E A Rakha

Summary

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Expression of BRCA1 protein in breast cancer and its prognostic significance
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, The Breast Unit, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, NG5 1PB Nottingham, UK
    Hum Pathol 39:857-65. 2008
  2. ncbi request reprint Expression of E2F-4 in invasive breast carcinomas is associated with poor prognosis
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, UK
    J Pathol 203:754-61. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint The p53 positive Bcl-2 negative phenotype is an independent marker of prognosis in breast cancer
    Phil Rolland
    Academic and Clinical Department of Oncology, University of Nottingham, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 120:1311-7. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Biologic and clinical characteristics of breast cancer with single hormone receptor positive phenotype
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology and Surgery, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 25:4772-8. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 44:73-83. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Pitfalls in outcome prediction of breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 66:458-64. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Outcome of pure mucocele-like lesions diagnosed on breast core biopsy
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 62:894-8. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Further evidence that E-cadherin is not a tumour suppressor gene in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: an immunohistochemical study
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 62:695-701. 2013
  9. doi request reprint Clinical outcome of atypical endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed on an endometrial biopsy: institutional experience and review of literature
    Emad Rakha
    Molecular Medical Science, University of Nottingham, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 36:1683-90. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Do primary mammary osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma exist? A review of a large multi-institutional series of malignant matrix-producing breast tumours
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, and the University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital Campus, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast 22:13-8. 2013

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications82

  1. doi request reprint Expression of BRCA1 protein in breast cancer and its prognostic significance
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, The Breast Unit, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, NG5 1PB Nottingham, UK
    Hum Pathol 39:857-65. 2008
    ..Immunohistochemical assessment of BRCA1 expression could provide additional clinically relevant information in routine classification of breast cancer...
  2. ncbi request reprint Expression of E2F-4 in invasive breast carcinomas is associated with poor prognosis
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, UK
    J Pathol 203:754-61. 2004
    ..E2F-4 appears to have an oncogenic role rather than a tumour suppressor role in breast carcinogenesis and, hence, it is not the gene targeted by 16q22.1 loss in breast carcinoma...
  3. ncbi request reprint The p53 positive Bcl-2 negative phenotype is an independent marker of prognosis in breast cancer
    Phil Rolland
    Academic and Clinical Department of Oncology, University of Nottingham, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 120:1311-7. 2007
    ..79 95%ci 1.10-2.89 p = 0.018)...
  4. ncbi request reprint Biologic and clinical characteristics of breast cancer with single hormone receptor positive phenotype
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology and Surgery, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 25:4772-8. 2007
    ..It is usually easier to decide treatment strategies in cases of double-positive/-negative phenotypes than in single-positive tumors...
  5. ncbi request reprint Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 44:73-83. 2008
    ..It is less common than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and few large studies have addressed its biologic characteristics and behaviour with respect to long-term clinical outcome and response to adjuvant therapy...
  6. doi request reprint Pitfalls in outcome prediction of breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 66:458-64. 2013
    ..Identification of these pitfalls is expected to improve prognostic and predictive marker assessment. Here issues related to outcome determination in breast cancer including definitions and pitfalls and some critical views are presented...
  7. doi request reprint Outcome of pure mucocele-like lesions diagnosed on breast core biopsy
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 62:894-8. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of pure MLL without atypia diagnosed on NCB using a large series of cases and a review of the literature to provide evidence that can guide management...
  8. doi request reprint Further evidence that E-cadherin is not a tumour suppressor gene in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: an immunohistochemical study
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 62:695-701. 2013
    ..In this study, we investigated further the existence of E-cadherin-negative ductal carcinoma and evaluated the status of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in this subgroup...
  9. doi request reprint Clinical outcome of atypical endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed on an endometrial biopsy: institutional experience and review of literature
    Emad Rakha
    Molecular Medical Science, University of Nottingham, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 36:1683-90. 2012
    ..Unless there is a clinical contraindication, hysterectomy should be performed to treat concurrent carcinoma and to reduce the risk of subsequent carcinoma in nonmalignant cases with residual AEH...
