Shabir A Madhi

Summary

Affiliation: University of the Witwatersrand/Medical Research Council
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. pmc Vaccines to prevent pneumonia and improve child survival
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology, National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Chris Hani Baragwanth Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Bertsham, South Africa
    Bull World Health Organ 86:365-72. 2008
  2. ncbi Five-year cohort study of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus associated lower respiratory tract infection in African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Clin Virol 36:215-21. 2006
  3. ncbi Long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of a 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in human immunodeficient virus infected and non-infected children in the absence of a booster dose of vaccine
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:2451-7. 2007
  4. ncbi Interaction between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in severe pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa and MRC Wits Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa and Old Potch Road, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, RMPRU New Nurses Residence, 1st Floor West Wing, Bertsham, 2013, South Africa
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2:663-72. 2008
  5. pmc Human metapneumovirus genetic variability, South Africa
    Herbert P Ludewick
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1074-8. 2005
  6. pmc An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia
    Julia Webster
    Centre for Population Health Sciences, Global Health Academy, The University of Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:S26. 2011
  7. doi Quantitative and qualitative anamnestic immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children 5 years after vaccination
    Shabir A Madhi
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 199:1168-76. 2009
  8. ncbi The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1511-8. 2005
  9. ncbi Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 23:5517-25. 2005
  10. ncbi Pneumococcal coinfection with human metapneumovirus
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Bertsham, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 193:1236-43. 2006

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. pmc Vaccines to prevent pneumonia and improve child survival
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology, National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Chris Hani Baragwanth Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Bertsham, South Africa
    Bull World Health Organ 86:365-72. 2008
    ..In this review, we discuss advances made in optimizing the use of established vaccines and the potential issues related to newer bacterial conjugate vaccines in reducing childhood pneumonia morbidity and mortality...
  2. ncbi Five-year cohort study of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus associated lower respiratory tract infection in African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Clin Virol 36:215-21. 2006
    ....
  3. ncbi Long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of a 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in human immunodeficient virus infected and non-infected children in the absence of a booster dose of vaccine
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:2451-7. 2007
    ..2microg/ml to vaccine-serotypes analyzed compared to HIV infected vaccinees at 5.3 years of age...
  4. ncbi Interaction between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in severe pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa and MRC Wits Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa and Old Potch Road, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, RMPRU New Nurses Residence, 1st Floor West Wing, Bertsham, 2013, South Africa
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2:663-72. 2008
    ....
  5. pmc Human metapneumovirus genetic variability, South Africa
    Herbert P Ludewick
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1074-8. 2005
    ..4%-27.6% at the amino acid level. These results provide evidence for the diversity of both surface glycoproteins of hMPV in Africa, which may be a prerequisite to understanding protective immunity against hMPV...
  6. pmc An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia
    Julia Webster
    Centre for Population Health Sciences, Global Health Academy, The University of Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:S26. 2011
    ....
  7. doi Quantitative and qualitative anamnestic immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children 5 years after vaccination
    Shabir A Madhi
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 199:1168-76. 2009
    ..e., previous vaccinees) and in those receiving their first dose of vaccine (i.e., control subjects)...
  8. ncbi The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1511-8. 2005
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) may be used as a probe to define the burden of pneumococcal disease and better characterize the clinical presentation of pneumococcal pneumonia...
  9. ncbi Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 23:5517-25. 2005
    ..001). The estimated risk of HibCV failure was 35.1-fold greater (95% CI 14.6-84.6) amongst HIV infected than HIV uninfected children...
  10. ncbi Pneumococcal coinfection with human metapneumovirus
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Bertsham, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 193:1236-43. 2006
    ..Infection with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) may lead to hospitalization of children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), although the pathogenesis thereof remains to be elucidated...
  11. ncbi Transmissibility, infectivity and immunogenicity of a live human parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine (HPIV3cp45) among susceptible infants and toddlers
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 24:2432-9. 2006
    ..This study examined the transmissibility between young children of an intranasally administered live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3)-cp45 vaccine candidate...
  12. ncbi World Health Organisation definition of "radiologically-confirmed pneumonia" may under-estimate the true public health value of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:2413-9. 2007
    ....
