Nakayama S, Johnstone R, Manica A. Temperament and hunger interact to determine the emergence of leaders in pairs of foraging fish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43747 pubmed publisher
..Our results show that leadership emerges as the consequence of multiple factors, and that their interaction can be complex. ..
Nakayama S, Stumpe M, Manica A, Johnstone R. Experience overrides personality differences in the tendency to follow but not in the tendency to lead. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131724 pubmed publisher
..As a consequence of this lack of flexibility in initiative, greater temperamental differences within a pair led to improved performance when typical roles were reinforced, but to impaired performance when typical roles were reversed. ..
Nakayama S, Harcourt J, Johnstone R, Manica A. Who directs group movement? Leader effort versus follower preference in stickleback fish of different personality. Biol Lett. 2016;12: pubmed publisher