Shabir A Madhi

Summary

Affiliation: National Institute for Communicable Diseases
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 23:5517-25. 2005
  2. pmc Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected individuals
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:161-73. 2012
  3. pmc Persistent high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in South African HIV-infected adults in the era of an antiretroviral treatment program
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e27929. 2011
  4. pmc Immunogenicity of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 6, 14 and 40 weeks of age in South African infants
    Stephanie A Jones
    Department of Science National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Science, Johannesburg, South Africa Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e72794. 2013
  5. pmc Temporal association in hospitalizations for tuberculosis, invasive pneumococcal disease and influenza virus illness in South African children
    Ziyaad Dangor
    Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 9:e91464. 2014
  6. pmc Interrelationship of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization within and between pneumococcal-vaccine naïve mother-child dyads
    Tinevimbo Shiri
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 13:483. 2013
  7. pmc Advances in childhood immunisation in South Africa: where to now? Programme managers' views and evidence from systematic reviews
    Charles Shey Wiysonge
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Public Health 12:578. 2012
  8. pmc Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial
    Andrew Duncan Steele
    Rotavirus Vaccine Program, PATH, 2201 Westlake Ave, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 12:213. 2012
  9. doi request reprint The burden of childhood pneumonia in the developed world: a review of the literature
    Shabir A Madhi
    Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:e119-27. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Efficacy and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Centre for Respiratory and Meningitis Diseases, Sandringham, South Africa
    AIDS 27:369-79. 2013

Detail Information

Publications76

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 23:5517-25. 2005
    ..001). The estimated risk of HibCV failure was 35.1-fold greater (95% CI 14.6-84.6) amongst HIV infected than HIV uninfected children...
  2. pmc Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected individuals
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:161-73. 2012
    ..PCV has also been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent IPD by 74% in HIV-infected adults not on ART, albeit, also with subsequent decline in immunity and protection...
  3. pmc Persistent high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in South African HIV-infected adults in the era of an antiretroviral treatment program
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e27929. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in IPD hospitalizations in HIV-infected adults in Soweto, South Africa, associated with up-scaling of the HAART program from 2003 to 2008...
  4. pmc Immunogenicity of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 6, 14 and 40 weeks of age in South African infants
    Stephanie A Jones
    Department of Science National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Science, Johannesburg, South Africa Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e72794. 2013
    ..This study evaluated the immunogenicity of seven-valent PCV (PCV7) administered at 6-weeks; 14-weeks and 9-months of age...
  5. pmc Temporal association in hospitalizations for tuberculosis, invasive pneumococcal disease and influenza virus illness in South African children
    Ziyaad Dangor
    Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 9:e91464. 2014
    ..We aimed to study the temporal association between hospitalization for culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and influenza virus epidemics in South African children...
  6. pmc Interrelationship of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization within and between pneumococcal-vaccine naïve mother-child dyads
    Tinevimbo Shiri
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 13:483. 2013
    ..We examined the interaction of Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in mother-child dyads...
  7. pmc Advances in childhood immunisation in South Africa: where to now? Programme managers' views and evidence from systematic reviews
    Charles Shey Wiysonge
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Public Health 12:578. 2012
    ..We assessed challenges and enablers for the programme in South Africa, as we approach the 2015 deadline for the Millennium Development Goals...
  8. pmc Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial
    Andrew Duncan Steele
    Rotavirus Vaccine Program, PATH, 2201 Westlake Ave, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 12:213. 2012
    ..This paper examines rotavirus vaccine efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, during infancy, caused by the various G and P rotavirus types encountered during the first rotavirus-season...
  9. doi request reprint The burden of childhood pneumonia in the developed world: a review of the literature
    Shabir A Madhi
    Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:e119-27. 2013
    ..Measured country-specific pneumonia burden data are limited to a few nations and differ in case definitions and case ascertainment methods. This review describes pneumonia disease burden in developed countries...
