Jacques Pepin

Summary

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit
    Marc André Leclair
    Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Intensive Care Med 25:23-30. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint Parenteral transmission during excision and treatment of tuberculosis and trypanosomiasis may be responsible for the HIV-2 epidemic in Guinea-Bissau
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Center for International Health, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire 3001, University of Sherbrooke, 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS 20:1303-11. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Outcomes of Clostridium difficile-associated disease treated with metronidazole or vancomycin before and after the emergence of NAP1/027
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Am J Gastroenterol 102:2781-8. 2007
  4. pmc The syndromic management of vaginal discharge using single-dose treatments: a randomized controlled trial in West Africa
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, University of Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Bull World Health Organ 84:729-38. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Risk of Clostridium difficile infection after perioperative antibacterial prophylaxis before and during an outbreak of infection due to a hypervirulent strain
    Alex Carignan
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1838-43. 2008
  6. pmc Clostridium difficile infections in a Canadian tertiary care hospital before and during a regional epidemic associated with the BI/NAP1/027 strain
    Annie Claude Labbe
    Department of Microbiology, Hopital Maisonneuve Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3180-7. 2008
  7. pmc Human parvovirus 4 infection, Cameroon
    Myriam Lavoie
    Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:680-3. 2012
  8. ncbi request reprint Transactional sex is the driving force in the dynamics of HIV in Accra, Ghana
    Anne Marie Côté
    Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    AIDS 18:917-25. 2004
  9. pmc Fluoroquinolones and risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada
    Louiselle Leblanc
    University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1398-405. 2006
  10. pmc Mortality attributable to nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que
    CMAJ 173:1037-42. 2005

Collaborators

  • Milagros Gonzales
  • Alex Carignan
  • Richard Njouom
  • Francois Lamontagne
  • Olivier Lesur
  • Simon Authier
  • Philippe De Wals
  • Annie Claude Labbe
  • Regis Pouillot
  • Benoit Cossette
  • Sandra Dial
  • Michel Laverdiere
  • Louis Charles Fortier
  • Geneviève Petit
  • Shabbar Jaffar
  • Michel LeBlanc
  • Louis Valiquette
  • Claire Nour Abou Chakra
  • Mireille Plamondon
  • Eric Frost
  • Francois Sobela
  • Myriam Lavoie
  • Cynthia Grenier
  • Me Linh Luong
  • Marc André Leclair
  • Vincent Nault
  • Catherine Allard
  • Béatrice Poirier
  • Sylvie Deslandes
  • Yasmina Dada
  • Louiselle Leblanc
  • Anne Marie Côté
  • Agnes Dzokoto
  • Stephanie Sirard
  • Nadine Sauve
  • Peter Simmonds
  • Colin P Sharp
  • Christopher Pennington
  • Yacouba Foupouapouognigni
  • Oliver G Pybus
  • Camille Craig
  • Xavier Fournier
  • Marie Sol Poirier
  • Jessika Howson
  • Mathieu Beaudoin
  • Jérôme Cabana
  • Stéphane Carignan
  • Julia Cadrin-Tourigny
  • Charles Filion
  • Donald C Sheppard
  • Jean Roy
  • Dométo Sodji
  • Lonny J Erickson
  • Wiyoou Adom
  • Gerard Schmutz
  • Justine Bédard
  • Vincent Palokinam Pitche
  • Andrée Anne Beaulieu
  • Abiba Kéré Banla
  • Xuan Vien Do
  • Sesso Gbéléou
  • Alfredo Claudino Alves
  • Jean Pierre Manshande
  • Jean Youssouf
  • Mejdi Khelifa
  • Marie Pierre Garant
  • Aloys Kamuragiye
  • Nathalie Bastien
  • François Milord
  • Hassan Diab
  • Krystel Toulouse
  • Marie Eve Alary
  • Marie France Ouellette
  • Marie Pier Corriveau
  • Marie Andrée Coulombe
  • BENOIT MASSE
  • Comfort Asamoah-Adu
  • Khonde Nzambi
  • Joyce Mensah
  • Nzambi Khonde
  • Veronika Bekoe
  • Edmund Ekow Kaitoo
  • Myrto Mondor
  • Bernard Opare

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. doi request reprint Clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit
    Marc André Leclair
    Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Intensive Care Med 25:23-30. 2010
    ..The current review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment of CDI, with special emphasis on complicated cases managed in the ICU...