  10. doi request reprint Do primary mammary osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma exist? A review of a large multi-institutional series of malignant matrix-producing breast tumours
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, and the University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital Campus, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast 22:13-8. 2013
    ..Improved understanding of the clinicopathological characteristics of primary mammary MP-sarcomas, namely osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, is required...
  11. doi request reprint Encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: a study of invasion associated markers
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 65:710-4. 2012
    ..Although EPC typically lacks myoepithelial cells, it shows indolent clinical course. The classification of EPC as an in situ, or invasive disease, remains a matter of debate...
  12. pmc Prognostic value of proliferation assay in the luminal, HER2-positive, and triple-negative biologic classes of breast cancer
    Mohammed A Aleskandarany
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham and Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 14:R3. 2012
    ..This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of a proliferation assay by using Ki-67 immunohistochemistry as compared with mitotic count scores...
  13. doi request reprint The prognostic significance of early stage lymph node positivity in operable invasive breast carcinoma: number or stage
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, The University of Nottingham and Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 65:624-30. 2012
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Efficacy of an incident-reporting system in cellular pathology: a practical experience
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Cellular, Pathology, Nottingham, University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 65:643-8. 2012
    ..Published data on the role IR plays in cellular pathology remains scanty...
  15. doi request reprint The prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in invasive breast carcinoma
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Cancer 118:3670-80. 2012
    ..This is mainly because it remains unclear whether the presence of LVI is an independent, high-risk criterion in clinically relevant staging subgroups...
  16. pmc Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 12:207. 2010
    ....
  17. pmc Investigating AP-2 and YY1 protein expression as a cause of high HER2 gene transcription in breast cancers with discordant HER2 gene amplification
    Desmond G Powe
    Department of Cellular Pathology, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Derby Road, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 11:R90. 2009
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Prognostic significance of Nottingham histologic grade in invasive breast carcinoma
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham, NG5 1PB United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 26:3153-8. 2008
    ..However, grade is not included in the recent revision of the TNM staging system of breast cancer as its value is questioned in certain settings...
  19. doi request reprint Characterization and outcome of breast needle core biopsy diagnoses of lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) in abnormalities detected by mammographic screening
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 129:1417-24. 2011
    ..Malignancy is particularly associated with epithelial atypia suggesting the use of two categories of with and without epithelial atypia. Radiological findings provided useful information regarding the nature and outcome of B3 lesions...
  20. doi request reprint Encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: an invasive tumor with excellent prognosis
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 35:1093-103. 2011
    ..However, the classification of PC (whether they are in situ or invasive), its behavior, and management remain a matter of debate...
  21. doi request reprint Modern classification of breast cancer: should we stick with morphology or convert to molecular profile characteristics
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, UK
    Adv Anat Pathol 18:255-67. 2011
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer
    E A Rakha
    Department of Pathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, UK
    Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 23:587-600. 2011
    ..Here we discuss the epidemiology, morphological and molecular spectrum of TNBC, the clinical significance of this important class of breast cancer and the current treatment options...
  23. doi request reprint The sensitivity of cytologic evaluation of pleural fluid in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma
    E A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Diagn Cytopathol 38:874-9. 2010
    ..These data suggested that a cytologic diagnosis contributed useful information in patients with epithelioid and biphasic pleural MM. Limitations of the cytologic examination of MM should also be acknowledged...
  24. doi request reprint Combinatorial biomarker expression in breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 120:293-308. 2010
    ..Here, we review the evidence on the value of assessing biomarker expression in breast cancer individually and in combination and its relation to the recent molecular classification of breast cancer...
  25. ncbi request reprint Lobular breast carcinoma and its variants
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham University, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Semin Diagn Pathol 27:49-61. 2010
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Triple-negative breast cancer: distinguishing between basal and nonbasal subtypes
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham University, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Clin Cancer Res 15:2302-10. 2009
    ..It is widely perceived that BLBC and TN tumors are synonymous and BLBC can be defined using a TN definition without the need for the expression of basal markers...
  27. doi request reprint Screen-detected malignant breast lesions diagnosed following benign (B2) or normal (B1) needle core biopsy diagnoses
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 46:1835-40. 2010
    ..However, unlike fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, information on the miss rate including false-negative diagnoses (FN) of malignancy (benign 'B2' or normal 'B1' NCB with a malignant outcome) is limited...
