Ben J Marais

Summary

Affiliation: University of Stellenbosch
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi Adherence to anti-tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis and treatment in children
    S Van Zyl
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:13-8. 2006
  2. ncbi Minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from children
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:203-5. 2007
  3. pmc Recent advances in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis
    Ben J Marais
    Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health and the Department of paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 92:446-52. 2007
  4. ncbi Use of light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy to detect acid-fast bacilli in sputum
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:203-7. 2008
  5. ncbi The burden of childhood tuberculosis: a public health perspective
    B J Marais
    Center for TB Research and Education and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9:1305-13. 2005
  6. ncbi Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: old wisdom and new challenges
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1078-90. 2006
  7. ncbi Radiographic signs and symptoms in children treated for tuberculosis: possible implications for symptom-based screening in resource-limited settings
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:237-40. 2006
  8. ncbi The burden of childhood tuberculosis and the accuracy of community-based surveillance data
    B J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:259-63. 2006
  9. ncbi The bacteriologic yield in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 42:e69-71. 2006
  10. doi Pediatric TB: issues related to current and future treatment options
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Future Microbiol 4:661-75. 2009

Detail Information

Publications78

  1. ncbi Adherence to anti-tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis and treatment in children
    S Van Zyl
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:13-8. 2006
    ..Limited data exist on adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment and chemoprophylaxis in children in high-burden settings...
  2. ncbi Minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from children
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:203-5. 2007
    ..Thus, the minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid for more than 80% of the isoniazid-resistant strains isolated from children in this study was relatively low and could be exceeded by high-dose (15-20 mg/kg) isoniazid regimens...
  3. pmc Recent advances in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis
    Ben J Marais
    Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health and the Department of paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 92:446-52. 2007
    ....
  4. ncbi Use of light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy to detect acid-fast bacilli in sputum
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:203-7. 2008
    ..We evaluated the diagnostic performance of fluorescence microscopy, using novel light-emitting diode (LED) technology as an alternative to the conventional mercury vapor lamp (MVP)...
  5. ncbi The burden of childhood tuberculosis: a public health perspective
    B J Marais
    Center for TB Research and Education and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9:1305-13. 2005
    ..Successful control of the epidemic is the most effective way to reduce the burden of childhood TB, but this will require a holistic approach that acknowledges the importance of sustainable poverty alleviation...
  6. ncbi Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: old wisdom and new challenges
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1078-90. 2006
    ....
  7. ncbi Radiographic signs and symptoms in children treated for tuberculosis: possible implications for symptom-based screening in resource-limited settings
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:237-40. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi The burden of childhood tuberculosis and the accuracy of community-based surveillance data
    B J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:259-63. 2006
    ..Inadequate surveillance and diagnostic difficulties compromise the quality of epidemiological data on childhood tuberculosis (TB)...
  9. ncbi The bacteriologic yield in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 42:e69-71. 2006
    ....
  10. doi Pediatric TB: issues related to current and future treatment options
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Future Microbiol 4:661-75. 2009
    ..It includes a brief summary of the relevant literature and presents the authors' personal perspectives on issues related to the treatment of pediatric TB...
  11. ncbi The spectrum of disease in children treated for tuberculosis in a highly endemic area
    B J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:732-8. 2006
    ..Children contribute a substantial proportion of the global tuberculosis (TB) caseload, particularly in endemic areas, where little is known about their spectrum of disease...
  12. pmc Beijing and Haarlem genotypes are overrepresented among children with drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa
    Ben J Marais
    Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3539-43. 2006
    ..The overrepresentation of Beijing and Haarlem genotype families in children with drug-resistant TB demonstrates their contribution to transmitted drug resistance and their potential importance in the emergent drug-resistant TB epidemic...
  13. ncbi A refined symptom-based approach to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in children
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatrics 118:e1350-9. 2006
    ..This study aimed to determine the value of well-defined symptoms to diagnose childhood pulmonary tuberculosis in a tuberculosis-endemic area...
