David G Schatz

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Antigen receptor genes and the evolution of a recombinase
    David G Schatz
    Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Semin Immunol 16:245-56. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Staggered AID-dependent DNA double strand breaks are the predominant DNA lesions targeted to S mu in Ig class switch recombination
    James S Rush
    Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Int Immunol 16:549-57. 2004
  3. pmc Sin1-mTORC2 suppresses rag and il7r gene expression through Akt2 in B cells
    Adam S Lazorchak
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Mol Cell 39:433-43. 2010
  4. pmc The in vivo pattern of binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to antigen receptor loci
    Yanhong Ji
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, Box 208011, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Cell 141:419-31. 2010
  5. pmc DNA mismatches and GC-rich motifs target transposition by the RAG1/RAG2 transposase
    Chia Lun Tsai
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:6180-90. 2003
  6. pmc Ebf1-dependent control of the osteoblast and adipocyte lineages
    David G T Hesslein
    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Bone 44:537-46. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Mutational analysis of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated N-nucleotide addition in V(D)J recombination
    Jamie A E Repasky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Immunol 172:5478-88. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint B cells and osteoblast and osteoclast development
    Mark C Horowitz
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8071, USA
    Immunol Rev 208:141-53. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Immunology. UNGstoppable switching
    Shyam Unniraman
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 305:1113-4. 2004
  10. pmc Control of gene conversion and somatic hypermutation by immunoglobulin promoter and enhancer sequences
    Shu Yuan Yang
    Section of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 203:2919-28. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. ncbi request reprint Antigen receptor genes and the evolution of a recombinase
    David G Schatz
    Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Semin Immunol 16:245-56. 2004
    ..This review discusses the structure of antigen receptor genes and the mechanisms by which they are assembled and diversified, and then goes on to consider the evolutionary implications of the arrival of the hypothetical "RAG transposon"...
  2. ncbi request reprint Staggered AID-dependent DNA double strand breaks are the predominant DNA lesions targeted to S mu in Ig class switch recombination
    James S Rush
    Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Int Immunol 16:549-57. 2004
    ....
  3. pmc Sin1-mTORC2 suppresses rag and il7r gene expression through Akt2 in B cells
    Adam S Lazorchak
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Mol Cell 39:433-43. 2010
    ..Our study reveals that the Sin1/mTORC2-Akt2 signaling axis is a key regulator of FoxO1 transcriptional activity in B cells...
  4. pmc The in vivo pattern of binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to antigen receptor loci
    Yanhong Ji
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, Box 208011, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Cell 141:419-31. 2010
    ..We propose that recombination centers coordinate V(D)J recombination by providing discrete sites within which gene segments are captured for recombination...
  5. pmc DNA mismatches and GC-rich motifs target transposition by the RAG1/RAG2 transposase
    Chia Lun Tsai
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:6180-90. 2003
    ....
  6. pmc Ebf1-dependent control of the osteoblast and adipocyte lineages
    David G T Hesslein
    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Bone 44:537-46. 2009
    ..Thus Ebf1-deficient mice appear to be a new model of lipodystrophy. Ebf1 is a rare example of a transcription factor that regulates both the osteoblast and adipocyte lineages similarly...
  7. ncbi request reprint Mutational analysis of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated N-nucleotide addition in V(D)J recombination
    Jamie A E Repasky
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Immunol 172:5478-88. 2004
    ..We consider these results in light of the recently reported structure of the catalytic region of TdT...
  8. ncbi request reprint B cells and osteoblast and osteoclast development
    Mark C Horowitz
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8071, USA
    Immunol Rev 208:141-53. 2005
    ..These data indicate that at least a regulatory relationship exists between B lymphopoiesis, osteoclastogenesis, and osteoblastogenesis...
  9. ncbi request reprint Immunology. UNGstoppable switching
    Shyam Unniraman
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 305:1113-4. 2004
  10. pmc Control of gene conversion and somatic hypermutation by immunoglobulin promoter and enhancer sequences
    Shu Yuan Yang
    Section of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 203:2919-28. 2006
    ..Our results indicate that cis-acting elements are important for Ig gene diversification, and we propose that targeting specificity is achieved through the combined action of several Ig locus elements that include the promoter...
  11. doi request reprint Balancing AID and DNA repair during somatic hypermutation
    Man Liu
    Department of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Trends Immunol 30:173-81. 2009
    ....