  13. ncbi Seasonality, incidence, and repeat human metapneumovirus lower respiratory tract infections in an area with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Bertsham, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:693-9. 2007
    ..There is limited information regarding the epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) from Africa, despite it being identified as a common pathogen in children with pneumonia...
  14. pmc Use of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein to evaluate vaccine efficacy against pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS Med 2:e38. 2005
    ..The poor specificity of chest radiographs (CXRs) to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia may underestimate the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia...
  15. ncbi Long-term effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae--and associated interactions with Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae colonization--in HIV-Infected and HIV-uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Bertsham, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 196:1662-6. 2007
    ..aureus and colonization by H. influenzae were observed only in HIV-uninfected children, possibly as a result of suboptimal adaptive immunity after previous colonization in HIV-infected children...
  16. ncbi Usefulness of C-reactive protein to define pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy in the prevention of pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council National Institute of Communicable Diseases Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:30-6. 2006
    ....
  17. ncbi Quantitative and qualitative antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among African human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute of Communicable Diseases University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:410-6. 2005
    ..To determine the quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infected and uninfected children...
  18. ncbi Acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-naïve South African children and their mothers
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:e192-205. 2013
    ..We investigated the dynamics of pneumococcal colonization in perinatal HIV-unexposed and HIV-exposed children and their mothers and risk factors associated with new serotypes acquisition...
  19. pmc Inferior quantitative and qualitative immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants with nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae during the primary series of immunization
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 29:6994-7001. 2011
    ....
  20. pmc An unusual pneumococcal sequence type is the predominant cause of serotype 3 invasive disease in South Africa
    Kedibone M Mothibeli
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 48:184-91. 2010
    ..We have therefore identified ST458 as predominating in South Africa, but with an invasive potential similar to that of the predominant global clone ST180...
  21. ncbi Temporal changes in pneumococcal colonization in a rural African community with high HIV prevalence following routine infant pneumococcal immunization
    Susan A Nzenze
    From the Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health and Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia MRC Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit Agincourt, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Centre for Global Health Research, Umea University, Umea, Sweden Indepth Network, Accra, Ghana and National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Sandringham, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:1270-8. 2013
    ..We studied the impact of routine infant PCV immunization alone on the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization among a rural African community with high prevalence of HIV positivity...
  22. ncbi Maternal HIV infection and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria
    Clare L Cutland
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Soweto, South Africa
    Pediatrics 130:e581-90. 2012
    ..HIV-exposed newborns may be at higher risk of sepsis because of immune system aberrations, impaired maternal antibody transfer and altered exposure to pathogenic bacteria...
  23. doi The impact of antiretroviral treatment on the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in South African children: a time series analysis
    Marta C Nunes
    Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit and Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
    AIDS 25:453-62. 2011
    ..A national antiretroviral program was initiated in South Africa in 2004. This study evaluates the impact of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment program on the burden of IPD among African children...
  24. ncbi A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection
    Keith P Klugman
    Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 349:1341-8. 2003
    ..We evaluated the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a randomized, double-blind study in Soweto, South Africa...
  25. pmc Effect of HIV infection status and anti-retroviral treatment on quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 202:355-61. 2010
    ..Nevertheless, M-/I- infants had superior OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART+ infants, who in turn had better OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART- infants...
  26. ncbi Human metapneumovirus-associated lower respiratory tract infections among hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and HIV-1-uninfected African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1705-10. 2003
    ..1-fold more common than parainfluenza virus types 1-3. Genotyping of 7 of 14 isolates revealed the circulation of 2 major phylogenetic groups of the virus, which were similar to those described in North America and Europe...
  27. ncbi Reduced effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    NHLS Wits MRC Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:315-21. 2002
    ..Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have successfully reduced the burden of invasive Hib disease in developed countries; however, their effectiveness in countries with a high incidence of pediatric HIV-1 is unknown...
  28. doi Respiratory viral coinfections identified by a 10-plex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness--South Africa, 2009-2010
    Marthi A Pretorius
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 206:S159-65. 2012
    ....
  29. pmc Persistent high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in South African HIV-infected adults in the era of an antiretroviral treatment program
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e27929. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in IPD hospitalizations in HIV-infected adults in Soweto, South Africa, associated with up-scaling of the HAART program from 2003 to 2008...