  14. ncbi Diagnostic and management challenges for childhood tuberculosis in the era of HIV
    B J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Tygerberg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 196:S76-85. 2007
    ..Despite the difficulties experienced in resource-limited countries, the management of children with TB/HIV infection could be vastly improved by better implementation of readily available interventions...
  15. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission is not related to household genotype in a setting of high endemicity
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1338-43. 2009
    ..tuberculosis genotype and transmissibility within the household. However, undocumented M. tuberculosis exposure may have been a major confounding factor in this setting with a high burden of TB...
  16. ncbi New approaches and emerging technologies in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 8:124-33. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi Childhood tuberculosis--risk assessment and diagnosis
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, and Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape
    S Afr Med J 97:978-82. 2007
  18. doi TB and HIV in children - advances in prevention and management
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 12:39-45. 2011
    ..Although multiple difficulties remain, recent advances demonstrate that the management of children with TB and/or HIV can be vastly improved by well focused interventions using readily available resources...
  19. ncbi Tuberculous lymphadenitis as a cause of persistent cervical lymphadenopathy in children from a tuberculosis-endemic area
    Ben J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Center and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:142-6. 2006
    ....
  20. doi Childhood tuberculosis: epidemiology and natural history of disease
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Indian J Pediatr 78:321-7. 2011
    ..This manuscript reviews the epidemiology and natural history of TB in children in order to improve understanding of the various disease entities encountered and to provide the rationale for different management approaches...
  21. ncbi The natural history of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:392-402. 2004
    ..Deciding which children to treat may be extremely difficult in high-prevalence, low-resource settings. The concept of relevant disease provides guidance for more effective public health intervention...
  22. ncbi Management of tuberculosis in children and new treatment options
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 11:144-56. 2011
    ..This review provides an overview of current treatment practices, presenting the authors personal perspectives on issues related to the treatment of childhood TB, together with a brief synopsis of potential future treatment options...
  23. ncbi The clinical epidemiology of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:278-85. 2004
    ..Infants and adolescents were the groups at highest risk for disease development and death following primary infection...
  24. ncbi Diversity of disease in childhood pulmonary tuberculosis
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 25:79-86. 2005
    ..tuberculosis. Renewing our focus on the ontogeny of the immune response in children might provide valuable insights to direct future research regarding tuberculosis prevention, vaccine development and treatment...
  25. ncbi A proposed radiological classification of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Centre for TB Research and Education CENTRE, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, PO Box 19063, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Radiol 34:886-94. 2004
    ..The hope is that the proposed classification will clarify concepts and stimulate discussion that may lead to future consensus...
  26. doi Childhood tuberculosis: an emerging and previously neglected problem
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 24:727-49. 2010
    ..This article reviews important concepts, challenges, and management principles related to childhood TB; it also summarizes the main priorities for future research...
  27. ncbi Adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis in children 10-14 years of age
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:743-4. 2005
    ..This case series emphasizes that older children develop adult-type cavitating disease, which can be diagnosed by sputum smear microscopy, in contrast to younger children for whom smear microscopy has very little diagnostic value...
  28. pmc Well defined symptoms are of value in the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis
    B J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 90:1162-5. 2005
    ..The aims of this study were to investigate whether improved symptom definition is possible in a clinical setting, and whether use of these well defined symptoms has improved value in the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis...
  29. pmc The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Centre for TB Research and Education CENTRE, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 90:1166-70. 2005
    ....
  30. doi Scale-up of services and research priorities for diagnosis, management, and control of tuberculosis: a call to action
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Lancet 375:2179-91. 2010
    ....
  31. doi Screening and preventive therapy for tuberculosis
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Clin Chest Med 30:827-46, x. 2009
    ..In this review the authors critically assess the approach to TB preventive therapy in children and adults, focus on the underlying treatment rationale, discuss available data and identify issues of concern...
  32. pmc Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases
    H Simon Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 7:140. 2007
    ..The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described...
  33. ncbi Association between passive smoking and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children
    Saskia den Boon
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatrics 119:734-9. 2007
    ..The association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of passive smoking on M. tuberculosis infection in children...
  34. ncbi The risk of disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) disease in HIV-infected children
    Anneke C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:14-8. 2007
    ..We estimate the risk of disseminated BCG disease in HIV-infected children in a setting highly endemic for tuberculosis and HIV...