  12. pmc Mobilization of RAG-generated signal ends by transposition and insertion in vivo
    Monalisa Chatterji
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, Box 208011, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:1558-68. 2006
    ..These assays provide a means of assessing RAG-mediated transposition in vivo, and our findings provide insight into the potential for the products of RAG-mediated DNA cleavage to cause genome instability...
  13. ncbi request reprint Role of activation-induced deaminase protein kinase A phosphorylation sites in Ig gene conversion and somatic hypermutation
    Monalisa Chatterji
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Immunol 179:5274-80. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Pax5-deficient mice exhibit early onset osteopenia with increased osteoclast progenitors
    Mark C Horowitz
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Immunol 173:6583-91. 2004
    ..These data demonstrate a previously unsuspected connection between B cell and osteoclast development and a key role for Pax5 in the control of osteoclast development...
  15. pmc Promoters, enhancers, and transcription target RAG1 binding during V(D)J recombination
    Yanhong Ji
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 207:2809-16. 2010
    ..These findings reveal important features of the genetic mechanisms that regulate RAG binding and provide a direct confirmation of the accessibility model...
  16. pmc A critical context-dependent role for E boxes in the targeting of somatic hypermutation
    Jessica J McDonald
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Immunol 191:1556-66. 2013
    ..These results suggest an intimate cooperation between E boxes and other sequence motifs in SHM targeting to Ig loci and perhaps also in restricting mistargeting to certain non-Ig loci. ..
  17. pmc Identification of core DNA elements that target somatic hypermutation
    Kristin M Kohler
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Immunol 189:5314-26. 2012
    ..We propose that multiple, dispersed DNA elements collaborate to recruit and activate the mutational machinery at Ig gene variable regions during SHM...
  18. pmc Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase is regulated by cell division, providing a mechanistic basis for division-linked class switch recombination
    James S Rush
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, Box 208011, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:13242-7. 2005
    ..In addition, constitutive AID expression from a transgene accelerated division-linked CSR. Thus, we propose that the division-linked increase in AID expression provides an underlying molecular explanation for division-linked CSR...
  19. ncbi request reprint Origins of peripheral B cells in IL-7 receptor-deficient mice
    David G T Hesslein
    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Mol Immunol 43:326-34. 2006
    ..We conclude that the majority of splenic B cells in IL-7Ralpha-deficient mice originate from the bone marrow and not the fetal liver...
  20. pmc Structure of the RAG1 nonamer binding domain with DNA reveals a dimer that mediates DNA synapsis
    Fang Fang Yin
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 16:499-508. 2009
    ..These findings reveal a previously unsuspected function for the NBD in DNA synapsis and have implications for the regulation of DNA binding and cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2...
  21. doi request reprint Two levels of protection for the B cell genome during somatic hypermutation
    Man Liu
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Nature 451:841-5. 2008
    ..Our results demonstrate that AID acts broadly on the genome, with the ultimate distribution of mutations determined by a balance between high-fidelity and error-prone DNA repair...
  22. ncbi request reprint New concepts in the regulation of an ancient reaction: transposition by RAG1/RAG2
    Monalisa Chatterji
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Immunol Rev 200:261-71. 2004
    ..A major challenge has been to determine how the transposition activity of the RAG proteins is regulated in vivo. Although a variety of mechanisms have been suggested by recent studies, a clear resolution of this issue remains elusive...
  23. ncbi request reprint RAG1-DNA binding in V(D)J recombination. Specificity and DNA-induced conformational changes revealed by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy
    Mihai Ciubotaru
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Immunobiology, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:5584-96. 2003
    ..RSS-induced conformational changes of StrRAG1 may influence the interaction of RAG1 with RAG2 and synaptic complex formation...
  24. pmc Cooperative recruitment of HMGB1 during V(D)J recombination through interactions with RAG1 and DNA
    Alicia J Little
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:3289-301. 2013
    ..These findings also have implications for the order of events during RAG-DNA complex assembly and for the stabilization of sequence-specific and non-specific RAG1-DNA interactions...
  25. pmc Synapsis of recombination signal sequences located in cis and DNA underwinding in V(D)J recombination
    Mihai Ciubotaru
    Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar St, TAC S625, New Haven, CT 06510
    Mol Cell Biol 24:8727-44. 2004
    ..We propose that this unwinding is uniquely sensed during synapsis of an appropriate 12/23 pair of RSSs...
