Stephen A Locarnini

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus infections: new targets and technical challenges
    Jordan Feld
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, 3051 North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Clin Virol 25:267-83. 2002
  2. ncbi Mechanisms of drug resistance and novel approaches to therapy for chronic hepatitis C
    Stephen A Locarnini
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:S351-9. 2002
  3. ncbi Emerging therapies of hepatitis B and C
    Robert Y m Chen
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory and St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:S471-81. 2002
  4. ncbi Lamivudine and Famciclovir resistant hepatitis B virus associated with fatal hepatic failure
    Anna Ayres
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3051, Australia
    J Clin Virol 27:111-6. 2003
  5. ncbi Clinical relevance of viral dynamics and genotypes in hepatitis B virus
    Stephen A Locarnini
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:S322-8. 2002
  6. ncbi Management of antiviral resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B
    Stephen Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Antivir Ther 9:679-93. 2004
  7. ncbi Cellular response to conditional expression of the hepatitis B virus precore and core proteins in cultured hepatoma (Huh-7) cells
    S Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Vic 3051, Australia
    J Clin Virol 32:113-21. 2005
  8. ncbi Hepatitis B viral resistance: mechanisms and diagnosis
    Stephen Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Vic 3051, Australia
    J Hepatol 39:S124-32. 2003
  9. ncbi Cellular and virological mechanisms of HBV drug resistance
    Stephen Locarnini
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Vic 3051, Australia
    J Hepatol 44:422-31. 2006
  10. ncbi The hepatitis B virus and common mutants
    Stephen Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    Semin Liver Dis 23:5-20. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications59

  1. ncbi Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus infections: new targets and technical challenges
    Jordan Feld
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, 3051 North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Clin Virol 25:267-83. 2002
    ....
  2. ncbi Mechanisms of drug resistance and novel approaches to therapy for chronic hepatitis C
    Stephen A Locarnini
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:S351-9. 2002
    ....
  3. ncbi Emerging therapies of hepatitis B and C
    Robert Y m Chen
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory and St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:S471-81. 2002
  4. ncbi Lamivudine and Famciclovir resistant hepatitis B virus associated with fatal hepatic failure
    Anna Ayres
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3051, Australia
    J Clin Virol 27:111-6. 2003
    ..However, prolonged antiviral therapy results in the emergence of drug resistance HBV which can contribute to virological breakthroughs and recurrent hepatitis flares...
  5. ncbi Clinical relevance of viral dynamics and genotypes in hepatitis B virus
    Stephen A Locarnini
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:S322-8. 2002
    ..The HBV can be classified into seven major genotypes (A-G) that have mainly a geographic distribution. Recent genotypic studies have revealed the clinical and therapeutic relevance of viral genotyping in HBV infections...
  6. ncbi Management of antiviral resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B
    Stephen Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Antivir Ther 9:679-93. 2004
    ..Potential strategies to prevent the emergence of resistance and how to manage drug-resistant HBV once it emerges are discussed...
  7. ncbi Cellular response to conditional expression of the hepatitis B virus precore and core proteins in cultured hepatoma (Huh-7) cells
    S Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Vic 3051, Australia
    J Clin Virol 32:113-21. 2005
    ..The expression of the hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) is one of several strategies used by hepatitis B virus (HBV) to ensure persistence. The HBeAg may function as a toleragen in utero and has been shown to regulate the host's immune response...
  8. ncbi Hepatitis B viral resistance: mechanisms and diagnosis
    Stephen Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Vic 3051, Australia
    J Hepatol 39:S124-32. 2003
  9. ncbi Cellular and virological mechanisms of HBV drug resistance
    Stephen Locarnini
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Vic 3051, Australia
    J Hepatol 44:422-31. 2006
  10. ncbi The hepatitis B virus and common mutants
    Stephen Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    Semin Liver Dis 23:5-20. 2003
    ..Such research should help improve the basic understanding of this unique virus-host relationship and provide new strategies for complete control of HBV infections...
  11. ncbi Molecular virology of hepatitis B virus
    Stephen Locarnini
    Resaerch and Molecualr Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Semin Liver Dis 24:3-10. 2004
    ..Further studies are clearly needed to identify the pathogenic basis and clinical sequelae arising from the selection of these mutants...
  12. ncbi Advances in hepatitis C: what is coming in the next 5 years?
    Stephen A Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory VIDRL, Melbourne, LB 815, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:442-7. 2002
    ..Current developments in antiviral agents are reviewed in the context of these potential new viral targets for the future treatment of HCV in chronically infected individuals...
  13. ncbi Effects of interferon alpha therapy on the catalytic domains of the polymerase gene and basal core promoter, precore and core regions of hepatitis B virus
    Robert Yung Ming Chen
    Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:630-7. 2003
    ..These may account for the response to interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment, which may have prognostic value...
  14. pmc Viral dynamics of hepatitis B virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus-1-hepatitis B virus coinfected individuals: similar effectiveness of lamivudine, tenofovir, or combination therapy
    Sharon R Lewin
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Hepatology 49:1113-21. 2009
    ..9 days (6.3-11.0 days). When we compared hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative individuals, we found a significantly longer infected cell half-life in HBeAg-positive individuals (6.2 versus 9.0 days, P = 0.02)...
  15. ncbi Identification of a novel hepatitis B virus precore/core deletion mutant in HIV/hepatitis B virus co-infected individuals
    Peter A Revill
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia
    AIDS 21:1701-10. 2007
    ..To test this hypothesis, we have analysed genome-length sequences of HBV DNA from patients both prior to and during antiviral therapy...
  16. pmc HBV mutations in untreated HIV-HBV co-infection using genomic length sequencing
    Jennifer Audsley
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Virology 405:539-47. 2010
    ..Further work is needed to determine if these mutational patterns influence the differences in liver disease progression in HIV-HBV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients...