  10. doi request reprint Efficacy and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Centre for Respiratory and Meningitis Diseases, Sandringham, South Africa
    AIDS 27:369-79. 2013
    ..We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of nonadjuvanted, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) against confirmed seasonal influenza virus illness in HIV-infected children...
  11. doi request reprint Efficacy and immunogenicity of two or three dose rotavirus-vaccine regimen in South African children over two consecutive rotavirus-seasons: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    S A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, A Division of National Health Laboratory Services, Sandringham, South Africa
    Vaccine 30:A44-51. 2012
    ..This study reports on the efficacy of HRV against severe RVGE over two consecutive rotavirus seasons in South African children...
  12. pmc Inferior quantitative and qualitative immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants with nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae during the primary series of immunization
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 29:6994-7001. 2011
    ....
  13. pmc Utility of clinical parameters to identify HIV infection in infants below ten weeks of age in South Africa: a prospective cohort study
    Heather B Jaspan
    Children s Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Centre for Infectious Diseases, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    BMC Pediatr 11:104. 2011
    ..Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were compiled using combinations of clinical findings...
  14. pmc An unusual pneumococcal sequence type is the predominant cause of serotype 3 invasive disease in South Africa
    Kedibone M Mothibeli
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 48:184-91. 2010
    ..We have therefore identified ST458 as predominating in South Africa, but with an invasive potential similar to that of the predominant global clone ST180...
  15. ncbi request reprint Acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-naïve South African children and their mothers
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:e192-205. 2013
    ..We investigated the dynamics of pneumococcal colonization in perinatal HIV-unexposed and HIV-exposed children and their mothers and risk factors associated with new serotypes acquisition...
  16. ncbi request reprint Seasonality, incidence, and repeat human metapneumovirus lower respiratory tract infections in an area with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Bertsham, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:693-9. 2007
    ..There is limited information regarding the epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) from Africa, despite it being identified as a common pathogen in children with pneumonia...
  17. ncbi request reprint Long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of a 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in human immunodeficient virus infected and non-infected children in the absence of a booster dose of vaccine
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:2451-7. 2007
    ..2microg/ml to vaccine-serotypes analyzed compared to HIV infected vaccinees at 5.3 years of age...
  18. doi request reprint The impact of antiretroviral treatment on the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in South African children: a time series analysis
    Marta C Nunes
    Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit and Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
    AIDS 25:453-62. 2011
    ..A national antiretroviral program was initiated in South Africa in 2004. This study evaluates the impact of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment program on the burden of IPD among African children...
  19. ncbi request reprint Temporal changes in pneumococcal colonization in a rural African community with high HIV prevalence following routine infant pneumococcal immunization
    Susan A Nzenze
    From the Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health and Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia MRC Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit Agincourt, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Centre for Global Health Research, Umea University, Umea, Sweden Indepth Network, Accra, Ghana and National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Sandringham, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:1270-8. 2013
    ..We studied the impact of routine infant PCV immunization alone on the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization among a rural African community with high prevalence of HIV positivity...
  20. doi request reprint Serotype 6C is associated with penicillin-susceptible meningeal infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults among invasive pneumococcal isolates previously identified as serotype 6A in South Africa
    Mignon du Plessis
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham, South Africa
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 32:S66-70. 2008
    ..Our data from the vaccine efficacy trial suggest that cross-protection of the conjugate vaccine is against true serotype 6A strains...
  21. ncbi request reprint Long-term effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae--and associated interactions with Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae colonization--in HIV-Infected and HIV-uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Bertsham, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 196:1662-6. 2007
    ..aureus and colonization by H. influenzae were observed only in HIV-uninfected children, possibly as a result of suboptimal adaptive immunity after previous colonization in HIV-infected children...
  22. pmc Effect of HIV infection status and anti-retroviral treatment on quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 202:355-61. 2010
    ..Nevertheless, M-/I- infants had superior OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART+ infants, who in turn had better OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART- infants...
