A H Diacon

Summary

Affiliation: University of Stellenbosch
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Rapid on-site evaluation of transbronchial aspirates: randomised comparison of two methods
    A H Diacon
    Dept of Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 35:1216-20. 2010
  2. doi request reprint Time to positivity in liquid culture predicts colony forming unit counts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa Task Applied Science, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 94:148-51. 2014
  3. pmc Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:2199-203. 2013
  4. doi request reprint From magic mountain to table mountain
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Swiss Med Wkly 142:w13665. 2012
  5. doi request reprint 14-day bactericidal activity of PA-824, bedaquiline, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin combinations: a randomised trial
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 380:986-93. 2012
  6. doi request reprint Time to liquid culture positivity can substitute for colony counting on agar plates in early bactericidal activity studies of antituberculosis agents
    A H Diacon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:711-7. 2012
  7. pmc Phase II dose-ranging trial of the early bactericidal activity of PA-824
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3027-31. 2012
  8. pmc Predominance of interleukin-22 over interleukin-17 at the site of disease in human tuberculosis
    Kerryn Matthews
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 91:587-93. 2011
  9. pmc Early bactericidal activity and pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in smear-positive tuberculosis patients
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:3402-7. 2010
  10. doi request reprint Time to detection of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT 960 for determining the early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents
    A H Diacon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, and MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1561-5. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. doi request reprint Rapid on-site evaluation of transbronchial aspirates: randomised comparison of two methods
    A H Diacon
    Dept of Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 35:1216-20. 2010
    ..4 and 95% in aspirates. We concluded that a Papanicolaou-based stain has superior yield and accuracy to a Wright-Giemsa-based stain for rapid on-site evaluation of transbronchial needle aspirates...
  2. doi request reprint Time to positivity in liquid culture predicts colony forming unit counts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa Task Applied Science, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 94:148-51. 2014
    ..We describe the ability of TTP to predict colony forming unit counts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples collected before or during the first 14 days of antituberculosis therapy. ..
  3. pmc Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:2199-203. 2013
    ..The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies...
  4. doi request reprint From magic mountain to table mountain
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Swiss Med Wkly 142:w13665. 2012
    ....
  5. doi request reprint 14-day bactericidal activity of PA-824, bedaquiline, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin combinations: a randomised trial
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 380:986-93. 2012
    ..We investigated new multiple-agent combinations over the first 14 days of treatment to assess their suitability for future development...
  6. doi request reprint Time to liquid culture positivity can substitute for colony counting on agar plates in early bactericidal activity studies of antituberculosis agents
    A H Diacon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:711-7. 2012
    ..58 and 1.87, 7.77 and 4.58, and 8.71 and 3.56, respectively. We conclude that TTP is an acceptable alternative to CFU counting for the determination of the viable sputum mycobacterial load in EBA studies of up to 14 days duration...
  7. pmc Phase II dose-ranging trial of the early bactericidal activity of PA-824
    Andreas H Diacon
    Division of Physiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3027-31. 2012
    ..A dose of 100 mg to 200 mg PA-824 daily appears to be safe and efficacious and will be further evaluated as a component of novel antituberculosis regimens for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis...
  8. pmc Predominance of interleukin-22 over interleukin-17 at the site of disease in human tuberculosis
    Kerryn Matthews
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 91:587-93. 2011
    ..We propose that our findings support a role for IL-22 in TB-induced pathology or the resulting repair process...
  9. pmc Early bactericidal activity and pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in smear-positive tuberculosis patients
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:3402-7. 2010
    ..Because maximum efficacy was unexpectedly achieved at the lowest dosage tested, the activity of lower dosages should now be explored...
  10. doi request reprint Time to detection of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT 960 for determining the early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents
    A H Diacon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, and MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1561-5. 2010
    ..Automated TTD could augment, or, in future, replace, CFU counting to determine sputum bacillary load in EBA clinical trials pending a more formal evaluation of the correlation of the measurements...
  11. pmc Early bactericidal activity of high-dose rifampin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis evidenced by positive sputum smears
    A H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2994-6. 2007
    ..The observed mean 2-day activity was almost double that reported at the standard dose. Further studies are warranted to establish whether higher rifampin doses might assist in shortening tuberculosis treatment...
  12. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound-assisted transthoracic biopsy: fine-needle aspiration or cutting-needle biopsy?
    A H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 29:357-62. 2007
    ..All other patients should undergo concurrent fine-needle aspiration biopsy and cutting-needle biopsy...
  13. ncbi request reprint Transbronchial needle aspirates: how many passes per target site?
    A H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 29:112-6. 2007
    ..At least four or five passes should be carried out at lymph node stations critical for the staging of lung cancer...
  14. ncbi request reprint Accuracy of pleural puncture sites: a prospective comparison of clinical examination with ultrasound
    Andreas H Diacon
    Pulmonary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
    Chest 123:436-41. 2003
    ..To assess the value of chest ultrasonography vs clinical examination for planning of diagnostic pleurocentesis (DPC)...