  35. ncbi Childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa
    H Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and Stellenbosh University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Acta Paediatr 95:523-8. 2006
    ..Continued surveillance of drug resistance amongst children presenting with culture-confirmed tuberculosis to a tertiary care hospital and to community clinics...
  36. ncbi Absence of an association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype and clinical features in children with tuberculous meningitis
    Freda Maree
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:13-8. 2007
    ..We investigated mycobacterial genotypic diversity in children with TBM and analyzed the relationship among genotype, clinical presentation and outcome...
  37. doi Antiretroviral regimens containing a single protease inhibitor increase risk of virologic failure in young HIV-infected children
    Elisabetta Walters
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:361-3. 2013
    ..Ritonavir-based single protease inhibitor antiretroviral therapy regimen predicted virologic failure (adjusted odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-8.9, P = 0.004) on multivariate analysis...
  38. pmc Xpert MTB/RIF for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis from fine-needle-aspiration biopsy specimens
    Louis J Ligthelm
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service, Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 49:3967-70. 2011
    ..7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.6 to 100%) and 88.9% (95% CI, 69.6 to 100%), respectively, and it correctly identified 6/6 (100%) of the cytology smear-negative/culture-positive cases and 1 of 2 (50%) rifampin-resistant cases...
  39. pmc Clinical presentation and outcome of tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus infected children on anti-retroviral therapy
    Elisabetta Walters
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Pediatr 8:1. 2008
    ..Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of TB in HIV-infected children on HAART...
  40. pmc Surveillance of antituberculosis drug resistance among children from the Western Cape Province of South Africa--an upward trend
    H Simon Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Public Health 99:1486-90. 2009
    ..We assessed the prevalence of antituberculosis drug resistance among children with tuberculosis (TB) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa...
  41. ncbi Resistant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin disease: implications for management of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children
    Anneke C Hesseling
    Center for Tuberculosis Research and Education, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:476-9. 2004
    ..Treatment guidelines for BCG disease with consideration of inherent and possible acquired drug resistance should be established in settings with high rates of vertical HIV transmission and routine BCG vaccination...
  42. ncbi Combining fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and high-resolution melt analysis to reduce diagnostic delay in Mycobacterial lymphadenitis
    Colleen A Wright
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University and NHLS Tygerberg, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Diagn Cytopathol 38:482-8. 2010
    ..HRM analysis allowed rapid and species specific diagnosis of mycobacterial lymph adenitis in the majority of patients, permitting early institution of appropriate therapy. Optimization of this technique requires further study...
  43. ncbi Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in kangaroo mother care units: a risk in tuberculosis-endemic areas
    Louis Heyns
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Acta Paediatr 95:535-9. 2006
    ..We report an infant (sentinel case) who was admitted to our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with extensive pulmonary tuberculosis...
  44. doi Diagnosing mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children using fine needle aspiration biopsy: cytomorphology, ZN staining and autofluorescence -- making more of less
    Colleen A Wright
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Stellenbosch and NHLS Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Diagn Cytopathol 36:245-51. 2008
    ..FNAB was shown to provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis in the majority of cases of suspected tuberculous lymphadenitis in children, based on cytomorphology and identification of the organism...
  45. doi Paediatric use of second-line anti-tuberculosis agents: a review
    James A Seddon
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92:9-17. 2012
    ..This article reviews the available second-line drugs currently used in the treatment of MDR-TB in children and discusses medication properties and adverse effects while potential interactions with antiretroviral therapy are explored...
  46. ncbi A critical look at the diagnostic value of culture-confirmation in childhood tuberculosis
    Arnold L Engelbrecht
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Infect 53:364-9. 2006
    ..To describe the clinical presentation, delay in diagnosis and treatment initiation, and outcome of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis...
  47. ncbi High prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus
    E A Webb
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:868-74. 2009
    ..Western Cape Province, South Africa...