  30. ncbi Importance of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in an African setting
    Shabir A Madhi
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Bertsham, South Africa
    Trop Med Int Health 9:491-8. 2004
    ..To define the importance of nosocomial-acquired respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in an area with a high prevalence of paediatric HIV-1 infection...
  31. doi Novel approaches to the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of community-acquired pneumonia
    Keith P Klugman
    Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:S202-6. 2008
    ....
  32. pmc Immunogenicity of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 6, 14 and 40 weeks of age in South African infants
    Stephanie A Jones
    Department of Science National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Science, Johannesburg, South Africa Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e72794. 2013
    ..This study evaluated the immunogenicity of seven-valent PCV (PCV7) administered at 6-weeks; 14-weeks and 9-months of age...
  33. doi Evolutionary dynamics of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 in South Africa during 2009-2010
    Marietjie Venter
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases Division, National Health Laboratory Service, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 206:S166-72. 2012
    ....
  34. doi Impact of the antiretroviral treatment program on the burden of hospitalization for culture-confirmed tuberculosis in South African children: a time-series analysis
    Ziyaad Dangor
    From the Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa City of Hamilton Public Health Services, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Mycobacteriology Referral Laboratory, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa and National Institute for Communicable Diseases a division of National Health Laboratory Service, Centre for Tuberculosis, Sandringham, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:972-7. 2013
    ..We evaluated the impact that scaling-up of the public-funded antiretroviral treatment (ART) program had on incidence of hospitalization for culture-confirmed and overall-TB in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children from 2005 to 2009...
  35. ncbi Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the public immunization program in South Africa: translating research into policy
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, A Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 30:C21-7. 2012
    ..This schedule was largely premised on containing the cost of vaccine introduction, whilst including a booster dose of PCV to assist in prolonging the duration of protection in HIV-infected children...
  36. doi Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype b ten years after routine vaccination, South Africa, 2003-2009
    Anne Von Gottberg
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases NICD of the National Health Laboratory Service NHLS, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 30:565-71. 2012
    ..Following initial declines in Hib disease, national surveillance has identified increasing numbers of Hib disease episodes in fully vaccinated children...
  37. ncbi Impact of haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in South Africa and Argentina
    Michael Martin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:842-7. 2004
    ..Because surveillance for culture-confirmed Hib meningitis is not available in many countries, alternative means to measure the impact of Hib conjugate vaccine would be useful...
  38. ncbi Antibody persistence and booster vaccination of a fully liquid hexavalent vaccine coadministered with measles/mumps/rubella and varicella vaccines at 15-18 months of age in healthy South African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Science, National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:889-97. 2013
    ..To assess antibody persistence and booster immunogenicity and safety of a new, fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine...
  39. pmc Temporal association in hospitalizations for tuberculosis, invasive pneumococcal disease and influenza virus illness in South African children
    Ziyaad Dangor
    Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 9:e91464. 2014
    ..We aimed to study the temporal association between hospitalization for culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and influenza virus epidemics in South African children...
  40. pmc Evaluation of Trans-Vag broth, colistin-nalidixic agar, and CHROMagar StrepB for detection of group B Streptococcus in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women in South Africa
    Gaurav Kwatra
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 51:2515-9. 2013
    ..These findings show that a selective broth is not suitable for the recovery of GBS from rectal swabs in settings such as ours, due to masking of the GBS colonies by persistent microflora...
  41. doi Effect of in-utero HIV exposure and antiretroviral treatment strategies on measles susceptibility and immunogenicity of measles vaccine
    Omphile E Simani
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Tygerberg, South Africa
    AIDS 27:1583-91. 2013
    ..We evaluated the effect of in-utero HIV-exposure and antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies on measles antibody kinetics prior and following measles vaccination...
  42. doi Distribution of pilus islands of group B streptococcus associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in South Africa
    Mashudu Madzivhandila
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Med Microbiol 62:249-53. 2013
    ..6 % of colonizing and 96.5 % of invasive isolates. Based on this homogeneity of pilus island distribution, a pilus-based vaccine developed for Europe and the USA will have similar coverage in South Africa...