  23. doi request reprint Impact of the antiretroviral treatment program on the burden of hospitalization for culture-confirmed tuberculosis in South African children: a time-series analysis
    Ziyaad Dangor
    From the Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa City of Hamilton Public Health Services, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Mycobacteriology Referral Laboratory, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa and National Institute for Communicable Diseases a division of National Health Laboratory Service, Centre for Tuberculosis, Sandringham, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:972-7. 2013
    ..We evaluated the impact that scaling-up of the public-funded antiretroviral treatment (ART) program had on incidence of hospitalization for culture-confirmed and overall-TB in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children from 2005 to 2009...
  24. pmc Immunogenicity following the first and second doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases Division of National Health Laboratory Service, Centre for Vaccines and Immunology, Sandringham, South Africa
    Vaccine 31:777-83. 2013
    ..We studied antibody kinetics of serotypes included in 7-valent PCV in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected infants prior to and following each of three PCV-doses...
  25. ncbi request reprint Quantitative and qualitative antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among African human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute of Communicable Diseases University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:410-6. 2005
    ..To determine the quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infected and uninfected children...
  26. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal coinfection with human metapneumovirus
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Bertsham, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 193:1236-43. 2006
    ..Infection with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) may lead to hospitalization of children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), although the pathogenesis thereof remains to be elucidated...
  27. ncbi request reprint Maternal HIV infection and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria
    Clare L Cutland
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Soweto, South Africa
    Pediatrics 130:e581-90. 2012
    ..HIV-exposed newborns may be at higher risk of sepsis because of immune system aberrations, impaired maternal antibody transfer and altered exposure to pathogenic bacteria...
  28. doi request reprint Quantitative and qualitative anamnestic immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children 5 years after vaccination
    Shabir A Madhi
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 199:1168-76. 2009
    ..e., previous vaccinees) and in those receiving their first dose of vaccine (i.e., control subjects)...
  29. ncbi request reprint Usefulness of C-reactive protein to define pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy in the prevention of pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council National Institute of Communicable Diseases Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:30-6. 2006
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in African adults infected with human immunodeficient virus: double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 52:128-37. 2011
    ..Data on the efficacy of trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in HIV-infected adults, particularly in Africa, are limited. This study evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of TIV in HIV-infected adults...
  31. ncbi request reprint A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection
    Keith P Klugman
    Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 349:1341-8. 2003
    ..We evaluated the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a randomized, double-blind study in Soweto, South Africa...
  32. ncbi request reprint The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1511-8. 2005
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) may be used as a probe to define the burden of pneumococcal disease and better characterize the clinical presentation of pneumococcal pneumonia...
  33. doi request reprint Respiratory viral coinfections identified by a 10-plex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness--South Africa, 2009-2010
    Marthi A Pretorius
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 206:S159-65. 2012
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Evolutionary dynamics of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 in South Africa during 2009-2010
    Marietjie Venter
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases Division, National Health Laboratory Service, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 206:S166-72. 2012
    ....
  35. pmc Use of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein to evaluate vaccine efficacy against pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS Med 2:e38. 2005
    ..The poor specificity of chest radiographs (CXRs) to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia may underestimate the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia...
  36. doi request reprint Chlorhexidine maternal-vaginal and neonate body wipes in sepsis and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria in South Africa: a randomised, controlled trial
    Clare L Cutland
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Soweto, South Africa
    Lancet 374:1909-16. 2009
    ..We therefore assessed the efficacy of chlorhexidine in early-onset neonatal sepsis and vertical transmission of group B streptococcus...
  37. pmc Human metapneumovirus genetic variability, South Africa
    Herbert P Ludewick
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1074-8. 2005
    ..4%-27.6% at the amino acid level. These results provide evidence for the diversity of both surface glycoproteins of hMPV in Africa, which may be a prerequisite to understanding protective immunity against hMPV...