  26. ncbi request reprint Histone modifications associated with somatic hypermutation
    Valerie H Odegard
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Box 208011, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Immunity 23:101-10. 2005
    ..These findings indicate that SHM and CSR trigger distinct DNA damage responses and identify a novel histone modification pattern for SHM consisting of H2B(Ser14P) in the absence of gammaH2AX...
  27. ncbi request reprint Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-mediated sequence diversification is transiently targeted to newly integrated DNA substrates
    Shu Yuan Yang
    Department of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:25308-13. 2007
    ..This indicates that newly integrated DNA has molecular characteristics that render it susceptible to modification by AID, with implications for how targeting and mis-targeting of AID occurs...
  28. ncbi request reprint AID and Igh switch region-Myc chromosomal translocations
    Shyam Unniraman
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    DNA Repair (Amst) 5:1259-64. 2006
    ..Here, we discuss possible roles of AID, CSR, and somatic hypermutation in generating chromosomal translocations and in tumor progression...
  29. pmc Multiple transcription factor binding sites predict AID targeting in non-Ig genes
    Jamie L Duke
    Interdepartmental Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    J Immunol 190:3878-88. 2013
    ..Using this predictive model, we were able to identify a set of 101 high-interest genes that are likely targets of AID...
  30. ncbi request reprint Strand-biased spreading of mutations during somatic hypermutation
    Shyam Unniraman
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Science 317:1227-30. 2007
    ..This strand asymmetry is eliminated in mice deficient in mismatch repair, indicating that the error-prone mismatch repair machinery preferentially targets top-strand uracils in a way that promotes SHM during the antibody response...
  31. pmc Defective DNA repair and increased genomic instability in Artemis-deficient murine cells
    Sean Rooney
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Children s Hospital, The Center for Blood Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 197:553-65. 2003
    ..Moreover, Artemis functions as a genomic caretaker, most notably in prevention of translocations and telomeric fusions. As Artemis deficiency is compatible with human life, Artemis may also suppress genomic instability in humans...
  32. pmc Pax5 is required for recombination of transcribed, acetylated, 5' IgH V gene segments
    David G T Hesslein
    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Genes Dev 17:37-42. 2003
    ..The finding of transcribed, histone acetylated gene segments that fail to recombine suggests that a Pax5-dependent regulatory mechanism is required in addition to standard constraints of accessibility to control V(H) gene recombination...
  33. pmc Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of recombination signal sequence configuration in the RAG1/2 synaptic complex
    Mihai Ciubotaru
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunibiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:4745-58. 2007
    ....
  34. pmc The beyond 12/23 restriction is imposed at the nicking and pairing steps of DNA cleavage during V(D)J recombination
    Anna H Drejer-Teel
    Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, 330 Cedar St, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:6288-99. 2007
    ....
  35. pmc RAG and HMGB1 create a large bend in the 23RSS in the V(D)J recombination synaptic complexes
    Mihai Ciubotaru
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:2437-54. 2013
    ..We propose that this large bend facilitates simultaneous recognition of the heptamer and nonamer, is critical for proper positioning of the active site and contributes to the 12/23 rule...
  36. ncbi request reprint Extrachromosomal recombination substrates recapitulate beyond 12/23 restricted VDJ recombination in nonlymphoid cells
    David Jung
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Immunity 18:65-74. 2003
    ..Our findings indicate that B12/23 restriction of V(D)J recombination is cemented at the level of interactions between the RAG proteins and TCRbeta RS sequences...
  37. pmc Regulation of RAG1/RAG2-mediated transposition by GTP and the C-terminal region of RAG2
    Chia Lun Tsai
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    EMBO J 22:1922-30. 2003
    ....
  38. pmc A functional analysis of the spacer of V(D)J recombination signal sequences
    Alfred Ian Lee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    PLoS Biol 1:E1. 2003
    ..quot; The interplay between such binary and multiplicative modes of interactions provides a general model for analyzing protein-DNA interactions in various biological systems...
  39. ncbi request reprint Identification of an AID-independent pathway for chromosomal translocations between the Igh switch region and Myc
    Shyam Unniraman
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:1117-23. 2004
    ..In contrast, the outgrowth of translocation-positive cells was dependent on AID, raising the possibility that AID is important in tumor progression, perhaps by virtue of its mutagenic properties...
  40. ncbi request reprint Partial reconstitution of V(D)J rearrangement and lymphocyte development in RAG-deficient mice expressing inducible, tetracycline-regulated RAG transgenes
    Penny E Shockett
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Mol Immunol 40:813-29. 2004
    ..These mice provide a unique system for the inducible activation of V(D)J recombination and the development of primary lymphocytes...