  43. doi Risk factors for neonatal sepsis and perinatal death among infants enrolled in the prevention of perinatal sepsis trial, Soweto, South Africa
    Stephanie J Schrag
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:821-6. 2012
    ..gov), Soweto, South Africa...
  44. pmc Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected individuals
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:161-73. 2012
    ..PCV has also been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent IPD by 74% in HIV-infected adults not on ART, albeit, also with subsequent decline in immunity and protection...
  45. ncbi Gender as a risk factor for both antibiotic resistance and infection with pediatric serogroups/serotypes, in HIV-infected and -uninfected adults with pneumococcal bacteremia
    Kimberly A Buie
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1996-2000. 2004
    ..25-2.36]) than were men. Thus, conjugate pneumococcal vaccination of children may reduce, in particular, both antibiotic resistance and the burden of conjugate vaccine serotype pneumococcal disease in young, HIV-infected women...
  46. ncbi The high burden of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in African HIV-1-infected children hospitalized for severe pneumonia
    Donatella D Ruffini
    Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
    AIDS 16:105-12. 2002
    ..To evaluate the burden of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and the usefulness of induced sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) in diagnosing PCP in African children in whom the use of bronchoalveolar lavage is unavailable...
  47. ncbi Apnea and its possible relationship to immunization in ex-premature infants
    Peter A Cooper
    Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Vaccine 26:3410-3. 2008
    ..More of the VLBW infants in the apnea group had neonatal neurological complications compared with the VLBW control group (p=0.005). Ten of 11 children with apnea within 72 h of immunization were possibly related to vaccination...
  48. doi Effect of HIV-1 exposure and antiretroviral treatment strategies in HIV-infected children on immunogenicity of vaccines during infancy
    Omphile E Simani
    aDepartment of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases Johannesburg bMedical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty Health Sciences University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg cPerinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences dStellenbosch University, Children s Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Unit, Tygerberg eDivision of National Health Laboratory Service, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Centre for Vaccines and Immunology, Sandringham, South Africa
    AIDS 28:531-41. 2014
    ....
  49. doi Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the pre-conjugate vaccine era: South Africa, 2003-2008
    Anne Von Gottberg
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases NICD of the National Health Laboratory Service NHLS, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 31:4200-8. 2013
    ....
  50. doi Five-year cohort study on the burden of hospitalisation for acute diarrhoeal disease in African HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children: potential benefits of rotavirus vaccine
    Michelle J Groome
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Vaccine 30:A173-8. 2012
    ..Rotavirus contributes significantly to childhood diarrhoea in South Africa but data on the burden of rotavirus disease in HIV-infected children are limited...
  51. doi Chlorhexidine maternal-vaginal and neonate body wipes in sepsis and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria in South Africa: a randomised, controlled trial
    Clare L Cutland
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Soweto, South Africa
    Lancet 374:1909-16. 2009
    ..We therefore assessed the efficacy of chlorhexidine in early-onset neonatal sepsis and vertical transmission of group B streptococcus...
  52. ncbi HIV and pneumococcal disease
    Keith P Klugman
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:11-5. 2007
    ..To describe the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the burden of pneumococcal disease and advances in our understanding of the impact of HIV on this disease...
  53. pmc Primary isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases and the Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 365:21-31. 2011
    ..We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of preexposure isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected children and uninfected children exposed to HIV during the perinatal period...
  54. doi Use of 2 pneumococcal common protein real-time polymerase chain reaction assays in healthy children colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Nadine Rouphael
    Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 70:452-4. 2011
    ..We found in serum no positive samples for pneumococcal DNA in 100 carriers and noncarriers using 2 different real-time PCR assays targeting lytA and psaA genes...
  55. ncbi Oral antibiotics for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children
    Keith P Klugman
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Lancet 364:1104-5. 2004
  56. ncbi The discriminative value of C-reactive protein levels in distinguishing between community-acquired bacteraemic and respiratory virus-associated lower respiratory tract infections in HIV-1-infected and -uninfected children
    Sanjay G Lala
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 22:271-9. 2002
    ....