  48. ncbi Kaposi sarcoma with upper airway obstruction and bilateral chylothoraces
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:926-8. 2003
    ..Chest radiography revealed bilateral alveolar opacification and chylothoraces. Post,mortem examination confirmed disseminated Kaposi sarcoma with infiltration of the thoracic duct...
  49. ncbi A critical review of interventions to redress the inequitable distribution of healthcare professionals to rural and remote areas
    Nathan W Wilson
    Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Rural Remote Health 9:1060. 2009
    ..This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most important studies addressing the recruitment and retention of doctors to rural and remote areas...
  50. ncbi A child with neurobrucellosis
    A C Hesseling
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Western Cape Province, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 23:145-8. 2003
    ..Nerve conduction studies confirmed a proximal radiculopathy. Awareness of the condition and performance of the appropriate tests will differentiate neurobrucellosis from other chronic central nervous system infections...
  51. doi Fine needle aspiration biopsy: diagnostic utility in resource-limited settings
    C A Wright
    Discipline of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology and NHLS Tygerberg, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 28:65-70. 2008
    ..Little information is available on the value of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in routine paediatric practice in resource-limited settings...
  52. ncbi Fine needle aspiration biopsy: an undervalued diagnostic modality in paediatric mycobacterial disease
    C A Wright
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University and National Health Laboratory Service, Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1467-75. 2009
    ..It also provides detail on how best to perform the technique, and suggests ways of making it more widely available in resource-limited settings, which carry the brunt of the paediatric TB disease burden...
  53. ncbi Interferon-gamma release assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with cancer
    D C Stefan
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:689-94. 2010
    ..The paediatric oncology unit at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa...
  54. ncbi Inverse association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and atopic rhinitis in children
    C C Obihara
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Centre for TB Research and Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Allergy 60:1121-5. 2005
    ..The association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and atopy remains controversial...
  55. ncbi Mycobacterial genotype is associated with disease phenotype in children
    A C Hesseling
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:1252-8. 2010
    ..To investigate the association between mycobacterial genotype and disease phenotype in children...
  56. ncbi Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a first-line diagnostic procedure in paediatric tuberculosis suspects with peripheral lymphadenopathy?
    C A Wright
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1373-9. 2009
    ..routine respiratory specimens collected from children with a palpable peripheral lymph node mass and symptoms suspicious of tuberculosis (TB)...
  57. ncbi Childhood turberculosis: reflections from the front line
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Centre for TB Research and Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Ann 33:695-8. 2004
    ..Adequate diagnosis and treatment should be available for every child, but reducing the burden of childhood disease requires a concerted effort to contain the epidemic...
  58. ncbi Danish bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine-induced disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children
    A C Hesseling
    Centre for Tuberculosis Research and Education, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1226-33. 2003
    ..Young, symptomatic, HIV-infected infants are at risk for BCG-related complications. Controlled, population-based studies are needed to assess the risk of BCG in HIV-infected children...
  59. ncbi Ethionamide cross- and co-resistance in children with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1355-9. 2009
    ..Ethionamide (ETH) is a structural analogue of isoniazid (INH). Both are pro-drugs requiring activation by separate and common enzyme pathways, which could lead to co- and/or cross-resistance...
  60. doi Changing Mycobacterium tuberculosis population highlights clade-specific pathogenic characteristics
    G D van der Spuy
    Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:120-5. 2009
    ..The rapid emergence of Beijing strains demonstrates adaptation to conditions within the study community and poses a grave challenge to future TB control...
  61. pmc Adherence to isoniazid preventive chemotherapy: a prospective community based study
    B J Marais
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa bjmarais sun ac za
    Arch Dis Child 91:762-5. 2006
    ..However, this is dependent on good adherence and retrospective studies have indicated that adherence to unsupervised INH preventive chemotherapy is poor...
  62. pmc Disseminated bacille Calmette-Guérin disease in HIV-infected South African infants
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Bull World Health Organ 87:505-11. 2009
    ....
  63. ncbi A multidisciplinary method to map potential tuberculosis transmission 'hot spots' in high-burden communities
    E J Murray
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:767-74. 2009
    ..In such settings, a significant amount of transmission takes place outside the household, and practical approaches to understanding transmission at community level are needed...
