Peter R Donald

Summary

Affiliation: University of Stellenbosch
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Childhood tuberculosis: out of control?
    Peter R Donald
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 8:178-82. 2002
  2. doi request reprint Pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and efficacy in adults and children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92:1-8. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Requirements for the clinical evaluation of new anti-tuberculosis agents in children
    P R Donald
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:794-9. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Edith Lincoln, an American pioneer of childhood tuberculosis
    Peter R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:241-5. 2013
  5. pmc Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis
    Hendrik Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    BMC Med 7:19. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Old and new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis in children
    Peter R Donald
    Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 8:134-41. 2007
  7. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of antituberculosis agents in adults and children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics and the MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:279-92. 2010
  8. doi request reprint The chemotherapy of tuberculous meningitis in children and adults
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:375-92. 2010
  9. doi request reprint The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rifampicin in adults and children in relation to the dosage recommended for children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 91:196-207. 2011
  10. ncbi request reprint The influence of human N-acetyltransferase genotype on the early bactericidal activity of isoniazid
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1425-30. 2004

Detail Information

Publications84

  1. ncbi request reprint Childhood tuberculosis: out of control?
    Peter R Donald
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 8:178-82. 2002
    ..In the developing world, childhood tuberculosis is not under control, and, despite its importance as a child health problem, remains a neglected orphan disease...
  2. doi request reprint Pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and efficacy in adults and children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92:1-8. 2012
    ..Children can receive the same mg/kg body weight PZA dosage as adults...
  3. doi request reprint Requirements for the clinical evaluation of new anti-tuberculosis agents in children
    P R Donald
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:794-9. 2013
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Edith Lincoln, an American pioneer of childhood tuberculosis
    Peter R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:241-5. 2013
    ..Her observations of chemotherapy in children treated with isoniazid led directly to chemoprophylaxis, now of great importance in the management of the human immunodeficiency syndrome...
  5. pmc Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis
    Hendrik Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    BMC Med 7:19. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children with tuberculosis, both human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected...
  6. ncbi request reprint Old and new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis in children
    Peter R Donald
    Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 8:134-41. 2007
    ..For the first time in three decades, new antituberculosis agents have entered clinical trials, but it may be several years before their evaluation is complete...
  7. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of antituberculosis agents in adults and children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics and the MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:279-92. 2010
    ..Antituberculous chemotherapy should be started as soon as the diagnosis of TBM is considered...
  8. doi request reprint The chemotherapy of tuberculous meningitis in children and adults
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:375-92. 2010
    ..The penetration of RMP, ethambutol and streptomycin into cerebrospinal fluid is poor; higher dosages of RMP should be considered...
  9. doi request reprint The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rifampicin in adults and children in relation to the dosage recommended for children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 91:196-207. 2011
    ..It is noteworthy that many adult patients receiving currently recommended RMP dosages also do not reach the often recommended RMP 2 h serum concentration of 8 μg/mL...
  10. ncbi request reprint The influence of human N-acetyltransferase genotype on the early bactericidal activity of isoniazid
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1425-30. 2004
    ..The EBA appeared to reach a maximum at a 2-h isoniazid concentration of 2-3 microg/mL. These data confirm a significant effect of NAT2 genotype on the EBA of isoniazid over a range of doses...
  11. ncbi request reprint Tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis: the Rich focus revisited
    P R Donald
    The Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Stellenbosch, P O Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    J Infect 50:193-5. 2005
    ....
  12. doi request reprint The chemotherapy of osteo-articular tuberculosis with recommendations for treatment of children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    J Infect 62:411-39. 2011
    ..To review literature regarding osteo-articular tuberculosis (OATB) and make recommendations made for the chemotherapy of children...
  13. doi request reprint The chemotherapy of tuberculous lymphadenopathy in children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:213-24. 2010
    ..Every effort should be made to confirm the diagnosis and possible relapses microbiologically...
  14. ncbi request reprint Ethambutol dosage for the treatment of children: literature review and recommendations
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:1318-30. 2006
    ....