  2. ncbi request reprint Parenteral transmission during excision and treatment of tuberculosis and trypanosomiasis may be responsible for the HIV-2 epidemic in Guinea-Bissau
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Center for International Health, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire 3001, University of Sherbrooke, 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS 20:1303-11. 2006
    ..We sought to verify the hypothesis that parenteral transmission was the key factor in the building-up of the HIV-2 epidemic...
  3. ncbi request reprint Outcomes of Clostridium difficile-associated disease treated with metronidazole or vancomycin before and after the emergence of NAP1/027
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Am J Gastroenterol 102:2781-8. 2007
    ..To reassess the comparative efficacy of vancomycin versus metronidazole in the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) after the emergence in 2003 of the hypervirulent NAP1/027 strain...
  4. pmc The syndromic management of vaginal discharge using single-dose treatments: a randomized controlled trial in West Africa
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, University of Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Bull World Health Organ 84:729-38. 2006
    ..To evaluate whether single-dose treatments are as effective as standard therapy in the syndromic management of vaginal discharge...
  5. ncbi request reprint Risk of Clostridium difficile infection after perioperative antibacterial prophylaxis before and during an outbreak of infection due to a hypervirulent strain
    Alex Carignan
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1838-43. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of PAP-induced CDI after selected surgical procedures and to compare such risk before with such risk after the emergence of the hypervirulent strain of C. difficile...
  6. pmc Clostridium difficile infections in a Canadian tertiary care hospital before and during a regional epidemic associated with the BI/NAP1/027 strain
    Annie Claude Labbe
    Department of Microbiology, Hopital Maisonneuve Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3180-7. 2008
    ..Stringent antibiotic stewardship measures, combined with aggressive infection control, are required to curtail the epidemic of C. difficile infections...
  7. pmc Human parvovirus 4 infection, Cameroon
    Myriam Lavoie
    Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:680-3. 2012
    ..Findings suggest parenteral acquisition of some PARV4 infections...
  8. ncbi request reprint Transactional sex is the driving force in the dynamics of HIV in Accra, Ghana
    Anne Marie Côté
    Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    AIDS 18:917-25. 2004
    ..To delineate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of transactional sex in prevalent cases of HIV infection in the male adult population of Accra, Ghana...
  9. pmc Fluoroquinolones and risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada
    Louiselle Leblanc
    University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1398-405. 2006
    ..84-3.60) and infection (AHR 2.49, 95% CI 1.02-6.07). Effect of antimicrobial drugs on MRSA colonization and infection was similar to effect on CDAD and should be considered when selecting antimicrobial drugs to treat common infections...
  10. pmc Mortality attributable to nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que
    CMAJ 173:1037-42. 2005
    ..The effects of this epidemic on mortality and duration of hospital stay remain unknown. We measured these effects among patients admitted to a hospital in Quebec during 2003 and 2004...
  11. doi request reprint Increasing risk of infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies: time to reassess antimicrobial prophylaxis?
    Alex Carignan
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Eur Urol 62:453-9. 2012
    ..An increasing risk of infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy (PNB) has been observed recently in some centers...
  12. pmc Hepatitis C virus infection in Guinea-Bissau: a sexually transmitted genotype 2 with parenteral amplification?
    Mireille Plamondon
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 2:e372. 2007
    ..Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood...
  13. ncbi request reprint Impact of a reduction in the use of high-risk antibiotics on the course of an epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated disease caused by the hypervirulent NAP1/027 strain
    Louis Valiquette
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 45:S112-21. 2007
    ..The inefficacy of infection control measures targeting transmission through hospital personnel might be a result of their implementation late in the epidemic, when the environment was heavily contaminated with spores...