  28. doi request reprint Screen-detected breast lesions with malignant needle core biopsy diagnoses and no malignancy identified in subsequent surgical excision specimens (potential false-positive diagnosis)
    Emad A Rakha
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG51PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 45:1162-7. 2009
    ..In conclusion, our results showed that the true false-positive rate of NCB is extremely rare. Significant over-management of screen-detected breast lesions as a result of false-positive NCB may be considered almost nil...
  29. doi request reprint Cytological assessment of conventional transbronchial fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes
    E A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Cytopathology 21:27-34. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the cytopathological outcome of TBNA...
  30. doi request reprint Clinical and biological significance of E-cadherin protein expression in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 34:1472-9. 2010
    ..E-cadherin-positive ILCs (ILC+) were subsequently examined to assess the expression of component members of the E-cadherin membrane complex (E-cadherin, p120, α, β, and γ-catenins) to determine its integrity...
  31. doi request reprint The biological and clinical characteristics of breast carcinoma with mixed ductal and lobular morphology
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 114:243-50. 2009
    ..No clinically meaningful differences in survival were found between these mixed carcinomas and pure IDC or ILC of the breast or between mixed tumours with predominantly ductal or lobular phenotype...
  32. ncbi request reprint Gigantic recurrent abdominal desmoid tumour: a case report
    E A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El Kom, Egypt
    Hernia 11:193-7. 2007
    ..We recommend surgical removal of DT regardless of its size and in particular in cases where there is no or inadequate response to neoadjuvant therapy...
  33. doi request reprint Evaluation of touch preparation cytology during frozen-section diagnoses of pulmonary lesions
    E A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 63:675-7. 2010
    ..However, the contribution of touch preparation cytology (TPC) to FS diagnosis remains unclear. Aim To assess the utility of routinely performed TPC during FS diagnoses of pulmonary lesions...
  34. ncbi request reprint Expression of mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC and MUC6) and their prognostic significance in human breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, The Breast Unit, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Mod Pathol 18:1295-304. 2005
    ..In conclusion, most breast carcinomas express MUC1, MUC3 and MUC4. Among the various mucins expressed in breast cancer, MUC1 and MUC3 are potential prognostic indicators, MUC1 having the strongest relationship with patient outcome...
  35. doi request reprint The proteins FABP7 and OATP2 are associated with the basal phenotype and patient outcome in human breast cancer
    H Zhang
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 121:41-51. 2010
    ..We have identified a novel subgroup of basal tumours showing FABP7 expression that have significantly better clinical outcome. Further studies analysing the role of FABP7 are therefore warranted...
  36. doi request reprint Lack of expression of the proteins GMPR2 and PPARα are associated with the basal phenotype and patient outcome in breast cancer
    B G Baker
    School of Molecular Medical Sciences and Cellular Pathology, Nottingham University Hospitals and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 137:127-37. 2013
    ..Further studies into their relevance in further classification of BP are warranted...
  37. ncbi request reprint Basal phenotype: a powerful prognostic factor in small screen-detected invasive breast cancer with long-term follow-up
    A J Evans
    Radiology, Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    J Med Screen 14:210-4. 2007
    ..To assess the frequency and prognostic significance of a basal phenotype in a group of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancers with long-term follow-up and to focus particularly on women with small ( < 15 mm) breast cancers...
  38. doi request reprint Sonographic correlations with the new molecular classification of invasive breast cancer
    I T H Au-Yong
    Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, UK, NG5 1PB
    Eur Radiol 19:2342-8. 2009
    ..The biological reasons for these findings and their implications regarding imaging protocols require further study and may enable improved detection of these lesions...
  39. doi request reprint The mammographic correlations of a new immunohistochemical classification of invasive breast cancer
    S Taneja
    Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Clin Radiol 63:1228-35. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to identify the mammographic correlates of these novel molecular classes of invasive breast cancer...
  40. pmc Identification of key clinical phenotypes of breast cancer using a reduced panel of protein biomarkers
    A R Green
    Breast Cancer Pathology Research Group, Division of Oncology, School of Medicine, Academic Unit of Clinical Oncology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Br J Cancer 109:1886-94. 2013
    ..As an alternative, immunohistochemical analysis applied to routinely processed tissue samples could be used to identify distinct biological classes of breast cancer...