  15. doi request reprint The early bactericidal activity of anti-tuberculosis drugs: a literature review
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 88:S75-83. 2008
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint The treatment of tuberculosis in childhood
    Peter R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, W Cape
    S Afr Med J 97:992-4. 2007
  17. ncbi request reprint The assessment of new anti-tuberculosis drugs for a paediatric indication
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:1162-5. 2007
    ..However, it is essential that the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of any new agent should be assessed in a population of children over a range of ages...
  18. ncbi request reprint A research agenda to promote the management of childhood tuberculosis within national tuberculosis programmes
    P R Donald
    Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:370-80. 2007
    ..Study the role of families as agents for DOTS, evaluate private sector participation in childhood TB management. --Document bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation complications and study management strategies...
  19. ncbi request reprint Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: old wisdom and new challenges
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1078-90. 2006
    ....
  20. pmc Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:2199-203. 2013
    ..The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies...
  21. pmc Phase II dose-ranging trial of the early bactericidal activity of PA-824
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3027-31. 2012
    ..A dose of 100 mg to 200 mg PA-824 daily appears to be safe and efficacious and will be further evaluated as a component of novel antituberculosis regimens for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis...
  22. pmc Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases
    H Simon Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 7:140. 2007
    ..The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described...
  23. doi request reprint 14-day bactericidal activity of PA-824, bedaquiline, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin combinations: a randomised trial
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 380:986-93. 2012
    ..We investigated new multiple-agent combinations over the first 14 days of treatment to assess their suitability for future development...
  24. ncbi request reprint Childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa
    H Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and Stellenbosh University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Acta Paediatr 95:523-8. 2006
    ..Continued surveillance of drug resistance amongst children presenting with culture-confirmed tuberculosis to a tertiary care hospital and to community clinics...
  25. doi request reprint Paediatric use of second-line anti-tuberculosis agents: a review
    James A Seddon
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92:9-17. 2012
    ..This article reviews the available second-line drugs currently used in the treatment of MDR-TB in children and discusses medication properties and adverse effects while potential interactions with antiretroviral therapy are explored...
  26. pmc Suitability of Xpert MTB/RIF and genotype MTBDRplus for patient selection for a tuberculosis clinical trial
    Sven O Friedrich
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2827-31. 2011
    ..Xpert should be further explored as a surrogate measurement for sputum mycobacterial load...
  27. doi request reprint Isoniazid plasma concentrations in a cohort of South African children with tuberculosis: implications for international pediatric dosing guidelines
    Helen McIlleron
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1547-53. 2009
    ..In most countries with a high burden of tuberculosis, children with tuberculosis are prescribed isoniazid at dosages of 4-6 mg/kg/day, as recommended by international authorities...
  28. pmc Surveillance of antituberculosis drug resistance among children from the Western Cape Province of South Africa--an upward trend
    H Simon Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Public Health 99:1486-90. 2009
    ..We assessed the prevalence of antituberculosis drug resistance among children with tuberculosis (TB) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa...
  29. ncbi request reprint The influence of dose and N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) genotype and phenotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isoniazid
    P R Donald
    Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63:633-9. 2007
    ..2 to 10-12 mg/kg body weight...
  30. ncbi request reprint The early bactericidal activity of streptomycin
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 6:693-8. 2002
    ..Patients with sputum smear-positive, newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis studied at Tygerburg Hospital, Cape Town, for their early response to streptomycin (SM)...
  31. ncbi request reprint The early bactericidal activity of amikacin in pulmonary tuberculosis
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 5:533-8. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: Despite serum concentrations well in excess of the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2-4 microg/ml, the EBA of amikacin in patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was only just detectable...
  32. pmc Early bactericidal activity and pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in smear-positive tuberculosis patients
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:3402-7. 2010
    ..Because maximum efficacy was unexpectedly achieved at the lowest dosage tested, the activity of lower dosages should now be explored...
  33. doi request reprint Culture-confirmed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children: clinical features, treatment, and outcome
    James A Seddon
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 54:157-66. 2012
    ..Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in children is frequently associated with delayed diagnosis and treatment. There is limited evidence regarding the management and outcome of children with MDR-tuberculosis...
