J F Cryan

Summary

Affiliation: Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint In search of a depressed mouse: utility of models for studying depression-related behavior in genetically modified mice
    J F Cryan
    Neuroscience Research, The Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Psychiatry 9:326-57. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Behavioral characterization of the novel GABAB receptor-positive modulator GS39783 (N,N'-dicyclopentyl-2-methylsulfanyl-5-nitro-pyrimidine-4,6-diamine): anxiolytic-like activity without side effects associated with baclofen or benzodiazepines
    John F Cryan
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, The Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research WSJ 386 344, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel CH 4002, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:952-63. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Don't worry 'B' happy!: a role for GABA(B) receptors in anxiety and depression
    John F Cryan
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 26:36-43. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in mice lacking the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7
    John F Cryan
    Nervous System Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Sciences, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 17:2409-17. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint The tail suspension test as a model for assessing antidepressant activity: review of pharmacological and genetic studies in mice
    John F Cryan
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, The Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research WSJ 386 344, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:571-625. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Assessing antidepressant activity in rodents: recent developments and future needs
    John F Cryan
    Neuromodulation Unit, Nervous System Research, Novartis Pharma AG, WSJ 386 344, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 23:238-45. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint mGluR7 facilitates extinction of aversive memories and controls amygdala plasticity
    M Fendt
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Psychiatry 13:970-9. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Feeling strained? Influence of genetic background on depression-related behavior in mice: a review
    L H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002, Basel, Switzerland
    Behav Genet 37:171-213. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint siRNA-mediated knockdown of the serotonin transporter in the adult mouse brain
    D R Thakker
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Psychiatry 10:782-9, 714. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint GABAB1 receptor subunit isoforms exert a differential influence on baseline but not GABAB receptor agonist-induced changes in mice
    Laura H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:1317-26. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi request reprint In search of a depressed mouse: utility of models for studying depression-related behavior in genetically modified mice
    J F Cryan
    Neuroscience Research, The Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Psychiatry 9:326-57. 2004
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Behavioral characterization of the novel GABAB receptor-positive modulator GS39783 (N,N'-dicyclopentyl-2-methylsulfanyl-5-nitro-pyrimidine-4,6-diamine): anxiolytic-like activity without side effects associated with baclofen or benzodiazepines
    John F Cryan
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, The Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research WSJ 386 344, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel CH 4002, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:952-63. 2004
    ..Overall, the data obtained here suggest that positive modulation of GABAB receptors may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the development of anxiolytics, with a superior side effect profile to both baclofen and benzodiazepines...
  3. ncbi request reprint Don't worry 'B' happy!: a role for GABA(B) receptors in anxiety and depression
    John F Cryan
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 26:36-43. 2005
    ..These include mice that lack functional GABA(B) receptors, and novel positive modulators of the GABA(B) receptor. In this review, we discuss evidence that points to a role of GABA(B) receptors in anxiety and depression...
  4. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in mice lacking the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7
    John F Cryan
    Nervous System Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Sciences, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 17:2409-17. 2003
    ..Therefore, drugs acting at mGluR7 may provide novel treatments for psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety...
  5. ncbi request reprint The tail suspension test as a model for assessing antidepressant activity: review of pharmacological and genetic studies in mice
    John F Cryan
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, The Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research WSJ 386 344, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:571-625. 2005
    ..Taken together, we conclude that the tail suspension test is a useful test for assessing the behavioural effects of antidepressant compounds and other pharmacological and genetic manipulations relevant to depression...
  6. ncbi request reprint Assessing antidepressant activity in rodents: recent developments and future needs
    John F Cryan
    Neuromodulation Unit, Nervous System Research, Novartis Pharma AG, WSJ 386 344, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 23:238-45. 2002
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint mGluR7 facilitates extinction of aversive memories and controls amygdala plasticity
    M Fendt
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Psychiatry 13:970-9. 2008
    ..The finding that mGluR7 critically regulates extinction, in addition to acquisition of aversive memories, demonstrates that this receptor may be relevant for the manifestation and treatment of anxiety disorders...
  8. ncbi request reprint Feeling strained? Influence of genetic background on depression-related behavior in mice: a review
    L H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002, Basel, Switzerland
    Behav Genet 37:171-213. 2007
    ..Neurochemical differences that may underlie strain differences are examined, and some caveats and cautions associated with the use of inbred strains are highlighted...