  41. ncbi request reprint Targeting of somatic hypermutation
    Valerie H Odegard
    VaxInnate Corporation, 300 George Street, Suite 311, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:573-83. 2006
    ..We review and attempt to reconcile the numerous and sometimes conflicting studies on the targeting of SHM to immunoglobulin loci, and highlight areas that hold promise for further investigation...
  42. doi request reprint V(D)J recombination: mechanisms of initiation
    David G Schatz
    Department of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 45:167-202. 2011
    ..Finally, we propose a model for the formation of RAG-DNA complexes that involves anchoring of RAG1 at the recombination signal nonamer and RAG2-dependent surveillance of adjoining DNA for suitable spacer and heptamer sequences...
  43. ncbi request reprint Non-redundancy of cytidine deaminases in class switch recombination
    Sebastian D Fugmann
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Eur J Immunol 34:844-9. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint V(D)J recombination
    David G Schatz
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Immunol Rev 200:5-11. 2004
  45. ncbi request reprint Targeting of AID-mediated sequence diversification by cis-acting determinants
    Shu Yuan Yang
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Adv Immunol 94:109-25. 2007
    ....
  46. pmc Targeting Of Somatic Hypermutation By immunoglobulin Enhancer And Enhancer-Like Sequences
    Jean Marie Buerstedde
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 12:e1001831. 2014
    ..Our results demonstrate a novel regulatory function for Ig enhancers, indicating that they either recruit AID or alter the accessibility of the nearby transcription units. ..
  47. pmc AID-targeting and hypermutation of non-immunoglobulin genes does not correlate with proximity to immunoglobulin genes in germinal center B cells
    Hillary Selle Gramlich
    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e39601. 2012
    ....
  48. pmc Dendritic cell-mediated activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent induction of genomic instability in human myeloma
    Srinivas Koduru
    Departments of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    Blood 119:2302-9. 2012
    ..DC-mediated induction of AID and resultant genomic damage may therefore serve as a double-edged sword and be targeted by approaches such as RANKL inhibition already in the clinic...
  49. doi request reprint Recombination centres and the orchestration of V(D)J recombination
    David G Schatz
    Department of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, Box 208011, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:251-63. 2011
    ..These advances suggest novel mechanisms for both the targeting and the mistargeting of V(D)J recombination, and have implications for how these events contribute to genome instability and lymphoid malignancy...
  50. pmc Evidence of a critical architectural function for the RAG proteins in end processing, protection, and joining in V(D)J recombination
    Chia Lun Tsai
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Genes Dev 16:1934-49. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that the RAG proteins have an architectural function in facilitating proper and efficient V(D)J joining, and a protective function in preventing degradation of broken ends prior to joining...
  51. doi request reprint Imatinib resistance and progression of CML to blast crisis: somatic hypermutation AIDing the way
    Matthew P Strout
    Yale Cancer Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Hematology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cancer Cell 16:174-6. 2009
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Immunology. One AID to unite them all
    Sebastian D Fugmann
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Science 295:1244-5. 2002
  53. ncbi request reprint Uncovering the V(D)J recombinase
    David G Schatz
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale Medical School, 300 Cedar Street, Box 208011, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Cell 116:S103-6, 2 p following S106. 2004
  54. ncbi request reprint Pillars article: the V(D)J recombination activating gene, RAG-1. 1989
    David G Schatz
    J Immunol 180:5-18. 2008
  55. pmc B cell-specific loss of histone 3 lysine 9 methylation in the V(H) locus depends on Pax5
    Kristen Johnson
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:853-61. 2004
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Up-regulation of Hlx in immature Th cells induces IFN-gamma expression
    Wei Ping Zheng
    Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Box 609, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 172:114-22. 2004
    ..Thus, the induction of IFN-gamma expression by Hlx depends on a permissive epigenetic state of the IFN-gamma gene locus and/or the molecular context of the immature Th cells...
  57. ncbi request reprint Radiosensitization of MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a fragment of the XRCC4 protein
    Kara R Jones
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, P O Box 980230, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 4:1541-7. 2005
    ..These studies support the potential clinical utility of combining radiation therapy with agents that inhibit DNA double-strand break repair...
  58. ncbi request reprint Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes: merging mechanisms for genetic diversity
    F Nina Papavasiliou
    Laboratory of Lymphocyte Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Cell 109:S35-44. 2002
    ..Parallels between these three reactions are considered in light of recent advances...