S Mukaratirwa

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Infectivity of Trichinella sp. isolated from Crocodylus niloticus to the indigenous Zimbabwean pig (Mukota)
    S Mukaratirwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Int J Parasitol 29:1129-31. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint A survey of parasitic nematode infections of chickens in rural Zimbabwe
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 68:183-6. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint Feline nasal and paranasal sinus tumours: clinicopathological study, histomorphological description and diagnostic immunohistochemistry of 123 cases
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University
    J Feline Med Surg 3:235-45. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Tenascin and proteoglycans: the role of tenascin and proteoglycans in canine tumours
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 158, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Res Vet Sci 73:1-8. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Effect of host age in the distribution of adult Trichinella zimbabwensis in the small intestines of golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Balb C mice
    S Mukaratirwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, P O Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 70:169-73. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe
    D M Pfukenyi
    Clinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 74:129-42. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe
    D M Pfukenyi
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 73:179-91. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological studies of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe
    D M Pfukenyi
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Diagnostic and Research Branch, P O Box CY 551, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:67-86. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats and sheep in Zimbabwe
    T Hove
    Parasitology Section, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:267-72. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management systems in Zimbabwe
    T Hove
    Parasitology Section, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:231-7. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi request reprint Infectivity of Trichinella sp. isolated from Crocodylus niloticus to the indigenous Zimbabwean pig (Mukota)
    S Mukaratirwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Int J Parasitol 29:1129-31. 1999
    ..The present study constitutes the first report of a successful experimental infection of the pig with Trichinella sp. originating from crocodile...
  2. ncbi request reprint A survey of parasitic nematode infections of chickens in rural Zimbabwe
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 68:183-6. 2001
    ..Capillaria obsignata, Capillaria contorta and Trichostrongylus tenuis are new records in Zimbabwe. Allodapa brumpti and Tetrameres americana were the most common species with a prevalence of 64.8% and 64.1%, respectively...
  3. ncbi request reprint Feline nasal and paranasal sinus tumours: clinicopathological study, histomorphological description and diagnostic immunohistochemistry of 123 cases
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University
    J Feline Med Surg 3:235-45. 2001
    ..Six cases of malignant lymphomas were proved to be epitheliotropic T-cell lymphomas. This is the first report of a primary nasal epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma in cats...
  4. ncbi request reprint Tenascin and proteoglycans: the role of tenascin and proteoglycans in canine tumours
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 158, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Res Vet Sci 73:1-8. 2002
    ..This review focuses on the role of tenascin and proteoglycans in neoplasia and recent developments in canine tumours...
  5. ncbi request reprint Effect of host age in the distribution of adult Trichinella zimbabwensis in the small intestines of golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Balb C mice
    S Mukaratirwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, P O Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 70:169-73. 2003
    ..From this study it was demonstrated that host-age had no effect on the distribution of T. zimbabwensis adult worms in the different segments of the small intestines of golden hamsters and Balb C mice...
  6. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe
    D M Pfukenyi
    Clinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 74:129-42. 2007
    ..These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe...
  7. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe
    D M Pfukenyi
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 73:179-91. 2006
    ..mattheei and S. haematobium since they share the same intermediate host. The transmission of Schistosoma cercariae exhibited a marked seasonal pattern, being more intensive during the hot, dry season (September/November)...
  8. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological studies of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe
    D M Pfukenyi
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Diagnostic and Research Branch, P O Box CY 551, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:67-86. 2005
    ..To reduce cercarial shedding by the intermediate host snails molluscicides can also be applied during the peak transmission periods (April/May and August/September)...
  9. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats and sheep in Zimbabwe
    T Hove
    Parasitology Section, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:267-72. 2005
    ..Overall, significantly higher proportions of seropositive animals had antibody titres of 1:50 (34.2% of 225) and 1:100 (44% of 225) as compared to the 9.8% and 12% with antibody titres of 1:200 and > or =1:400, respectively...
  10. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management systems in Zimbabwe
    T Hove
    Parasitology Section, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:231-7. 2005
    ..The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T. gondii infection in domestic pigs...
  11. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological studies of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe
    D M Pfukenyi
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 73:37-51. 2006
    ..first application of molluscicides to control the snail intermediate hosts can be done in June the time when the snail is harbouring the parasite and a second application in September in order to kill new generations of infected snails..
  12. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and control of trematode infections in cattle in Zimbabwe: a review
    D M Pfukenyi
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Diagnostic and Research Branch, PO Box CY551, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 76:9-17. 2005
    ..The regional distribution of the trematodes is reviewed in relation to the distribution patterns of their snail intermediate hosts. Based on the epidemiological features of the trematodes, practical control measures are suggested...