  41. doi request reprint Predictive value of needle core biopsy diagnoses of lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) in abnormalities detected by mammographic screening
    M E el-Sayed
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 53:650-7. 2008
    ..The aim was to study a large series of B3 cases from population-based screening subjects in order to evaluate positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy...
  42. ncbi request reprint The influence of basal phenotype on the metastatic pattern of breast cancer
    A A Luck
    Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 20:40-5. 2008
    ..To assess whether basal phenotype influences the metastatic pattern and survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer...
  43. doi request reprint Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+): a modern clinical decision making tool in breast cancer
    E A Rakha
    1 Breast Cancer Pathology Research Group, Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK 2 Cellular Pathology, The Breast Institute, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    Br J Cancer 110:1688-97. 2014
    ..Conclusion:This study provides proof-of-principle evidence for the use of NPI+ in supporting improved individualised clinical decision making. ..
  44. pmc Caveolin 1 and Caveolin 2 are associated with breast cancer basal-like and triple-negative immunophenotype
    S E Elsheikh
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham, UK
    Br J Cancer 99:327-34. 2008
    ..Further studies are warranted to determine whether they play an oncogenic role in basal-like/triple-negative breast cancer development or are just surrogate markers for this subgroup...
  45. pmc An overview of assessment of prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer needle core biopsy specimens
    E A Rakha
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 60:1300-6. 2007
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Breast carcinoma with basal differentiation: a proposal for pathology definition based on basal cytokeratin expression
    E A Rakha
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham and Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 50:434-8. 2007
    ....
  47. doi request reprint The prognostic significance of PELP1 expression in invasive breast cancer with emphasis on the ER-positive luminal-like subtype
    Hany Onsy Habashy
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 120:603-12. 2010
    ..PELP1 appears to have a potential application in assessing the clinical outcome of patients with ER-positive breast cancer...
  48. doi request reprint PIK3CA expression in invasive breast cancer: a biomarker of poor prognosis
    Mohammed A Aleskandarany
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, Clifton Boulevard, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 122:45-53. 2010
    ..Thus, targeting of PIK3CA using specific inhibitors could potentially be beneficial, particularly for patients with more aggressive poorly differentiated tumors, irrespective of their molecular subtype...
  49. ncbi request reprint Morphological and immunophenotypic analysis of breast carcinomas with basal and myoepithelial differentiation
    E A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, UK
    J Pathol 208:495-506. 2006
    ..The basal rather than the myoepithelial phenotype has the strongest relationship with patient outcome...
  50. doi request reprint Molecular characteristics and prognostic features of breast cancer in Nigerian compared with UK women
    A J Agboola
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University Hospitals and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 135:555-69. 2012
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint E-cadherin expression in invasive non-lobular carcinoma of the breast and its prognostic significance
    E A Rakha
    The Breast Unit, Department of Histopathology and Division of Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 46:685-93. 2005
    ..However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of E-cadherin in the more frequent non-lobular types of breast carcinoma is unclear...
  52. doi request reprint Three-dimensional reconstruction of sentinel lymph nodes with metastatic breast cancer indicates three distinct patterns of tumour growth
    E C Paish
    Breast Cancer Pathology Research Group, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 62:617-23. 2009
    ..Three-dimensional (3D) serial section alignment and reconstruction techniques can be used for visualisation of nodal metastasis and could provide better understanding of disease growth patterns...
  53. doi request reprint The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast
    E A Rakha
    Departments of Histopathology and Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 45:1780-7. 2009
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate the difference in survival between medullary carcinoma and other forms of basal carcinomas and the role of inflammation in any such differences in behaviour...
  54. doi request reprint Clinicopathological and molecular significance of Sumolyation marker (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9)) expression in breast cancer of black women
    A O J Agboola
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom Department of Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Nigeria
    Pathol Res Pract 210:10-7. 2014
    ..This study demonstrates that UBC9 appears to play an important role in the tumor biology of Nigerian women. Therefore, a novel UBC9 targeted therapy in black women with BC could enhance a better patient outcome. ..