  15. ncbi request reprint Transbronchial needle aspirates: comparison of two preparation methods
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Chest 127:2015-8. 2005
    ..Specimen handling and preparation are underrated yet crucial aspects of the technique. This study was designed to identify which of two widely practiced sample preparation methods has a higher yield...
  16. ncbi request reprint Transthoracic ultrasound for the pulmonologist
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 11:307-12. 2005
    ..Ultrasound is set to become a practical and essential tool for the pulmonologist in the near future...
  17. ncbi request reprint Utility of rapid on-site evaluation of transbronchial needle aspirates
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 72:182-8. 2005
    ..Rapid on-site evaluation has been proposed as a method to improve the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration...
  18. ncbi request reprint Safety and yield of ultrasound-assisted transthoracic biopsy performed by pulmonologists
    A H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 71:519-22. 2004
    ..In the absence of effusion, US just as well demonstrates solid masses involving or abutting the pleura, yet biopsy of such lesions is not widely performed by chest physicians...
  19. ncbi request reprint Intrapleural streptokinase for empyema and complicated parapneumonic effusions
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, P O Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:49-53. 2004
    ..We conclude that intrapleural streptokinase adjunctive to chest tube drainage reduces the need for surgery and improves the clinical treatment success in patients with pleural empyema...
  20. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic tools in tuberculous pleurisy: a direct comparative study
    A H Diacon
    Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Stellenbosch Medical School, Tyberberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 22:589-91. 2003
    ....
  21. pmc Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis
    Sven O Friedrich
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 49:4341-2. 2011
    ..The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert assay in pleural fluid were 25% and 100%, respectively. All cases positive by the Xpert assay were also positive by pleural fluid culture...
  22. doi request reprint Early bactericidal activity of delamanid (OPC-67683) in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients
    A H Diacon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:949-54. 2011
    ..Delamanid (OPC-67683) is a novel mycolic acid biosynthesis inhibitor active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a low minimum inhibitory concentration...
  23. doi request reprint Diagnostic yield and safety of ultrasound-assisted biopsies in superior vena cava syndrome
    C F N Koegelenberg
    Division of Pulmonology, Dept of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 33:1389-95. 2009
    ..Neither procedure resulted in major haemorrhage nor pneumothoraces. US-assisted TTFNA and CNB have a high diagnostic yield and are safe in the setting of SVC syndrome with an associated mass lesion abutting the chest wall...
  24. doi request reprint Transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy and rapid on-site evaluation in the setting of superior vena cava syndrome
    K Brundyn
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Stellenbosch and National Health Laboratory Services, Cape Town, South Africa
    Diagn Cytopathol 41:324-9. 2013
    ..We conclude that TBNA has a high diagnostic yield and is safe in the setting of SVC syndrome. With the addition of ROSE, tissue biopsy is required in the minority of cases...
  25. doi request reprint The early bactericidal activity of anti-tuberculosis drugs: a literature review
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 88:S75-83. 2008
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Para-aminosalicylic acid plasma concentrations in children in comparison with adults after receiving a granular slow-release preparation
    A C Liwa
    Division of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 59:90-4. 2013
    ..A 150 mg/kg PAS dosage given as one or two daily doses leads to plasma concentrations in children similar to those of adults receiving 4 g PAS twice daily...
  27. ncbi request reprint A patient with a persistent pleural effusion
    C F N Koegelenberg
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 73:120-3. 2006
  28. doi request reprint Pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and efficacy in adults and children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92:1-8. 2012
    ..Children can receive the same mg/kg body weight PZA dosage as adults...
  29. pmc Randomized pilot trial of eight weeks of bedaquiline (TMC207) treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: long-term outcome, tolerability, and effect on emergence of drug resistance
    A H Diacon
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3271-6. 2012
    ..Bedaquiline may contribute to the management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by effecting more rapid sputum culture negativity and by preventing acquired resistance to companion drugs...
  30. ncbi request reprint Clinical and radiological grading of superior vena cava obstruction
    D Plekker
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 76:69-75. 2008
    ..Its clinical severity presumably depends on the degree of obstruction and the adequacy of venous collateral formation...
  31. ncbi request reprint Solitary pulmonary nodule evaluation with 99mTc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile in a tuberculosis-endemic area
    M M Schuurmans
    Dept of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Francie van Zijl Drive, 7505 Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur Respir J 30:1090-5. 2007
    ..Therefore, it has the potential to prevent unnecessary surgical resections of benign nodules and serve as a low-cost alternative when positron emission tomography is not available...
  32. doi request reprint The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rifampicin in adults and children in relation to the dosage recommended for children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 91:196-207. 2011
    ..It is noteworthy that many adult patients receiving currently recommended RMP dosages also do not reach the often recommended RMP 2 h serum concentration of 8 μg/mL...