  57. doi Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in African adults infected with human immunodeficient virus: double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 52:128-37. 2011
    ..Data on the efficacy of trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in HIV-infected adults, particularly in Africa, are limited. This study evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of TIV in HIV-infected adults...
  58. doi Pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza: a deadly combination
    Keith P Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Vaccine 27:C9-C14. 2009
    ..Vaccination with PCV for children and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for adults should be considered essential to pandemic influenza preparedness...
  59. ncbi Respiratory syncytial virus associated illness in high-risk children and national characterisation of the circulating virus genotype in South Africa
    Shabir A Madhi
    Paediaric Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Wits Health Consortium, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, PO Box 1038, SAIMR Room 11, Bertsham, 2013, South Africa
    J Clin Virol 27:180-9. 2003
    ..There is limited information about respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in high-risk children from developing countries or on the genotype characterisation of the circulating virus...
  60. pmc Interrelationship of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization within and between pneumococcal-vaccine naïve mother-child dyads
    Tinevimbo Shiri
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 13:483. 2013
    ..We examined the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in mother-child dyads...
  61. doi The burden of childhood pneumonia in the developed world: a review of the literature
    Shabir A Madhi
    Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:e119-27. 2013
    ..Measured country-specific pneumonia burden data are limited to a few nations and differ in case definitions and case ascertainment methods. This review describes pneumonia disease burden in developed countries...
  62. pmc Immunogenicity following the first and second doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases Division of National Health Laboratory Service, Centre for Vaccines and Immunology, Sandringham, South Africa
    Vaccine 31:777-83. 2013
    ..We studied antibody kinetics of serotypes included in 7-valent PCV in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected infants prior to and following each of three PCV-doses...
  63. ncbi Lower respiratory tract infections associated with influenza A and B viruses in an area with a high prevalence of pediatric human immunodeficiency type 1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Pneumococcal Diseases Rearch Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:291-7. 2002
    ..Despite the high burden of pediatric HIV-1 infection in developing countries, there are few data on the clinical course of influenza virus-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in these children...
  64. doi Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 362:289-98. 2010
    ..Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. Data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in African children...
  65. doi Systematic review on the etiology and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children
    Warunee Punpanich
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:e192-202. 2011
    ..Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children...
  66. doi Lessons learned from clinical trials evaluating pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy against pneumonia and invasive disease
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Science and Technology, South Africa
    Vaccine 26:B9-B15. 2008
    ..The article concludes with a discussion of the potential value of C-reactive protein as an adjunctive marker in measuring PCV efficacy against non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia...
  67. doi Benefits to mother and child of influenza vaccination during pregnancy
    Saad B Omer
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:130-7. 2012
    ....
  68. doi Review on the immunogenicity and safety of PCV-13 in infants and toddlers
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:951-80. 2011
    ..PCV-13 was demonstrated to have a similar acceptable safety profile to PCV-7 and no interference in immunogenicity of other concomitantly administered childhood vaccines was observed among PCV-13 recipients...
  69. doi Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational fully liquid hexavalent combination vaccine versus licensed combination vaccines at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in healthy South African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:e68-74. 2011
    ..Assessment of primary vaccination of a new fully liquid, hexavalent investigational DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (Hexaxim) in South African infants...
  70. ncbi Ineffectiveness of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and the importance of bacterial and viral coinfections in African children with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1120-6. 2002
    ..Concurrent P. carinii infection was observed in 6 of 18, 11 of 26, and 4 of 6 HIV-1-infected children who had bacteremia, a respiratory virus isolated, or Mycobacterium species isolated, respectively...
  71. ncbi Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in hospitalization for acute community-acquired pneumonia associated with culture-confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children: a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine probe study
    David P Moore
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:1099-04. 2010
    ..We aimed to probe the extent of pneumococcal coinfection in children with PTB, using a vaccine-probe design study...
  72. pmc Serotype distribution and invasive potential of group B streptococcus isolates causing disease in infants and colonizing maternal-newborn dyads
    Mashudu Madzivhandila
    Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e17861. 2011
    ..An understanding of the serotype epidemiology associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in infants is necessary to determine the potential coverage of serotype-specific GBS vaccines...