  34. doi request reprint Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis of the spine in children--characteristics from a high burden setting
    James A Seddon
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 58:341-7. 2012
    ..Few studies have described children with spinal multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Treatment involves surgery and medical care with long courses of drug therapy...
  35. doi request reprint Nutritional status and its response to treatment of children, with and without HIV infection, hospitalized for the management of tuberculosis
    H Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Int Child Health 32:74-81. 2012
    ..The association of childhood tuberculosis (TB) and malnutrition is known, but treatment response, the influence of the acute-phase response (APR) and concomitant HIV infection are not well documented...
  36. doi request reprint A proposed comprehensive classification of tuberculosis disease severity in children
    Catherine A Wiseman
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:347-52. 2012
    ..There is no existing approach that comprehensively characterizes the spectrum and severity of pediatric TB. This limits accurate classification of patients and comparison across cohorts...
  37. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis: an international perspective
    Paul D van Helden
    Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 4:759-66. 2006
    ..We highlight some of the controversies and new findings in this area, as well as future perspectives requiring more active interventions, in addition to new technology and developments...
  38. ncbi request reprint Recurrent culture-confirmed tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children
    H Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:685-91. 2005
    ..Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) is more common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected than HIV-uninfected adults. There are limited data regarding recurrence of TB in children...
  39. ncbi request reprint A proposed radiological classification of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Centre for TB Research and Education CENTRE, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, PO Box 19063, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Radiol 34:886-94. 2004
    ..The hope is that the proposed classification will clarify concepts and stimulate discussion that may lead to future consensus...
  40. doi request reprint Pyridoxal-5-phosphate plasma concentrations in children receiving tuberculosis chemotherapy including isoniazid
    K Cilliers
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Acta Paediatr 99:705-10. 2010
    ..Little is known about pyridoxine nutriture of children treated with isoniazid (INH) regimens. This study documents plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in children, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, receiving INH regimens...
  41. doi request reprint Pediatric TB: issues related to current and future treatment options
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Future Microbiol 4:661-75. 2009
    ..It includes a brief summary of the relevant literature and presents the authors' personal perspectives on issues related to the treatment of pediatric TB...
  42. doi request reprint Long-term linezolid treatment in a young child with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
    H Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:748-50. 2009
    ..No serious adverse events were observed during 19 months of treatment for XDR-TB...
  43. doi request reprint Scale-up of services and research priorities for diagnosis, management, and control of tuberculosis: a call to action
    Ben J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Lancet 375:2179-91. 2010
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint A critical look at the diagnostic value of culture-confirmation in childhood tuberculosis
    Arnold L Engelbrecht
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Infect 53:364-9. 2006
    ..To describe the clinical presentation, delay in diagnosis and treatment initiation, and outcome of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis...
  45. ncbi request reprint Comparison of diagnostic criteria of tuberculous meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children
    Esther M van der Weert
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:65-9. 2006
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Brainstem tuberculoma presenting as eight-and-a-half syndrome
    Ronald van Toorn
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg 7505, Western Cape, South Africa
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 10:41-4. 2006
    ..We also discuss the management and outcome of the case...
  47. ncbi request reprint Adjunctive thalidomide therapy of childhood tuberculous meningitis: possible anti-inflammatory role
    J F Schoeman
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa
    J Child Neurol 15:497-503. 2000
    ..These promising results have led us to embark on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of thalidomide in tuberculous meningitis...
  48. ncbi request reprint The natural history of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:392-402. 2004
    ..Deciding which children to treat may be extremely difficult in high-prevalence, low-resource settings. The concept of relevant disease provides guidance for more effective public health intervention...
  49. ncbi request reprint The clinical epidemiology of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:278-85. 2004
    ..Infants and adolescents were the groups at highest risk for disease development and death following primary infection...
  50. doi request reprint Time to detection of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT 960 for determining the early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents
    A H Diacon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, and MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1561-5. 2010
    ..Automated TTD could augment, or, in future, replace, CFU counting to determine sputum bacillary load in EBA clinical trials pending a more formal evaluation of the correlation of the measurements...