  14. doi request reprint A tale of two countries: HIV among core groups in Togo
    Francois Sobela
    Centre de Santé Internationale de l Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:216-23. 2009
    ..To describe the epidemiology of HIV among core groups in Togo...
  15. doi request reprint Iatrogenic transmission of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus through parenteral treatment and chemoprophylaxis of sleeping sickness in colonial Equatorial Africa
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 51:777-84. 2010
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint The price of development: HIV infection in a semiurban community of Ghana
    Nadine Sauve
    Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29:402-8. 2002
    ..To describe the epidemiology of HIV infection in the Manya Krobo District, Ghana, and its potential link to the building of the Akosombo dam...
  17. pmc Trypanosomiasis relapse after melarsoprol therapy, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1982-2001
    Jacques Pepin
    Centre for International Health and Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:921-7. 2005
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in severe blastomycosis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in an immunosuppressed patient
    Mireille Plamondon
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 51:e1-3. 2010
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Noble goals, unforeseen consequences: control of tropical diseases in colonial Central Africa and the iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne viruses
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Canada
    Trop Med Int Health 13:744-53. 2008
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Increasing risk of relapse after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis in Quebec, Canada
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1591-7. 2005
    ..Clinicians who treat patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in Quebec, Canada, have noted an apparent increase in the proportion of patients who experience relapse...
  21. ncbi request reprint Management and outcomes of a first recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in Quebec, Canada
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 42:758-64. 2006
    ....
  22. pmc Impact of emergency colectomy on survival of patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain
    Francois Lamontagne
    University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada
    Ann Surg 245:267-72. 2007
    ..To determine whether emergency colectomy reduces mortality in patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD), and to identify subgroups of patients more likely to benefit from the procedure...
  23. doi request reprint Risk factors for mortality following emergency colectomy for fulminant Clostridium difficile infection
    Jacques Pepin
    University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Dis Colon Rectum 52:400-5. 2009
    ..This study evaluated risk factors for mortality after emergency colectomy for fulminant Clostridium difficile infection...
  24. doi request reprint Risk factors for hepatitis C virus transmission in colonial Cameroon
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 51:768-76. 2010
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection: for whom is this expensive bullet really magic?
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1493-8. 2008
    ..In practice, because it is not yet possible to rapidly type the strains, all patients with severe CDI should be treated with vancomycin. Future trials should use complicated CDI and recurrences as their primary outcomes...
  26. ncbi request reprint Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1254-60. 2005
    ..In 2003, a total of 55% of patients with CDAD at our hospital had received fluoroquinolones in the preceding 2 months. It has been suggested that massive use of proton pump inhibitors might have facilitated this epidemic...
  27. doi request reprint The expansion of HIV-1 in colonial Leopoldville, 1950s: driven by STDs or STD control?
    Jacques Pepin
    CHUS, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, 3001, 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4, Canada
    Sex Transm Infect 88:307-12. 2012
    ..To understand the factors that drove the exponential spread of HIV-1 in Léopoldville (Kinshasa) in the 1950s...
  28. doi request reprint Risk of secondary cases of Clostridium difficile infection among household contacts of index cases
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology Infectious Diseases, Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Sherbrooke, 3001 12eme Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Infect 64:387-90. 2012
    ..We aimed to estimate the risk of secondary cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among household contacts of index cases...
  29. doi request reprint Prediction of complicated Clostridium difficile infection by pleural effusion and increased wall thickness on computed tomography
    Louis Valiquette
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, 3001, 12ème AveNord, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 49:554-60. 2009
    ..difficile. We sought to describe and correlate abdominal CT findings with complicated CDI and to compare them before and after the emergence of the epidemic strain...
  30. pmc Faecal pharmacokinetics of orally administered vancomycin in patients with suspected Clostridium difficile infection
    Milagros Gonzales
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, 3001 12eme Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    BMC Infect Dis 10:363. 2010
    ..We wished to determine to what extent faecal levels of vancomycin vary according to diarrhoea severity and dosage, and whether it is rational to administer high-dose vancomycin to selected patients...