  73. doi Efficacy and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Centre for Respiratory and Meningitis Diseases, Sandringham, South Africa
    AIDS 27:369-79. 2013
    ..We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of nonadjuvanted, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) against confirmed seasonal influenza virus illness in HIV-infected children...
  74. pmc Early antiretroviral therapy and mortality among HIV-infected infants
    Avy Violari
    Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 359:2233-44. 2008
    ..We investigated antiretroviral-treatment strategies in the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial...
  75. ncbi High burden of invasive Streptococcus agalactiae disease in South African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    NHLS Wits MRC Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 23:15-23. 2003
    ..9% and 100% of invasive disease, respectively. Invasive GBS disease is common in South African infants and current strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disease should be reconsidered...
  76. pmc Influenza-related mortality among adults aged 25-54 years with AIDS in South Africa and the United States of America
    Cheryl Cohen
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 55:996-1003. 2012
    ..We compared influenza-related mortality in adults with AIDS in South Africa and the United States in the pre-HAART era and evaluated mortality trends after HAART introduction in the United States...
  77. pmc High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study
    Lee Fairlie
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 6 York Street, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 11:28. 2011
    ..6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa...
  78. ncbi Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine--a health priority
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:463-7. 2008
    ..Widespread availability and vaccination with PCV is urgently needed for all children under 2 years of age in South Africa. In addition, the use of PCV for all HIV-infected children under 9 years should be prioritised...
  79. ncbi Herd immunity after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination
    Werner C Albrich
    Lancet 370:218-9; author reply 219-20. 2007
  80. ncbi Defining the potential impact of conjugate bacterial polysaccharide-protein vaccines in reducing the burden of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and -uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    SAIMR University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:393-9. 2002
    ..One such possible outcome measure is alveolar consolidation confirmed by chest radiograph (CXR)...
  81. ncbi Childhood pneumonia--progress and challenges
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town and Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 96:890-900. 2006
    ..This article reviews changes in the epidemiology, management and prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing countries, specifically in Africa and South Africa, and addresses future challenges...
  82. ncbi Pneumococcal vaccines and flu preparedness
    Keith P Klugman
    Science 316:49-50. 2007
  83. ncbi Pneumococcal vaccination in developing countries
    Orin S Levine
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 367:1880-2. 2006
  84. ncbi The interferon antagonist NS2 protein of respiratory syncytial virus is an important virulence determinant for humans
    Peter F Wright
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:573-81. 2006
    ..In the present study, the NS2 gene, whose encoded protein antagonizes the host's interferon- alpha / beta response, was deleted from RSV vaccine candidates by use of reverse genetics...
  85. ncbi Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in African children with HIV-1
    Shabir A Madhi
    Lancet 365:749-50; author reply 750-1. 2005
  86. ncbi Estimating the protective concentration of anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antibodies
    George R Siber
    Wyeth Vaccines Research, Pearl River, New York, USA
    Vaccine 25:3816-26. 2007
    ..35 microg/ml to 0.32 microg/ml. These data support retaining the 0.35 microg/ml minimum protective concentration recommended by WHO for assessing the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infants...
  87. ncbi A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council National Institute for Communicable Diseases Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Atlanta 30332, USA
    Nat Med 10:811-3. 2004
    ..These data suggest that the pneumococcus has a major role in the development of pneumonia associated with these viruses and that viruses contribute to the pathogenesis of bacterial pneumonia...
  88. pmc Standardized interpretation of paediatric chest radiographs for the diagnosis of pneumonia in epidemiological studies
    Thomas Cherian
    Initiative for Vaccine Research, Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 83:353-9. 2005
    ..A standardized method for identifying radiological pneumonia would facilitate comparison of the results of vaccine trials and epidemiological studies of pneumonia...
  89. ncbi Bacterial pneumonia vaccines and childhood pneumonia: are we winning, refining, or redefining?
    Stephen K Obaro
    Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 2583, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:150-61. 2006
    ....
  90. ncbi WHO guidelines for treatment of severe pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    Lancet 370:386-7. 2007
  91. pmc Gamma interferon production in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers
    Annelies Van Rie
    Department of Epidemiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2104F McGavran Greenberg Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:246-52. 2006
    ..Further studies will be important to help determine optimal vaccination and disease prevention strategies for this vulnerable population group...