  51. pmc Culture confirmed multidrug resistant tuberculosis: diagnostic delay, clinical features, and outcome
    H S Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 88:1106-11. 2003
    ..To determine the delay in diagnosis of multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB), the correlation between drug susceptibility patterns of adult-child contact pairs, the effectiveness of treatment, and the outcome in these children...
  52. ncbi request reprint The effect of adjuvant steroid treatment on serial cerebrospinal fluid changes in tuberculous meningitis
    J F Schoeman
    Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 21:299-305. 2001
    ..Knowledge of the different CSF responses during the course of anti-tuberculosis therapy is important in clinical decision-making...
  53. ncbi request reprint Early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 1:141-55. 2003
    ..The greatest source of variation in EBA results appears to be that due to interpatient variation in disease characteristics and sputum sampling...
  54. ncbi request reprint Tuberculous granulomas in childhood tuberculous meningitis: radiological features and course
    A Ravenscroft
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, Republic of South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 47:5-12. 2001
    ..Most granulomas in this series were co-incidental, asymptomatic CT findings. In rare cases, the development or enlargement of a strategically located granuloma may result in complications...
  55. ncbi request reprint Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis in children
    H S Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Hospital and the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 4:1149-55. 2000
    ..The Western Cape Province of South Africa, an area with a high tuberculosis (TB) incidence where initial isoniazid (INH) resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) among adults was 3.9% and 1.1%, respectively, during 1992-1993...
  56. pmc Early bactericidal activity of paromomycin (aminosidine) in patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis
    P R Donald
    Departments of Pediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:3285-7. 2000
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Serial lumbar CSF presure measurements and cranial computed tomographic findings in childhood tuberculous meningitits
    J F Schoeman
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Republic of South Africa
    Childs Nerv Syst 16:203-8; discussion 209. 2000
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Childhood tuberculosis
    P R Donald
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 6:187-92. 2000
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Intensive short course chemotherapy in the management of tuberculous meningitis
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2:704-11. 1998
    ..Short course chemotherapy for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is advocated by several groups, but relatively few children have been so treated and followed up...
  60. ncbi request reprint Baseline sputum time to detection predicts month two culture conversion and relapse in non-HIV-infected patients
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:560-70. 2010
    ..Few biomarkers are available to identify tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk of delayed sputum conversion and relapse...
  61. pmc Isoniazid pharmacokinetics in children treated for respiratory tuberculosis
    H S Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 90:614-8. 2005
    ..To define the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) in children with tuberculosis in relation to the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype...
  62. ncbi request reprint Ethionamide cross- and co-resistance in children with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1355-9. 2009
    ..Ethionamide (ETH) is a structural analogue of isoniazid (INH). Both are pro-drugs requiring activation by separate and common enzyme pathways, which could lead to co- and/or cross-resistance...
  63. ncbi request reprint The burden of childhood tuberculosis: a public health perspective
    B J Marais
    Center for TB Research and Education and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9:1305-13. 2005
    ..Successful control of the epidemic is the most effective way to reduce the burden of childhood TB, but this will require a holistic approach that acknowledges the importance of sustainable poverty alleviation...
  64. ncbi request reprint Monitoring the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs by simple non-invasive methods
    F A Sirgel
    Medical Biochemistry, MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Int J Pharm 307:182-7. 2006
    ..The qualitative procedures may therefore be valuable in clinical trials and in tuberculosis clinics to confirm drug ingestion...
  65. ncbi request reprint Minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from children
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:203-5. 2007
    ..Thus, the minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid for more than 80% of the isoniazid-resistant strains isolated from children in this study was relatively low and could be exceeded by high-dose (15-20 mg/kg) isoniazid regimens...
  66. doi request reprint The clinical relevance of Mycobacterial pharmacogenetics
    R M Warren
    DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:199-202. 2009
    ..This hypothesis needs to be tested in well controlled clinical and pharmacokinetic studies...