  9. ncbi request reprint siRNA-mediated knockdown of the serotonin transporter in the adult mouse brain
    D R Thakker
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Psychiatry 10:782-9, 714. 2005
    ..Further, these data demonstrate that siRNA-induced widespread knockdown of gene expression serves as a powerful tool for assessing the function of endogenous genes in the adult brain...
  10. ncbi request reprint GABAB1 receptor subunit isoforms exert a differential influence on baseline but not GABAB receptor agonist-induced changes in mice
    Laura H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:1317-26. 2006
    ..Therefore, GABA(B(1a)) and GABA(B(1b)) isoforms are functionally relevant molecular variants of the GABA(B(1)) receptor subunit, which are differentially involved in specific neurophysiological processes and behaviors...
  11. ncbi request reprint GABA(B(1)) receptor isoforms differentially mediate the acquisition and extinction of aversive taste memories
    Laura H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 26:8800-3. 2006
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Concomitant deficits in working memory and fear extinction are functionally dissociated from reduced anxiety in metabotropic glutamate receptor 7-deficient mice
    Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
    Laboratory of Biological Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Neurosci 26:6573-82. 2006
    ..It appears to depend on glutamatergic and higher-level brain functions similar to those involved in spatial working memory but functionally dissociated from those that mediate constitutional responses in anxiety tests...
  13. pmc GABA(B) receptor-positive modulation decreases selective molecular and behavioral effects of cocaine
    Loic Lhuillier
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:388-98. 2007
    ..Further investigation of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulation as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine dependence and possibly other drugs of abuse is therefore warranted...
  14. ncbi request reprint Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 ablation causes dysregulation of the HPA axis and increases hippocampal BDNF protein levels: implications for stress-related psychiatric disorders
    Kayo Mitsukawa
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1112-22. 2006
    ..We conclude that genetic ablation of mGluR7 in mice interferes at multiple sites in the neuronal circuitry and molecular pathways implicated in affective disorders...
  15. doi request reprint Evaluation of the anxiolytic-like profile of the GABAB receptor positive modulator CGP7930 in rodents
    Laura H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Neuropharmacology 54:854-62. 2008
    ..The generation of more potent compounds is now warranted...
  16. ncbi request reprint The rostral anterior cingulate cortex modulates depression but not anxiety-related behaviour in the rat
    Stephanie Bissiere
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Behav Brain Res 175:195-9. 2006
    ..On the contrary, none of the parameters measured in the EPM was affected by the lesion. These data point to an involvement of the rCG1/rCG2 in depression-related coping behaviours...
  17. ncbi request reprint Global down-regulation of gene expression in the brain using RNA interference, with emphasis on monoamine transporters and GPCRs: implications for target characterization in psychiatric and neurological disorders
    Daniel Hoyer
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    J Recept Signal Transduct Res 26:527-47. 2006
    ..Application of this non-viral RNAi approach may accelerate target validation for neuropsychiatric disorders that involve a complex interplay of gene(s) from various brain regions...
  18. ncbi request reprint Animal models of mood disorders: Recent developments
    John F Cryan
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Curr Opin Psychiatry 20:1-7. 2007
    ..This review focuses on the attempts to improve current paradigms and also illustrates examples where current paradigms are used to uncover novel molecular targets of antidepressants...
  19. ncbi request reprint Behavioral evaluation of mice deficient in GABA(B(1)) receptor isoforms in tests of unconditioned anxiety
    Laura H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 190:541-53. 2007
    ..Recent findings indicate specific roles for these isoforms in conditioned fear responses, although their influence on behavior in tests of unconditioned anxiety is unknown...
  20. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of reward processes in an animal model of depression
    David A Slattery
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 190:555-68. 2007
    ..Deficits in reward function, which underlie anhedonia, can be readily assessed in animals. Therefore, anhedonia may serve as an endophenotype for understanding the neural circuitry and molecular pathways underlying depression...
  21. ncbi request reprint GABAB receptor-positive modulation-induced blockade of the rewarding properties of nicotine is associated with a reduction in nucleus accumbens DeltaFosB accumulation
    Cedric Mombereau
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 321:172-7. 2007
    ..Taken together, the behavioral and molecular changes induced by nicotine occur in concert and are concomitantly amenable to reversal by GABAB receptor-positive modulators...