  13. ncbi request reprint Canine cutaneous neoplasms: prevalence and influence of age, sex and site on the presence and potential malignancy of cutaneous neoplasms in dogs from Zimbabwe
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 76:59-62. 2005
    ..Lymphohistiocytic tumours were 10 times more likely to occur at multiple locations as opposed to single locations...
  14. ncbi request reprint First report of a field outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis & Leger 1910), in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Zimbabwe
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:203-6. 2005
    ..To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of the oriental eye-fluke infection in birds in Zimbabwe and Africa and extends its known geographical range...
  15. ncbi request reprint Versican and hyaluronan expression in canine colonic adenomas and carcinomas: relation to malignancy and depth of tumour invasion
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathobiology, Division of Pathology, Utrecht University, P O Box 80158, Yalelaan 1, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Comp Pathol 131:259-70. 2004
    ..These results suggest that altered levels of both versican and hyaluronan in canine colonic tumours affect tumour progression...
  16. ncbi request reprint Bovine intestinal cellular responses following primary and challenge infections with Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae
    M Mavenyengwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Harare
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 75:109-20. 2008
    ..05) as compared to those of the control group. The study indicates that cattle can develop resistance to C. microbothrium re-infection and that eosinophils and mast cells may be important cells in the rejection of the parasite...
  17. ncbi request reprint Observations on mass production of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae from experimentally and naturally infected Bulinus tropicus
    M Mavenyengwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 73:95-100. 2006
    ..Eighty-four percent of the snails died within 7 weeks of the study with peak mortality occurring from the 2nd to the 4th week of infection and coinciding with an overall decrease in the number of cercariae shed...
  18. doi request reprint Influence of Calicophoron microbothrium amphistomosis on the biochemical and blood cell counts of cattle
    M Mavenyengwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J Helminthol 84:355-61. 2010
    ..05) in the circulating eosinophils occurred between 7 and 21 days post-infection in the LD and the HD groups...
  19. ncbi request reprint Relationship between cell proliferation and tenascin-C expression in canine gastrointestinal tumours and normal mucosa
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathobiology, Division of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P O Box 80158, Yalelaan 1, 3058 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Res Vet Sci 76:133-8. 2004
    ..The absence of a correlation between tenascin and Ki-67 expression suggests that the main function of tenascin in both normal tissues and tumours of the canine gastrointestinal tract is antiadhesion rather than proliferation...
  20. ncbi request reprint Transmission studies on Trichinella species isolated from Crocodylus niloticus and efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole against muscle L1 stages in Balb C mice
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant, Harare
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 68:21-5. 2001
    ..It is not certain whether the parasite was transmitted congenitally or transmammary Alternative ways of controlling the parasite in crocodile farms in Zimbabwe are discussed...
  21. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of 7 freshwater gastropod species in Zimbabwe to infection with Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (Cobbold, 1876) Looss, 1896
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Box MP 167 Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 75:186-8. 2004
    ..Bulinus tropicus is considered as the most likely major intermediate host of G. aegyptiacus because of its wide distribution in Zimbabwe and is well adapted to a wide variety of environments...
  22. ncbi request reprint A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle
    M Mavenyengwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 72:321-32. 2005
    ..On Day 56 pi, a few glands were still cystic in the MD and the HD groups. Moderate cell infiltrations were still present in the lamina propria of all the three groups and by Day 84 pi complete regeneration had occurred in all animals...
  23. ncbi request reprint Canine transmissible venereal tumour: assessment of mast cell numbers as indicators of the growth phase
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Vet Res Commun 30:613-21. 2006
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Preliminary characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe, with stage-specific monoclonal antibodies
    T Hove
    Parasitology Section, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99:377-82. 2005
    ..25, 5.1 and anti-P(30) indicated that all the isolates are probably of genetic type II. Each of the isolates reacted in the IFAT in a similar way to the Danish reference strain of T. gondii, SSI-119...
  25. ncbi request reprint Combination therapy using intratumoral bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and vincristine in dogs with transmissible venereal tumours: therapeutic efficacy and histological changes
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 80:92-6. 2009
    ..This study indicates that combined BCG and vincristine therapy is more effective than vincristine in treating CTVT, suggesting that the clinical course of this disease may be altered by immunochemotherapy...
  26. ncbi request reprint Tenascin expression in relation to stromal tumour cells in canine gastrointestinal epithelial tumours
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, PO Box 80158, Yalelan 1, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Comp Pathol 129:137-46. 2003
    ..There was a strong co-localization of tenascin and alpha-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts, suggesting that myofibroblasts are responsible for tenascin secretion...
  27. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from Zimbabwe
    T Hove
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare
    Acta Trop 94:49-53. 2005
    ..Attempts to isolate T. gondii from the heart muscles of seropositve ostriches by subinoculation in BALB/c mice were unsuccessful...
