Enrique Espinosa


Affiliation: Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias
Location: Mexico City, Mexico
Researcher in immunopathogenesis of HIV disease, and chronic inflammation in other settings.

Graduate student mentor at Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, National University, Mexico (UNAM)
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: An alteration in CD4+ T regulatory cells and in costimulatory molecules?, 2005, UC-Mexus/ Conacyt, University of California
Reconstitución inmunitaria en VIH: Bases inmunológicas de sus límites y consecuencias, 2006, Conacyt Mexico, 114484 “Polarización de las células T de memoria centrales como biomarcador de riesgo en pacientes en etapa avanzada de la enfermedad por VIH, 2010, Conacyt, Imss, SSa, Issste MEXICO


  1. Espinosa E, Ormsby C, Vega Barrientos R, Ruiz Cruz M, Moreno Coutiño G, Peña Jiménez A, et al. Risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome under combination antiretroviral therapy can be aetiology-specific. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21:573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Indicators of advanced HIV disease and subclinical inflammation jointly predict IRIS, and some are specific of the underlying microbial aetiology, possibly explaining previous reports. ..
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    Pacheco Lopez G, Niemi M, Engler H, Engler A, Riether C, Doenlen R, et al. Weakened [corrected] taste-LPS association during endotoxin tolerance. Physiol Behav. 2008;93:261-6 pubmed
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    Ortega Larrocea G, Espinosa E, Reyes Teran G. Lower incidence and severity of cytomegalovirus-associated immune recovery uveitis in HIV-infected patients with delayed highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2005;19:735-8 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest a protective role of delaying HAART until cytomegalovirus retinitis is controlled. ..
  4. Espinosa E, Peña Jiménez A, Ormsby C, Vega Barrientos R, Reyes Teran G. Later onset of herpes zoster-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. HIV Med. 2009;10:454-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may be useful in improving the follow-up of individuals who start HAART at an advanced stage of HIV infection. ..
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    Pacheco López G, Espinosa E, Zamorano Rojas H, Ramirez Amaya V, Bermudez Rattoni F. Peripheral protein immunization induces rapid activation of the CNS, as measured by c-Fos expression. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;131:50-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different interconnected brain cell groups respond rapidly to an immune challenge in the periphery, constituting an afferent pathway of neuroimmune communication. ..
  6. Ruiz Cruz M, Espinosa E, Romero K, Reyes Teran G. Bevacizumab reverts serous retinal detachment caused by tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. AIDS. 2011;25:1241-3 pubmed publisher
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    Avila Rios S, Reyes Teran G, Espinosa E. Cornering HIV: taking advantage of interactions between selective pressures. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69:422-31 pubmed
    ..Cornering would control HIV infection better than current strategies, focused on few, albeit important, sites in the HIV genome. ..
  8. Ramirez Amador V, Espinosa E, González Ramírez I, Anaya Saavedra G, Ormsby C, Reyes Teran G. Identification of oral candidosis, hairy leukoplakia and recurrent oral ulcers as distinct cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:259-61 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4+ T-cell counts at symptom onset suggested no remaining immune suppression. Our findings show that cases of OC, HL and recurrent ulcers can be instances of IRIS. ..
  9. Moreno Coutiño G, Espinosa E, Garcia Romero M, Reyes Teran G. Novel presentation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: folliculitis secondary to Malassezia spp. Mycoses. 2011;54:e252-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe folliculitis associated with Malassezia spp. as a distinct manifestation of IRIS. The distinction between these two types of IRIS folliculitis is relevant for treatment. ..

Detail Information


  1. Avila Rios S, Ormsby C, Carlson J, Valenzuela Ponce H, Blanco Heredia J, Garrido Rodriguez D, et al. Unique features of HLA-mediated HIV evolution in a Mexican cohort: a comparative study. Retrovirology. 2009;6:72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the importance of comparative HIV evolutionary studies in immunologically different populations worldwide. ..
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    Ramírez Lugo L, Miranda M, Escobar M, Espinosa E, Bermudez Rattoni F. The role of cortical cholinergic pre- and post-synaptic receptors in taste memory formation. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2003;79:184-93 pubmed
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    Torres K, Gutiérrez F, Espinosa E, Mackewicz C, Regalado J, Reyes Teran G. CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response: restoration by HAART in the late stage of infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:144-52 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a beneficial effect on CNAR in those individuals with reduced activity, typically in late-stage infection. ..
  4. Espinosa E, Ormsby C, Reyes Teran G, Asaad R, Sieg S, Lederman M. Dissociation of CD154 and cytokine expression patterns in CD38+ CD4+ memory T cells in chronic HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:439-45 pubmed publisher
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    Espinosa E, Bermudez Rattoni F. [Behavior-immunity relationship: the role of cytokines]. Rev Invest Clin. 2001;53:240-53 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms and pathways of communication between the brain and the immune system, as well as the possible participation of other cytokines are discussed. ..
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    Espinosa E, Velázquez Villaseñor L, Soda Merhy A, Torres K, Ormsby C, Reyes Teran G. Endoscopic assessment of adenoid size is an indicator of tissue virologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;38:255-60 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, simple endoscopic measurement of the adenoid diameter is a good indicator of viral load decrease in this tissue. ..
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    Espinosa E. [Finding the traces of the HIV selection]. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2006;48:84-90 pubmed
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    Haerter K, Vroon A, Kavelaars A, Heijnen C, Limmroth V, Espinosa E, et al. In vitro adrenergic modulation of cellular immune functions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2004;146:126-32 pubmed
    ..Disturbed sympathetic-immune communication in EAE is characterized by alterations in adrenergic sensitivity via both alpha- and beta-adrenergic pathways. ..
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    Espinosa E, Calderas T, Flores Muciño O, Perez Garcia G, Vázquez Camacho A, Bermudez Rattoni F. Enhancement of antibody response by one-trial conditioning: contrasting results using different antigens. Brain Behav Immun. 2004;18:76-80 pubmed
    ..By comparing these and other findings we conclude that the number of conditioning trials is a possible requirement for a more reliable conditioning of antibody response. ..
  10. Olvera García G, Aguilar García T, Gutiérrez Jasso F, Imaz Rosshandler I, Rangel Escareño C, Orozco L, et al. A transcriptome-based model of central memory CD4 T cell death in HIV infection. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:956 pubmed