Aishah A, Hinton T, Waters K, Machaalani R. The α3 and α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the brainstem medulla of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Neurobiol Dis. 2019;125:23-30 pubmed publisher
Machaalani R, Ghazavi E, Hinton T, Makris A, Hennessy A. Immunohistochemical expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta, and effects of cigarette smoking and preeclampsia. Placenta. 2018;71:16-23 pubmed publisher
..These findings support that both CS and PE affect nAChRs in the placenta, but that this is restricted to the villi. ..
Machaalani R, Ghazavi E, Hinton T, Waters K, Hennessy A. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;276:204-12 pubmed publisher
Machaalani R, Waters K. Neurochemical abnormalities in the brainstem of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Paediatr Respir Rev. 2014;15:293-300 pubmed publisher
..We discuss the implications of these findings and directions that this may lead in future research. ..
Hunt N, Phillips L, Waters K, Machaalani R. Proteomic MALDI-TOF/TOF-IMS examination of peptide expression in the formalin fixed brainstem and changes in sudden infant death syndrome infants. J Proteomics. 2016;138:48-60 pubmed publisher
..Abnormal expression patterns were present for 41/285 and 9/55 proteins in SIDS using IMS. Brainstem regions mostly affected included the raphe nuclei, hypoglossal and pyramids. ..
Hunt N, Waters K, Machaalani R. Promotion of the Unfolding Protein Response in Orexin/Dynorphin Neurons in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Elevated pPERK and ATF4 Expression. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:7171-7185 pubmed publisher
..As pPERK may inhibit multiple neuronal groups in the pons in SIDS infants, it could also indicate that a common pathway promotes loss of protein expression and impaired functionality of multiple brainstem neuronal groups. ..
Ambrose N, Waters K, Rodriguez M, Bailey K, Machaalani R. Neuronal apoptosis in the brainstem medulla of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and the importance of standardized SUDI classification. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2018;14:42-56 pubmed publisher
..The absence of changes in active caspase-9 expression compared to eSUDI indicates that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is not upregulated in SIDS. ..
Machaalani R, Chen H. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and nicotine. Neurotoxicology. 2018;65:186-195 pubmed publisher
..This review summarizes data regarding the changes in brain BDNF expression after nicotine or cigarette smoke exposure, and discusses their implications considering BDNF's functional roles. ..
Huang J, Waters K, Machaalani R. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor 1 (PAC1) in the human infant brain and changes in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Neurobiol Dis. 2017;103:70-77 pubmed publisher
..The findings of this study show for the first time that some abnormalities of the PACAP system are evident in the SIDS brain and could contribute to the mechanisms of infants succumbing to SIDS. ..