  22. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant-like effects of the novel, selective, 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY-163909 in rodents
    Sharon Rosenzweig-Lipson
    Discovery Neuroscience, Wyeth Research, CN 8000, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192:159-70. 2007
    ..Activation of one or more of the serotonin (5-HT) receptors may play a role in mediating the antidepressant effects of SSRIs...
  23. pmc Specific roles of GABA(B(1)) receptor isoforms in cognition
    Laura H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Behav Brain Res 181:158-62. 2007
    ..On the other hand, GABA(B(1a))(-/-) mice were impaired in familiar and novel object recognition. We conclude that GABA(B(1)) isoforms contribute differentially to GABA(B) receptor-mediated cognitive processes...
  24. ncbi request reprint Amyloid precursor protein knockdown by siRNA impairs spontaneous alternation in adult mice
    Yann Senechal
    Department of Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Lichtstrasse, Basel, Switzerland
    J Neurochem 102:1928-40. 2007
    ..These data suggest that acute knockdown of APP in adult mouse brain impairs hippocampus-dependent spatial working memory...
  25. ncbi request reprint Interfering with the brain: use of RNA interference for understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders
    Deepak R Thakker
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Pharmacol Ther 109:413-38. 2006
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Differential behavioral effects of the antidepressants reboxetine, fluoxetine, and moclobemide in a modified forced swim test following chronic treatment
    John F Cryan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 538A Clinical Research Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182:335-44. 2005
    ..However, few studies have compared the effects of short- and long-term antidepressant treatment on behaviors in the test, despite the need to treat patients chronically to produce clinical effects...
  27. ncbi request reprint Noradrenergic lesions differentially alter the antidepressant-like effects of reboxetine in a modified forced swim test
    John F Cryan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 538A Clinical Research Building, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 436:197-205. 2002
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that forebrain regions innervated by these two distinct noradrenergic pathways exert opposing influences on the behavioral response to reboxetine in the rat forced swim test...
  28. ncbi request reprint cAMP response element-binding protein is essential for the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription, but not the behavioral or endocrine responses to antidepressant drugs
    Alana C Conti
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6084, USA
    J Neurosci 22:3262-8. 2002
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Withdrawal from chronic amphetamine induces depressive-like behavioral effects in rodents
    John F Cryan
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 54:49-58. 2003
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Specific gamma-hydroxybutyrate-binding sites but loss of pharmacological effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in GABA(B)(1)-deficient mice
    Klemens Kaupmann
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, WKL 125 7 42, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 18:2722-30. 2003
    ..It, therefore, appears that all studied GHB effects are GABAB receptor dependent. The molecular nature and the signalling properties of the specific [3H]GHB-binding sites remain elusive...
  31. ncbi request reprint Genetic and pharmacological evidence of a role for GABA(B) receptors in the modulation of anxiety- and antidepressant-like behavior
    Cedric Mombereau
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1050-62. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Redistribution of GABAB(1) protein and atypical GABAB responses in GABAB(2)-deficient mice
    Martin Gassmann
    Pharmazentrum, Department of Clinical Biological Sciences, University of Basel, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 24:6086-97. 2004
    ..It is therefore possible that functional GABAB receptors exist in neurons that naturally lack GABAB(2) subunits...
  33. ncbi request reprint Altered response to benzodiazepine anxiolytics in mice lacking GABA B(1) receptors
    Cedric Mombereau
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research WSJ 386 344, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel CH 4002, Switzerland
    Eur J Pharmacol 497:119-20. 2004
    ..These data suggest that targeted deletion of GABA(B(1)) subunit alters GABA(A) receptor function in vivo...
  34. ncbi request reprint GABAB receptor antagonist-mediated antidepressant-like behavior is serotonin-dependent
    David A Slattery
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research WSJ 386 344, Novartis, Basel, CH 4002, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 312:290-6. 2005
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that GABA(B) receptor antagonists via an interaction with the serotonergic system display antidepressant-like properties and therefore represent a novel approach for the treatment of depression...
  35. pmc Neurochemical and behavioral consequences of widespread gene knockdown in the adult mouse brain by using nonviral RNA interference
    Deepak R Thakker
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17270-5. 2004
    ..Application of this nonviral RNAi approach may accelerate target validation for neuropsychiatric disorders that involve a complex interplay of gene(s) from various brain regions...