  64. doi Highly discordant T cell responses in individuals with recent exposure to household tuberculosis
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Thorax 64:840-6. 2009
    ..There are limited data comparing interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in highly endemic settings...
  65. ncbi The association of prolonged breastfeeding and allergic disease in poor urban children
    C C Obihara
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Dept of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 25:970-7. 2005
    ..This protective effect was not found in children with an allergic predisposition...
  66. doi Mycobacterial transport medium for routine culture of fine needle aspiration biopsies
    C A Wright
    Divisions of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University and NHLS Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 95:48-50. 2010
    ..2 days (SD 0.87) vs 17.1 days (SD 0.85)). Provision of inexpensive specimen transport bottles and practical tuition in FNAB should improve cost-effective diagnosis of tuberculosis at the primary healthcare level...
  67. pmc Improvement in mycobacterial yield and reduced time to detection in pediatric samples by use of a nutrient broth growth supplement
    W Brittle
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1287-9. 2009
    ..5 days, whereas it was 12.4 days in MGITs with nutrient broth (P < 0.001). Supplementation of standard MGITs improved the mycobacterial yield and significantly reduced the time to detection of mycobacteria in pediatric samples...
  68. doi The clinical relevance of Mycobacterial pharmacogenetics
    R M Warren
    DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:199-202. 2009
    ..This hypothesis needs to be tested in well controlled clinical and pharmacokinetic studies...
  69. ncbi Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine-induced disease in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 42:548-58. 2006
    ..In addition, we present a revised classification of BCG disease in children and propose standard diagnostic and management guidelines...
  70. pmc The use of light-emitting diode fluorescence to diagnose mycobacterial lymphadenitis in fine-needle aspirates from children
    A C van Wyk
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:56-60. 2011
    ..Fluorescence microscopy can provide rapid mycobacterial confirmation. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) provide a cheap and robust excitation light source, making fluorescence microscopy feasible in resource-limited settings...
  71. doi High levels of vulnerability and anticipated stigma reduce the impetus for tuberculosis diagnosis in Cape Town, South Africa
    Emma J Murray
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Health Policy Plan 28:410-8. 2013
    ....
  72. ncbi Criteria used for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis at primary health care level in a high-burden, urban setting
    A C Theart
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9:1210-4. 2005
    ..Children contribute a significant proportion of the total tuberculosis (TB) case load in high-burden settings and present a major diagnostic challenge...
  73. doi Commercial nucleic acid amplification tests in tuberculous meningitis--a meta-analysis
    Regan S Solomons
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, Cape, South Africa Electronic address
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 78:398-403. 2014
    ..Heterogeneity was pronounced among studies of in-house tests. Commercial NAATs proved to be highly specific with greatly reduced heterogeneity compared to in-house tests. Sub-optimal sensitivity remains a limitation. ..
  74. doi Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children: a survival guide for paediatricians
    H Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 12:31-8. 2011
    ..Preventive therapy for high-risk MDR-TB contacts is necessary, but no consensus guidance exists on how best to manage these cases. Pragmatic and effective Infection control measures are essential to limit the spread of MDR-TB...
  75. doi Tuberculosis in children
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa bjmarais sun ac za
    Pediatr Pulmonol 43:322-9. 2008
    ..It summarizes current understanding of TB epidemiology, disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment, but also introduces novel concepts for further discussion and future evaluation...
  76. doi Advances in tuberculosis diagnostics: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and future prospects for a point-of-care test
    Stephen D Lawn
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 13:349-61. 2013
    ..A rapid, accurate point-of-care diagnostic test that is affordable and can be readily implemented is urgently needed. Investment in the tuberculosis diagnostics pipeline should remain a major priority for funders and researchers...
  77. doi Symptom-based screening of child tuberculosis contacts: improved feasibility in resource-limited settings
    Alexey Kruk
    Department of Public Health, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Pediatrics 121:e1646-52. 2008
    ..We aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of applying a simple symptom-based approach to screen child tuberculosis contacts for active disease...
  78. doi Advances in the clinical diagnosis of TB in children
    Ben J Marais
    Pediatr Res 63:116. 2008