  28. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of Libyostrongylus douglassii in commercially reared ostriches in the highveld region of Zimbabwe
    S Mukaratirwa
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, PO Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J Helminthol 78:333-6. 2004
    ..Wireworm infections were not taken into consideration by farmers during buying and selling of birds...
  29. ncbi request reprint Prognostic and predictive markers in canine tumours: rationale and relevance. A review
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Studies, Pathology Section, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare
    Vet Q 27:52-64. 2005
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of disseminated zygomycosis and concomitant pulmonary aspergillosis in breeder layer cockerels
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53:51-3. 2006
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint A comparison of the susceptibility of growing mukota and large white pigs to infection with Ascaris suum
    J Zanga
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Vet Res Commun 27:653-60. 2003
    ..These preliminary findings suggest that more A. suum larvae reached the livers in the LW than in the Mukota pigs and that the latter may be more resistant to A. suum infection...
  32. ncbi request reprint A retrospective study of the prevalence and seasonal variation of Fasciola gigantica in cattle slaughtered in the major abattoirs of Zimbabwe between 1990 and 1999
    D M Pfukenyi
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Diagnostic and Research Branch, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 71:181-7. 2004
    ..05). Based on the study findings a control programme for the disease in Zimbabwe is suggested...
  33. ncbi request reprint Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp.) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP 167 Mount Pleasant Harare, Zimbabwe
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 75:173-80. 2008
    ..Five consecutive treatments with an oxfendazole-levamisole combination on surviving animals failed to clear the infection whereas ivermectin cleared the infection after one treatment in two monkeys and after two treatments in a baboon...
  34. ncbi request reprint Canine transmissible venereal tumour: cytogenetic origin, immunophenotype, and immunobiology. A review
    S Mukaratirwa
    University of Zimbabwe, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Paraclinical Studies, Mount Pleasant, Harare
    Vet Q 25:101-11. 2003
    ..This review examines the current state of knowledge of the aspects of the cytogenetic origin, immunophenotype, immunobiology and immunotherapy of CTVT...
  35. ncbi request reprint Canine subclinical prostatic disease: histological prevalence and validity of digital rectal examination as a screening test
    S Mukaratirwa
    Pathology Section, Department of Paraclinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, P O Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 78:66-8. 2007
    ..The prevalence of subclinical BPH and prostatitis were higher in intact than castrated dogs. DRE had a high specificity (75%) and positive predictive value (87%), but a low sensitivity (53%) and negative predictive value (34%)...
  36. ncbi request reprint Partial facial duplication (diprosopus) in a goat kid
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Paraclinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 77:42-4. 2006
    ..The olfactory tract was absent and the superficial origins of most of the cranial nerves were not discernible...
  37. ncbi request reprint Larval trematode infections in freshwater snails from the highveld and lowveld areas of Zimbabwe
    G Chingwena
    University of Zimbabwe, Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J Helminthol 76:283-93. 2002
    ..The main intermediate host for amphistomes was B. tropicus. Infections in B. globosus, B. forskalii and Biomphalaria pfeifferi with amphistome cercariae are new records for Zimbabwe...
  38. ncbi request reprint Medical and veterinary doctors, social scientists and agricultural researchers meet to carry forward the fight against cysticercosis, a neglected and fatal disease of the poor
    S Mukaratirwa
    CWGESA Chairperson, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 79:2. 2008
  39. ncbi request reprint Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats
    C Kahiya
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Vet Parasitol 115:265-74. 2003
    ..05) and by 10% in the AN group (non-significant) relative to the infected control group. The study indicates that the difference in the effects of the two forages on HC infections may be related to type and concentration of tannins...
  40. ncbi request reprint A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe
    O Madzingira
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 73:70-3. 2002
    ..However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important...
  41. ncbi request reprint Stromal cells and extracellular matrix components in spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumour at different stages of growth
    S Mukaratirwa
    Department of Pathobiology, Utrecht University
    Histol Histopathol 19:1117-23. 2004
    ..001). This suggests that hyaluronan is involved in the growth of the tumour. There was no significant difference in the expression of chondroitin sulphate and versican in progressing and regressing tumours...
  42. ncbi request reprint Trichinella zimbabwensis n.sp. (Nematoda), a new non-encapsulated species from crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe also infecting mammals
    E Pozio
    Laboratory of Parasitology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    Int J Parasitol 32:1787-99. 2002
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis induce infection in experimentally infected varans, caimans, pythons and turtles
    E Pozio
    Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 0061 Rome, Italy
    Parasitology 128:333-42. 2004
    ..papuae and T. zimbabwensis was observed in varans. The results show that T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are able to complete their entire life-cycle in both poikilothermic and homoiothermic animals...