  33. doi request reprint High mortality from respiratory failure secondary to swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in South Africa
    C F N Koegelenberg
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South Africa
    QJM 103:319-25. 2010
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Non-responding 'tension pneumothorax' following stab wounds
    Mace M Schuurmans
    Department of Internal Medicine, Lung Unit, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 70:100. 2003
  35. ncbi request reprint Use of an ultrathin bronchoscope in the assessment of central airway obstruction
    Mace M Schuurmans
    Lung Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Chest 124:735-9. 2003
    ..To assess the utility of an ultrathin bronchoscope (UB) in the assessment of central airway obstruction (CAO)...
  36. doi request reprint Stair climbing in the functional assessment of lung resection candidates
    Coenraad F N Koegelenberg
    University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 75:374-9. 2008
    ..Stair climbing is a low-cost alternative to assess exercise capacity...
  37. doi request reprint The diagnostic yield and safety of ultrasound-assisted transthoracic biopsy of mediastinal masses
    Coenraad F N Koegelenberg
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 81:134-41. 2011
    ..Ultrasound (US)-assisted transthoracic biopsy offers a less invasive alternative to surgical biopsy in the setting of mediastinal masses...
  38. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound-assisted transthoracic biopsy: cells or sections?
    Pawel Schubert
    Department of Anatomical Pathology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, NHLS, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Diagn Cytopathol 33:233-7. 2005
    ..US-guided FNAB by pulmonologists performed best in lung carcinoma and can be recommended as a first-line investigation in patients with a high clinical suspicion of this diagnosis...
  39. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for recurrence of haemoptysis following bronchial artery embolisation for life-threatening haemoptysis
    M M Van den Heuvel
    Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital and the University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:909-14. 2007
    ..Subsequent curative measures, such as surgical resection of the focus of haemorrhage, are generally recommended to prevent recurrence, but risk-based selection criteria have not been established...
  40. ncbi request reprint Functional evaluation before and after interventional bronchoscopy in patients with malignant central airway obstruction
    A H Diacon
    Lung Unit, Dept of Internal Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, 7505 Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 56:67-73. 2001
    ..Close cooperation with the specialist centre is necessary to refer patients for repeat bronchoscopy and management of suspected recurrences or complications...
  41. doi request reprint The diarylquinoline TMC207 for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    Andreas H Diacon
    Centre for Clinical Tuberculosis Research, the Department of Science and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, all in South Africa
    N Engl J Med 360:2397-405. 2009
    ..TMC207 potently inhibits drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and shows bactericidal activity in patients who have drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis...
  42. doi request reprint Differential cytokine/chemokines and KL-6 profiles in patients with different forms of tuberculosis
    Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya
    Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology DST and NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Cytokine 47:132-6. 2009
    ..Plasma levels of cytokines may therefore contribute to biosignatures of diseases like TB but the data also highlight systemic differences between pulmonary TB, pleural TB and other form of pleural effusion diseases...
  43. ncbi request reprint Hemoptysis and hypoxemia in an asthmatic
    S Davel
    Lung Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 70:426-30. 2003
  44. ncbi request reprint Paraneoplastic bilateral proptosis in a case of non-small cell lung cancer
    Andreas H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Chest 123:627-9. 2003
    ..The proptosis normalized 10 days after tumor resection. We conclude that the most likely cause of the reversible proptosis in this patient is paraneoplastic, a condition not previously described in the English-language literature...
  45. ncbi request reprint Functional evaluation before lung resection
    Mace M Schuurmans
    Department of Internal Medicine, Lung Unit, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Campus, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Chest Med 23:159-72. 2002
    ..Pneumonectomy leads to an early permanent loss of about 33% in pulmonary function and approximately 20% in exercise capacity. Pulmonary function tests alone therefore overestimate the functional loss after lung resection...
  46. pmc Suitability of Xpert MTB/RIF and genotype MTBDRplus for patient selection for a tuberculosis clinical trial
    Sven O Friedrich
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2827-31. 2011
    ..Xpert should be further explored as a surrogate measurement for sputum mycobacterial load...
  47. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic bronchoscopy for treatment-resistant COPD
    Andreas H Diacon
    Lung Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 69:451. 2002
  48. ncbi request reprint Management of life-threatening haemoptysis in an area of high tuberculosis incidence
    A M Gross
    Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:875-80. 2009
    ..It is unclear if lung resection is regularly indicated to prevent recurrence following bronchial artery embolisation (BAE)...
  49. doi request reprint Evaluation of adapted whole-blood interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis
    Novel N Chegou
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, US MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respiration 76:131-8. 2008
    ..Recently, in vitro interferon (IFN)-gamma-based assays have been introduced in the diagnosis of latent TB, but these techniques have not been established in the diagnosis of active TB disease, including pleural TB...
  50. ncbi request reprint A trial of intrapleural streptokinase
    Andreas H Diacon
    N Engl J Med 352:2243-5; author reply 2243-5. 2005