  38. pmc Early antiretroviral therapy and mortality among HIV-infected infants
    Avy Violari
    Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 359:2233-44. 2008
    ..We investigated antiretroviral-treatment strategies in the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial...
  39. doi request reprint Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype b ten years after routine vaccination, South Africa, 2003-2009
    Anne Von Gottberg
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases NICD of the National Health Laboratory Service NHLS, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 30:565-71. 2012
    ..Following initial declines in Hib disease, national surveillance has identified increasing numbers of Hib disease episodes in fully vaccinated children...
  40. ncbi request reprint Antibody persistence and booster vaccination of a fully liquid hexavalent vaccine coadministered with measles/mumps/rubella and varicella vaccines at 15-18 months of age in healthy South African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Science, National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:889-97. 2013
    ..To assess antibody persistence and booster immunogenicity and safety of a new, fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine...
  41. doi request reprint Effect of in-utero HIV exposure and antiretroviral treatment strategies on measles susceptibility and immunogenicity of measles vaccine
    Omphile E Simani
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Tygerberg, South Africa
    AIDS 27:1583-91. 2013
    ..We evaluated the effect of in-utero HIV-exposure and antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies on measles antibody kinetics prior and following measles vaccination...
  42. ncbi request reprint Lower respiratory tract infections associated with influenza A and B viruses in an area with a high prevalence of pediatric human immunodeficiency type 1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Pneumococcal Diseases Rearch Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:291-7. 2002
    ..Despite the high burden of pediatric HIV-1 infection in developing countries, there are few data on the clinical course of influenza virus-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in these children...
  43. doi request reprint Distribution of pilus islands of group B streptococcus associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in South Africa
    Mashudu Madzivhandila
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Med Microbiol 62:249-53. 2013
    ..6 % of colonizing and 96.5 % of invasive isolates. Based on this homogeneity of pilus island distribution, a pilus-based vaccine developed for Europe and the USA will have similar coverage in South Africa...
  44. ncbi request reprint Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the public immunization program in South Africa: translating research into policy
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, A Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 30:C21-7. 2012
    ..This schedule was largely premised on containing the cost of vaccine introduction, whilst including a booster dose of PCV to assist in prolonging the duration of protection in HIV-infected children...
  45. ncbi request reprint Importance of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in an African setting
    Shabir A Madhi
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Bertsham, South Africa
    Trop Med Int Health 9:491-8. 2004
    ..To define the importance of nosocomial-acquired respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in an area with a high prevalence of paediatric HIV-1 infection...
  46. ncbi request reprint Apnea and its possible relationship to immunization in ex-premature infants
    Peter A Cooper
    Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Vaccine 26:3410-3. 2008
    ..More of the VLBW infants in the apnea group had neonatal neurological complications compared with the VLBW control group (p=0.005). Ten of 11 children with apnea within 72 h of immunization were possibly related to vaccination...
  47. ncbi request reprint Reduced effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    NHLS Wits MRC Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:315-21. 2002
    ..Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have successfully reduced the burden of invasive Hib disease in developed countries; however, their effectiveness in countries with a high incidence of pediatric HIV-1 is unknown...
  48. doi request reprint Effect of HIV-1 exposure and antiretroviral treatment strategies in HIV-infected children on immunogenicity of vaccines during infancy
    Omphile E Simani
    aDepartment of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases Johannesburg bMedical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty Health Sciences University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg cPerinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences dStellenbosch University, Children s Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Unit, Tygerberg eDivision of National Health Laboratory Service, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Centre for Vaccines and Immunology, Sandringham, South Africa
    AIDS 28:531-41. 2014
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the pre-conjugate vaccine era: South Africa, 2003-2008
    Anne Von Gottberg
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases NICD of the National Health Laboratory Service NHLS, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 31:4200-8. 2013
    ....