  67. pmc Outcome of HIV infected children with culture confirmed tuberculosis
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 90:1171-4. 2005
    ..Tuberculosis (TB) is an important disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children living in regions where TB is endemic. There are limited data on the outcome of culture confirmed TB in HIV infected children...
  68. ncbi request reprint Diversity of disease in childhood pulmonary tuberculosis
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 25:79-86. 2005
    ..tuberculosis. Renewing our focus on the ontogeny of the immune response in children might provide valuable insights to direct future research regarding tuberculosis prevention, vaccine development and treatment...
  69. pmc Early bactericidal activity of high-dose rifampin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis evidenced by positive sputum smears
    A H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2994-6. 2007
    ..The observed mean 2-day activity was almost double that reported at the standard dose. Further studies are warranted to establish whether higher rifampin doses might assist in shortening tuberculosis treatment...
  70. doi request reprint From magic mountain to table mountain
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Swiss Med Wkly 142:w13665. 2012
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint The early bactericidal activity of a low-clearance liposomal amikacin in pulmonary tuberculosis
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:877-80. 2001
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Early bactericidal activity of amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid in patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Scand J Infect Dis 33:466-9. 2001
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Frequency and implications of pyrazinamide resistance in managing previously treated tuberculosis patients
    G E Louw
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:802-7. 2006
    ..To determine the extent of pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance in isolates from previously treated patients from the Western Cape, South Africa...
  74. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of young children in contact with adult multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: a 30-month follow-up
    H Simon Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Western Cape Province, South Africa
    Pediatrics 109:765-71. 2002
    ..The Western Cape Province of South Africa, an area with a high tuberculosis (TB) incidence, where initial multidrug resistance (MDR) among adult TB cases was 1.1% during 1992-1993...
  75. doi request reprint The early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis drugs
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 12:223-37. 2014
    ..Most recently the early bactericidal activity of drug combinations was found to be similar to results predicted by murine studies. This may contribute to expediting the future progress of drug evaluation. ..
  76. ncbi request reprint Tuberculous meningitis
    Peter R Donald
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 351:1719-20. 2004
  77. ncbi request reprint The early bactericidal activities of rifampin and rifapentine in pulmonary tuberculosis
    Frik A Sirgel
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, United Kingdom
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:128-35. 2005
    ..Comparison of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of rifapentine and its pharmacokinetics with those of rifampin to determine the cause of poor clinical response and regrowth between doses, leading to rifamycin monoresistance at relapse...
  78. ncbi request reprint Clinical features and outcome in children admitted to a TB hospital in the Western Cape--the influence of HIV infection and drug resistance
    Marije Soeters
    Utrecht University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    S Afr Med J 95:602-6. 2005
    ..The Western Cape has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and a rising prevalence of HIV infection. Children form 15-20% of this TB burden...
  79. ncbi request reprint Childhood tuberculosis: the hidden epidemic
    Peter R Donald
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:627-9. 2004
  80. ncbi request reprint Low serum concentrations of anti-tuberculosis agents: do they matter?
    Peter R Donald
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:937. 2007
  81. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus infection in children hospitalised with tuberculosis
    Heleen J Blussé van Oud-Alblas
    Utrecht University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann Trop Paediatr 22:115-23. 2002
    ..Two (2%) non-HIV-infected children, six (17%) HIV-infected children and one (1%) child with undetermined HIV status died (p < 0.001)...
  82. pmc Ensuring the involvement of children in the evaluation of new tuberculosis treatment regimens
    William J Burman
    PLoS Med 5:e176. 2008
  83. ncbi request reprint Tuberculous encephalopathy: a reappraisal
    G Alistair Lammie
    Department of Pathology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    Acta Neuropathol 113:227-34. 2007
    ..We propose that tuberculosis is one of many infections which may be associated with a range of immune, drug-related, hypoxic-ischaemic and toxic diffuse brain pathologies...
  84. ncbi request reprint The early bactericidal activity of anti-tuberculosis agents
    Peter R Donald
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:591. 2006