  55. pmc Three dimensional reconstruction of a human breast carcinoma using routine laboratory equipment and immunohistochemistry
    T Kurien
    Breast Cancer Pathology Research Group, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    J Clin Pathol 58:968-72. 2005
    ..To establish a three dimensional reconstruction of an invasive breast carcinoma using basic laboratory equipment to evaluate and characterise the spatial arrangement of the parenchymal cells of the breast...
  56. doi request reprint Vacuum-assisted excision of breast lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) - an alternative to surgery in selected cases
    S L Tennant
    Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast 17:546-9. 2008
    ..Follow-up mammography after VAE of radial scars often showed residual distortion. VAE can be a safe alternative to surgery in the treatment of B3 lesions without atypia, providing thorough multidisciplinary discussion has taken place...
  57. doi request reprint Growth fraction as a predictor of response to chemotherapy in node-negative breast cancer
    Mohammed A Aleskandarany
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 126:1761-9. 2010
    ..Patients with a high growth fraction appear to be ideal candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy while those with low growth fraction are less likely to benefit and are prone to the potential serious side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy...
  58. doi request reprint Influence of E-cadherin expression on the mammographic appearance of invasive nonlobular breast carcinoma detected at screening
    Sarah Doyle
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital National Health Service Trust, Nottingham Breast Institute, University of Nottingham, Hucknall Road, NG5 1PB Nottingham, England
    Radiology 253:51-5. 2009
    ..To determine whether E-cadherin loss causes nonlobular cancers (NLCs) detected at mammographic screening to have different mammographic appearances than do NLCs with normal E-cadherin expression...
  59. pmc Expression of the transcription factor CTCF in invasive breast cancer: a candidate gene located at 16q22.1
    E A Rakha
    The Breast Unit, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Hucknall Road, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Br J Cancer 91:1591-6. 2004
    ..1 loss in breast cancer and thus another gene or genes at this region remain to be identified...
  60. doi request reprint Expression profiling technology: its contribution to our understanding of breast cancer
    E A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 52:67-81. 2008
    ..Gene expression profiling of breast cancer has been performed using several approaches. This review will describe the details of gene expression profiling of breast cancer, the different approaches and the impact on clinical management...
  61. doi request reprint Transferrin receptor (CD71) is a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer and can predict response to tamoxifen
    Hany Onsy Habashy
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 119:283-93. 2010
    ..CD71 appears to be a candidate marker of a subgroup of ER+/luminal-like breast cancer characterised by poor outcome and resistance to tamoxifen...
  62. doi request reprint The expression of ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast determined using laser microdissection and real-time PCR
    Andrew R Green
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham and Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 54:419-27. 2009
    ..To determine the status of oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes (ERalpha and ERbeta) in lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) of the breast...
  63. doi request reprint Breast carcinoma with basal phenotype: mammographic findings
    Angela A Luck
    Nottingham International Breast Education Centre, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB, United Kingdom
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 191:346-51. 2008
    ..Basal phenotype has been found to be an independent poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the mammographic appearance of screening-detected breast carcinoma with the basal phenotype...
  64. doi request reprint Triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer: review
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK
    Pathology 41:40-7. 2009
    ..In this review, we discuss the difference between TN and basal-like tumours, pathological and clinical features of basal-like cancer and hence explore the criteria that can be used to identify these tumours in routine practice...
  65. ncbi request reprint Prognostic markers in triple-negative breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Cancer 109:25-32. 2007
    ..Triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative) is a high risk breast cancer that lacks the benefit of specific therapy that targets these proteins...
  66. doi request reprint Forkhead-box A1 (FOXA1) expression in breast cancer and its prognostic significance
    Hany Onsy Habashy
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 44:1541-51. 2008
    ....
  67. doi request reprint Loss of expression of chromosome 16q genes DPEP1 and CTCF in lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast
    Andrew R Green
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham and Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK NG7 2UH
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 113:59-66. 2009
    ..The aim of this study is to assess the expression of these genes in LCIS and compare them with normal breast, using CDH1 as a control, in order to evaluate their role as TSGs...