  50. doi request reprint Lessons learned from clinical trials evaluating pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy against pneumonia and invasive disease
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Science and Technology, South Africa
    Vaccine 26:B9-B15. 2008
    ..The article concludes with a discussion of the potential value of C-reactive protein as an adjunctive marker in measuring PCV efficacy against non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia...
  51. doi request reprint Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 362:289-98. 2010
    ..Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. Data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in African children...
  52. doi request reprint Five-year cohort study on the burden of hospitalisation for acute diarrhoeal disease in African HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children: potential benefits of rotavirus vaccine
    Michelle J Groome
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Vaccine 30:A173-8. 2012
    ..Rotavirus contributes significantly to childhood diarrhoea in South Africa but data on the burden of rotavirus disease in HIV-infected children are limited...
  53. ncbi request reprint Human metapneumovirus-associated lower respiratory tract infections among hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and HIV-1-uninfected African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1705-10. 2003
    ..1-fold more common than parainfluenza virus types 1-3. Genotyping of 7 of 14 isolates revealed the circulation of 2 major phylogenetic groups of the virus, which were similar to those described in North America and Europe...
  54. ncbi request reprint Oral antibiotics for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children
    Keith P Klugman
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Lancet 364:1104-5. 2004
  55. pmc Primary isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases and the Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 365:21-31. 2011
    ..We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of preexposure isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected children and uninfected children exposed to HIV during the perinatal period...
  56. pmc Serotype-specific acquisition and loss of group B streptococcus recto-vaginal colonization in late pregnancy
    Gaurav Kwatra
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa MRC, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 9:e98778. 2014
    ..This study aimed to determine the acquisition and loss of serotype-specific recto-vaginal GBS colonization from 20-37+ weeks of gestational age...
  57. doi request reprint Considerations for a phase-III trial to evaluate a group B Streptococcus polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine in pregnant women for the prevention of early- and late-onset invasive disease in young-infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Division of National Health Laboratory Service, Centre for Vaccines and Immunology, Sandringham, South Africa
    Vaccine 31:D52-7. 2013
    ....
  58. doi request reprint Systematic review on the etiology and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children
    Warunee Punpanich
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:e192-202. 2011
    ..Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children...
  59. ncbi request reprint Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in hospitalization for acute community-acquired pneumonia associated with culture-confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children: a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine probe study
    David P Moore
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:1099-04. 2010
    ..We aimed to probe the extent of pneumococcal coinfection in children with PTB, using a vaccine-probe design study...
  60. pmc Evaluation of Trans-Vag broth, colistin-nalidixic agar, and CHROMagar StrepB for detection of group B Streptococcus in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women in South Africa
    Gaurav Kwatra
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 51:2515-9. 2013
    ..These findings show that a selective broth is not suitable for the recovery of GBS from rectal swabs in settings such as ours, due to masking of the GBS colonies by persistent microflora...
  61. pmc Serotype distribution and invasive potential of group B streptococcus isolates causing disease in infants and colonizing maternal-newborn dyads
    Mashudu Madzivhandila
    Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e17861. 2011
    ..An understanding of the serotype epidemiology associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in infants is necessary to determine the potential coverage of serotype-specific GBS vaccines...
  62. ncbi request reprint World Health Organisation definition of "radiologically-confirmed pneumonia" may under-estimate the true public health value of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:2413-9. 2007
    ....
  63. doi request reprint Impact of rotavirus vaccine on childhood diarrheal hospitalization after introduction into the South African public immunization program
    Veerle M Y Msimang
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA MRC Diarrhoeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of Limpopo Medunsa Campus, Pretoria MRC Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit Agincourt, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umea University, Umea, Sweden Indepth Network, Accra, Ghana and Department of Paediatrics, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:1359-64. 2013
    ..We described the change in rotavirus-associated diarrheal hospitalizations among children <5 years at 3 sentinel sites from 2009 through 2011...