  31. ncbi request reprint The Indian Ocean paradox revisited: HIV and sexually transmitted infections in the Comoros
    Yasmina Dada
    Center for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Int J STD AIDS 18:596-600. 2007
    ..Only 1/70 (1.4%) and 0/83 sex workers sampled in 2004 and 2005 were HIV-infected. The Comoros have been protected by their insular status, male circumcision and paucity of syphilis. HIV control should focus on sex workers...
  32. pmc Evolution of the global burden of viral infections from unsafe medical injections, 2000-2010
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 9:e99677. 2014
    ..Safe injection campaigns were organized worldwide. The present study sought to measure the progress in reducing the transmission of these viruses through unsafe injections over the subsequent decade...
  33. ncbi request reprint Randomized controlled trial of three regimens of melarsoprol in the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, 3001, 12eme Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4, Canada
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:437-41. 2006
    ..Graded dosing, which was associated with a much lower efficacy and more frequent convulsions, should be abandoned...
  34. pmc Prediction tools for unfavourable outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review
    Claire Nour Abou Chakra
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e30258. 2012
    ..Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) can improve the accuracy of medical decision-making. Several CPRs have been developed for CDI, but none has gained a widespread acceptance...
  35. doi request reprint Impact of guideline-consistent therapy on outcome of patients with healthcare-associated and community-acquired pneumonia
    Cynthia Grenier
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1617-24. 2011
    ..The optimal empirical management of patients with HCAP remains controversial and adherence to guidelines is inconsistent...
  36. pmc Risk Factors for Recurrence, Complications and Mortality in Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review
    Claire Nour Abou Chakra
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 9:e98400. 2014
    ..Numerous studies have assessed risk factors for these unfavourable outcomes, but systematic reviews or meta-analyses published so far were limited in scope or in quality...
  37. doi request reprint Clinical utility and prognostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan in patients with hematologic malignancies
    Me Linh Luong
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 68:132-9. 2010
    ..The BAL GM assay is a highly sensitive screening test for IPA in patients with hematologic malignancies. Increasing the cutoff value to 2.0 would improve the performance of this assay...
  38. ncbi request reprint The impact of syphilis, HIV-1, and HIV-2 on pregnancy outcome in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
    Anne Claude Labbé
    Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Sex Transm Dis 29:157-67. 2002
    ..Syphilis remains a major cause of fetal loss and neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Guinea-Bissau is the epicenter of the HIV-2 epidemic, and little is known about the impact of HIV-2 on pregnancy...
  39. pmc Evolution of the global use of unsafe medical injections, 2000-2010
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e80948. 2013
    ..The present study attempted to measure the progress, or lack thereof, made over the 2000-2010 decade in reducing unsafe injections in ten regions of the world corresponding to developing and transitional economies...
  40. ncbi request reprint From the Old World to the New World: an ecologic study of population susceptibility to HIV infection
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada
    Trop Med Int Health 10:627-39. 2005
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Improving second-generation surveillance: the biological measure of unprotected intercourse using prostate-specific antigen in vaginal secretions of West African women
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:490-3. 2006
    ..Questionnaires are prone to social desirability biases because individuals minimize the frequency of behaviors not expected from them...
  42. ncbi request reprint Trypanosoma brucei gambiense African trypanosomiasis: differences between men and women in severity of disease and response to treatment
    Jacques Pepin
    Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:421-6. 2002
    ..8%) (P = 0.004), even after adjustment for other independent risk factors in multivariate analysis. The cause of this higher risk of treatment failure among men treated with melarsoprol remains unclear...
  43. pmc Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que
    CMAJ 171:466-72. 2004
    ..difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in our institution. We describe cases of CDAD at our institution over a 13-year period and investigate changes in illness severity...
  44. doi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of a 3-dose pneumococcal conjugate vaccine program in the province of Quebec, Canada
    Béatrice Poirier
    Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada
    Vaccine 27:7105-9. 2009
    ..The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $18,000 per QALY gained for the health system and the program was close to the break-even threshold in a societal perspective...
  45. pmc Emergence of and risk factors for ciprofloxacin-gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli urinary tract infections in a region of Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 20:e163-8. 2009
    ..The risk factors for such infections remained unclear...