  68. ncbi request reprint Basal phenotype identifies a poor prognostic subgroup of breast cancer of clinical importance
    Emad A Rakha
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham and Department of Histopathology and Surgery, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 42:3149-56. 2006
    ..The recently recognised basal phenotype (BP) is associated with poor survival, but the clinical implications of this class of breast cancers remain to be adequately defined...
  69. doi request reprint Impact of basal-like breast carcinoma determination for a more specific therapy
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK
    Pathobiology 75:95-103. 2008
    ..In this review, we discuss the main features of basal-like tumours and recent evidence on the different available therapeutic approaches...
  70. doi request reprint Audit of performance of needle core biopsy diagnoses of screen detected breast lesions
    Maysa E El-Sayed
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 44:2580-6. 2008
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint High-resolution analysis of 16q22.1 in breast carcinoma using DNA amplifiable probes (multiplex amplifiable probe hybridization technique) and immunohistochemistry
    Emad A Rakha
    The Breast Unit, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 114:720-9. 2005
    ..Although our results support E-cadherin as the TSG in invasive lobular carcinoma, they argue against the candidacy of E2F-4, CTCF, TRF2, P-cadherin, Ksp-cadherin and VE-cadherin as TSGs in breast cancer...
  72. pmc Histological grading of breast cancer on needle core biopsy: the role of immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation
    T ng Chang Kwok
    Department of Pathology and School Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 57:212-9. 2010
    ..35 and 0.65). A major cause of the discrepancy is underestimation of mitoses in the NCB specimen. The aim was to determine the best method of assessing proliferation on NCB...
  73. ncbi request reprint The prognostic significance of steroid receptor co-regulators in breast cancer: co-repressor NCOR2/SMRT is an independent indicator of poor outcome
    Andrew R Green
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 110:427-37. 2008
    ..The aims were to identify whether their expression was related to patient outcome, their relationships to known prognostic factors and to provide a basis for further research into the mechanistic significance of such associations...
  74. doi request reprint Tubular carcinoma of the breast: further evidence to support its excellent prognosis
    Emad A Rakha
    FRCPath, Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital National Health Service Trust, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 28:99-104. 2010
    ..In addition, patients with TC seem to have a close to normal life expectancy, and as a consequence, adjuvant systemic therapy may not be justified in their routine management...
  75. doi request reprint Patho-biological aspects of basal-like breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 113:411-22. 2009
    ..In this review, we discuss the molecular and morphological features, prognostic significance of BLC, and explore its impact on the concept of the breast cancer stem cell...
  76. doi request reprint Global histone modifications in breast cancer correlate with tumor phenotypes, prognostic factors, and patient outcome
    Somaia E Elsheikh
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham and Nottingham Universities Hospital Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 69:3802-9. 2009
    ..This study identifies the presence of variations in global levels of histone marks in different grades, morphologic types, and phenotype classes of invasive breast cancer and shows that these differences have clinical significance...
  77. doi request reprint Basal-like breast cancer: a critical review
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital National Health Service NHS Trust, UK
    J Clin Oncol 26:2568-81. 2008
    ..In this review, we discuss definition, heterogeneity, morphologic spectrum, relation to BRCA1, and clinical significance of this important class of breast cancer...
  78. ncbi request reprint Histologic grading is an independent prognostic factor in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 111:121-7. 2008
    ..As it is less common than invasive ductal carcinoma, few studies of large size have addressed the value of assessment of histologic grade in ILC...
  79. ncbi request reprint Chromosome 16 tumor-suppressor genes in breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, The Breast Unit, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 45:527-35. 2006
    ..This review discusses the complexity of the 16q region and the different approaches that have been, are being, and will be used to detect the target genes in this area...
  80. pmc Are triple-negative tumours and basal-like breast cancer synonymous?
    Emad A Rakha
    Breast Cancer Res 9:404; author reply 405. 2007
  81. doi request reprint Immunohistochemical heterogeneity of breast carcinomas negative for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and Her2/neu (basal-like breast carcinomas)
    Emad A Rakha
    Mod Pathol 21:1060-1; author reply 1061-2. 2008
  82. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis
    Thomas C Putti
    Department of Pathology, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Mod Pathol 18:26-35. 2005
    ....