  64. pmc Clinical Epidemiology of Bocavirus, Rhinovirus, Two Polyomaviruses and Four Coronaviruses in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected South African Children
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 9:e86448. 2014
    ....
  65. doi request reprint Review on the immunogenicity and safety of PCV-13 in infants and toddlers
    Marta C Nunes
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:951-80. 2011
    ..PCV-13 was demonstrated to have a similar acceptable safety profile to PCV-7 and no interference in immunogenicity of other concomitantly administered childhood vaccines was observed among PCV-13 recipients...
  66. doi request reprint Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational fully liquid hexavalent combination vaccine versus licensed combination vaccines at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in healthy South African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:e68-74. 2011
    ..Assessment of primary vaccination of a new fully liquid, hexavalent investigational DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (Hexaxim) in South African infants...
  67. pmc Vaccines to prevent pneumonia and improve child survival
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology, National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Chris Hani Baragwanth Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Bertsham, South Africa
    Bull World Health Organ 86:365-72. 2008
    ..In this review, we discuss advances made in optimizing the use of established vaccines and the potential issues related to newer bacterial conjugate vaccines in reducing childhood pneumonia morbidity and mortality...
  68. doi request reprint Prospective cohort study comparing seasonal and H1N1(2009) pandemic influenza virus illnesses in HIV-infected children during 2009
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:174-6. 2014
    ..7 vs. 0.2 per 100 child-weeks, respectively; P = 0.0001), and the clinical presentations were similar. Illnesses due to seasonal and A(H1N1p)2009 influenza were self-limiting without neuraminidase inhibitor therapy. ..
  69. ncbi request reprint The discriminative value of C-reactive protein levels in distinguishing between community-acquired bacteraemic and respiratory virus-associated lower respiratory tract infections in HIV-1-infected and -uninfected children
    Sanjay G Lala
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 22:271-9. 2002
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Ineffectiveness of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and the importance of bacterial and viral coinfections in African children with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Wits Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1120-6. 2002
    ..Concurrent P. carinii infection was observed in 6 of 18, 11 of 26, and 4 of 6 HIV-1-infected children who had bacteremia, a respiratory virus isolated, or Mycobacterium species isolated, respectively...
  71. ncbi request reprint The high burden of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in African HIV-1-infected children hospitalized for severe pneumonia
    Donatella D Ruffini
    Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
    AIDS 16:105-12. 2002
    ..To evaluate the burden of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and the usefulness of induced sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) in diagnosing PCP in African children in whom the use of bronchoalveolar lavage is unavailable...
  72. pmc Influenza-related mortality among adults aged 25-54 years with AIDS in South Africa and the United States of America
    Cheryl Cohen
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 55:996-1003. 2012
    ..We compared influenza-related mortality in adults with AIDS in South Africa and the United States in the pre-HAART era and evaluated mortality trends after HAART introduction in the United States...
  73. ncbi request reprint High burden of invasive Streptococcus agalactiae disease in South African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    NHLS Wits MRC Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 23:15-23. 2003
    ..9% and 100% of invasive disease, respectively. Invasive GBS disease is common in South African infants and current strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disease should be reconsidered...
  74. pmc High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study
    Lee Fairlie
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 6 York Street, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 11:28. 2011
    ..6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa...
  75. doi request reprint Review of a new fully liquid, hexavalent vaccine: Hexaxim
    Marta C Nunes
    University of Witwatersrand, Department of Science and Technology Vaccine Preventable Diseases Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 13:575-93. 2013
    ..A new, fully liquid formulation hexavalent vaccine ( Hexaxim ) has been developed and is currently undergoing licensure for use in childhood immunization programs...
  76. ncbi request reprint Interaction between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in severe pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa and MRC Wits Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa and Old Potch Road, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, RMPRU New Nurses Residence, 1st Floor West Wing, Bertsham, 2013, South Africa
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2:663-72. 2008
    ....