006
  44. ncbi request reprint Submaximal force production during perceptually guided isometric exercise
    Sacha J West
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, P O Box 115, Newlands, 7725, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 95:537-42. 2005
    ..Furthermore, prior fatiguing isometric exercise did not have an effect on the subsequent perceptual response range...
  45. ncbi request reprint A novel energy expenditure prediction equation for intermittent physical activity
    Lara R Dugas
    Exercise Science and Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:2154-61. 2005
    ....
  46. pmc The rate of heat storage mediates an anticipatory reduction in exercise intensity during cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion
    Ross Tucker
    University of Cape Town Medical Research Council UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Physiol 574:905-15. 2006
    ..This regulation maintains thermal homeostasis by reducing the exercise work rate and utilizing the subjective RPE specifically to ensure that excessive heat accumulation does not occur and cellular catastrophe is avoided...
  47. ncbi request reprint Electromyographic (EMG) normalization method for cycle fatigue protocols
    Angus M Hunter
    MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:857-61. 2002
    ..To determine the most effective electromyographic (EMG) normalization method for cycling fatigue protocols...
  48. ncbi request reprint The effect of selective beta1-blockade on EMG signal characteristics during progressive endurance exercise
    Angus M Hunter
    MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 88:275-81. 2002
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Skeletal muscle monocarboxylate transporter content is not different between black and white runners
    Yolande X R Harley
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science Sports Medicine, PO Box 115, Newlands, Cape Town 7725, South Africa
    Eur J Appl Physiol 105:623-32. 2009
    ..88, P < 0.001), but MCT1 content did not. Although whole homogenate MCT content was not different between the groups, more research is required to explain the lower plasma lactate concentrations in black runners...
  50. ncbi request reprint Deception and perceived exertion during high-intensity running bouts
    David B Hampson
    MRC UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Newlands, South Africa
    Percept Mot Skills 98:1027-38. 2004
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Hyponatremia in distance runners: fluid and sodium balance during exercise
    Tim Noakes
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands, 7700, South Africa
    Curr Sports Med Rep 1:197-207. 2002
    ....
  52. doi request reprint Practical management of exercise-associated hyponatremic encephalopathy: the sodium paradox of non-osmotic vasopressin secretion
    Tamara Hew-Butler
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin J Sport Med 18:350-4. 2008
    ....
  53. pmc Osmotic and nonosmotic regulation of arginine vasopressin during prolonged endurance exercise
    Tamara Hew-Butler
    Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2072-8. 2008
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Acute interleukin-6 administration impairs athletic performance in healthy, trained male runners
    Paula J Robson-Ansley
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Dept of Human Biology, Univ of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
    Can J Appl Physiol 29:411-8. 2004
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint The guanine-thymine dinucleotide repeat polymorphism within the tenascin-C gene is associated with achilles tendon injuries
    Gaonyadiwe G Mokone
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Am J Sports Med 33:1016-21. 2005
    ..The tenascin-C gene, which has been mapped to chromosome 9q32-q34, encodes for a structural component of tendons...
  56. doi request reprint Inverse relationship between percentage body weight change and finishing time in 643 forty-two-kilometre marathon runners
    Hassane Zouhal
    Movement, Sport, Health and Sciences Laboratory M2S, UFRAPS, University of Rennes 2 ENS Cachan, Rennes, France
    Br J Sports Med 45:1101-5. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between athletic performance and the change in body weight (BW) during a 42 km marathon in a large cohort of runners...
  57. ncbi request reprint Tainted glory--doping and athletic performance
    Timothy D Noakes
    University of Cape Town Medical Research Council Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 351:847-9. 2004
  58. ncbi request reprint The limits of endurance exercise
    Timothy David Noakes
    Department of Human Biology, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Boundary Road, Newlands, 7925, South Africa
    Basic Res Cardiol 101:408-17. 2006
    ..Given good health and an adequate food supply to prevent starvation and scurvy, these limits are set by the mind, not by the body. For it is the mind that determines who chooses to start and who best stays the distance...
  59. ncbi request reprint In health and in a normoxic environment, VO2 max is/is not limited primarily by cardiac output and locomotor muscle blood flow
    Timothy David Noakes
    MRC UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine University of Cape Town and Sports Science Institute of South Africa Newlands, South Africa
    J Appl Physiol 100:1742. 2006
  60. ncbi request reprint Linear relationship between the perception of effort and the duration of constant load exercise that remains
    Timothy David Noakes
    J Appl Physiol 96:1571-2; author reply 1572-3. 2004
  61. pmc Overconsumption of fluids by athletes
    Timothy David Noakes
    BMJ 327:113-4. 2003
  62. ncbi request reprint Viewpoint: Fatigue mechanisms determining exercise performance: integrative physiology is systems physiology
    Timothy David Noakes
    J Appl Physiol 104:1544-5. 2008