  36. ncbi request reprint Altered anxiety and depression-related behaviour in mice lacking GABAB(2) receptor subunits
    Cedric Mombereau
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Neuroreport 16:307-10. 2005
    ..In contrast, these mice exhibited an antidepressant-like behaviour in the forced swim test. Taken together, these data suggest that heterodimeric GABAB(1,2) receptors are required for the normal regulation of emotional behaviour...
  37. ncbi request reprint The GABAB receptor-positive modulator GS39783 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen attenuate the reward-facilitating effects of cocaine: intracranial self-stimulation studies in the rat
    David A Slattery
    Psychiatry Program, Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:2065-72. 2005
    ..Therefore, GABAB-positive modulation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine dependence and possibly other drugs of abuse without the side effects of full GABAB receptor agonists...
  38. ncbi request reprint Differential sensitivity to the motor and hypothermic effects of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen in various mouse strains
    Laura H Jacobson
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Neuroscience Research, WSJ 386 344, 4002, Basel, Switzerland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:688-99. 2005
    ..Investigation of the phamacogenetics of GABA B receptor activation may aid in the understanding of mechanisms underlying the role of GABA B in affect...
  39. ncbi request reprint Assessing substrates underlying the behavioral effects of antidepressants using the modified rat forced swimming test
    John F Cryan
    Department of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, 538A Clinical Research Building, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:547-69. 2005
    ..Finally, a physiological model of performance in the rat FST has been proposed involving the regulation of 5-HT transmission by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)...
  40. pmc The rostral anterior cingulate cortex modulates the efficiency of amygdala-dependent fear learning
    Stephanie Bissiere
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Biol Psychiatry 63:821-31. 2008
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate a possible top-down control of a specific rACC sub-region over amygdala activation during pavlovian fear acquisition...
  41. ncbi request reprint Behavioral and neurochemical effects of 5-(4-[4-(5-Cyano-3-indolyl)-butyl)-butyl]-1-piperazinyl)-benzofuran-2-carboxamide (EMD 68843): a combined selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake and 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor partial agonist
    Michelle E Page
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6140, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:1220-7. 2002
    ..At higher doses, however, weak efficacy of EMD 68843 at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors may inhibit the expression of rodent antidepressant-like behaviors...
  42. ncbi request reprint Bupropion enhances brain reward function and reverses the affective and somatic aspects of nicotine withdrawal in the rat
    John F Cryan
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:347-58. 2003
    ..Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant and the only non-nicotine-based therapy approved for smoking cessation. Its use has raised much debate as to how a non-nicotine-based agent can aid in smoking cessation...
  43. pmc A selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 agonist: activation of receptor signaling via an allosteric site modulates stress parameters in vivo
    Kayo Mitsukawa
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18712-7. 2005
    ..Therefore, AMN082 is a valuable tool for unraveling the role of mGluR7 in stress-related CNS disorders...
  44. ncbi request reprint Non-nicotinic neuropharmacological strategies for nicotine dependence: beyond bupropion
    John F Cryan
    Neuroscience Disease Area, The Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, WSJ 386 344Novartis Pharma AG CH 4002, Basel, Switzerland
    Drug Discov Today 8:1025-34. 2003
    ....
  45. pmc Differential compartmentalization and distinct functions of GABAB receptor variants
    Rejan Vigot
    Department of Clinical Biological Sciences, Institute of Physiology, Pharmazentrum, University of Basel, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    Neuron 50:589-601. 2006
    ..The constitutive absence of GABAB1a but not GABAB1b results in impaired synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory, emphasizing molecular differences in synaptic GABAB functions...
  46. pmc Norepinephrine-deficient mice lack responses to antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    John F Cryan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8186-91. 2004
    ..These data show that NE plays an important role in mediating acute behavioral and neurochemical actions of many antidepressants, including most SSRIs...
  47. ncbi request reprint Blockade of the mGlu5 receptor decreases basal and stress-induced cortical norepinephrine in rodents
    Michelle E Page
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:240-6. 2005
    ..The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is an important mediator of stress responses and dysfunction of this system is implicated in affective disorders such as anxiety and depression...
  48. ncbi request reprint The ascent of mouse: advances in modelling human depression and anxiety
    John F Cryan
    Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel CH 4055, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 4:775-90. 2005
    ..Here, we assess the current status of research into developing appropriate tests for assessing such behaviours...