  17. doi Hepatitis B surface antigen levels during the natural history of chronic hepatitis B: a perspective on Asia
    Tin Nguyen
    Department of Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    J Hepatol 52:508-13. 2010
    ..We aimed to define the serum HBsAg titres during the different phases of CHB in a cohort of Asian patients infected with either genotype B or C HBV...
  18. doi Increased intrahepatic apoptosis but reduced immune activation in HIV-HBV co-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression
    David M Iser
    Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    AIDS 25:197-205. 2011
    ....
  19. ncbi Effect of the G1896A precore mutation on drug sensitivity and replication yield of lamivudine-resistant HBV in vitro
    Robert Y m Chen
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Hepatology 37:27-35. 2003
    ..In conclusion, the PC stop codon mutation appears to increase the replication efficacy of lamivudine-resistant virus but does not affect in vitro drug sensitivity...
  20. pmc In vitro replication phenotype of a novel (-1G) hepatitis B virus variant associated with HIV co-infection
    Liza M Cabuang
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Med Virol 84:1166-76. 2012
    ..Together, these effects may be contributing to the increased pathology observed in the setting of HIV/HBV co-infection...
  21. pmc Coinfection of hepatic cell lines with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus leads to an increase in intracellular hepatitis B surface antigen
    David M Iser
    Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Virol 84:5860-7. 2010
    ....
  22. ncbi Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers
    Alexander J V Thompson
    Department of Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Hepatology 51:1933-44. 2010
    ..28, P = 0.01) and did not correlate with intrahepatic cccDNA nor total HBV DNA. Quantitative IHC for hepatocyte HBsAg confirmed a relationship with viral replication only in HBeAg-positive patients...
  23. ncbi Restoration of replication phenotype of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus mutants by compensatory changes in the "fingers" subdomain of the viral polymerase selected as a consequence of mutations in the overlapping S gene
    Joseph Torresi
    Department of Medicine RMH WH, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Virology 299:88-99. 2002
    ..Since these viruses carry mutations in the a determinant of HBsAg that may potentially decrease the ability of anti-HBs antibody to neutralize these viruses, these HBV mutants also have the potential to behave as vaccine escape mutants...
  24. ncbi Molecular genesis of drug-resistant and vaccine-escape HBV mutants
    Stephen A Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    Antivir Ther 15:451-61. 2010
    ..Thus, prevention of resistance requires the adoption of strategies that not only effectively control HBV replication, but also prevent the emergence of ADAPVEMs...
  25. pmc Global control of hepatitis B virus: does treatment-induced antigenic change affect immunization?
    C John Clements
    Melbourne University, Vic, Australia
    Bull World Health Organ 88:66-73. 2010
    ..This paper examines the mechanism of antiviral drug-selected changes in the portion of the viral genome that also affects the surface antigen, and explores their potential impact on current hepatitis B immunization programmes...
  26. ncbi Lamivudine resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B: role of clinical and virological factors
    Alexander J V Thompson
    St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:1078-85. 2007
    ..The present study was designed to identify factors predictive of lamivudine resistance, with a particular focus on the role of precore and basal core promoter variants in the setting of hepatitis B e antigen-negative disease...
  27. ncbi Antiviral drug resistance: clinical consequences and molecular aspects
    Angeline Bartholomeusz
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Semin Liver Dis 26:162-70. 2006
    ....
  28. doi Drug resistance in antiviral therapy
    Stephen Locarnini
    Department of R and MD, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Clin Liver Dis 14:439-59. 2010
    ....
  29. pmc Defective hepatitis B virus DNA is not associated with disease status but is reduced by polymerase mutations associated with drug resistance
    Scott Preiss
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratories, Research and Molecular Development, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Hepatology 48:741-9. 2008
    ..0001), indicating that antiviral drug resistance alters the balance between defective and genomic length DNA in circulation. Experiments in vitro using HBV encoding LMV-R mutations confirmed these results...
  30. ncbi SeqHepB: a sequence analysis program and relational database system for chronic hepatitis B
    Lilly K W Yuen
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, 3051 Vic, Australia
    Antiviral Res 75:64-74. 2007
    ....
  31. ncbi Prevalence and characterization of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus mutations in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals
    Louise Cooley
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    AIDS 17:1649-57. 2003
    ....
  32. ncbi Molecular virology and the development of resistant mutants: implications for therapy
    Stephen Locarnini
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    Semin Liver Dis 25:9-19. 2005
    ..Thus, prevention of resistance requires the adoption of strategies that effectively control virus replication...
  33. pmc The L80I substitution in the reverse transcriptase domain of the hepatitis B virus polymerase is associated with lamivudine resistance and enhanced viral replication in vitro
    Nadia Warner
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2285-92. 2007
    ....
  34. ncbi Resistance to anti-HCV protease inhibitors
    Alexander J Thompson
    St Vincent s Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
    Curr Opin Virol 1:599-606. 2011
    ..This brief review summarizes the current literature concerning resistance to the HCV NS3 protease inhibitors, both experimental and clinical, and identifies the key questions facing the field...
  35. doi The antiviral drug selected hepatitis B virus rtA181T/sW172* mutant has a dominant negative secretion defect and alters the typical profile of viral rebound
    Nadia Warner
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Hepatology 48:88-98. 2008
    ....
  36. ncbi Lamivudine resistant occult HBV: implications for public health?
    Scott Bowden
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Vic 3051, Australia
    J Hepatol 38:526-8. 2003
  37. ncbi HBV drug resistance: mechanisms, detection and interpretation
    Tim Shaw
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Locked Bag 815, Carlton South, VIC 3053, Australia
    J Hepatol 44:593-606. 2006
  38. pmc Comparison of sequence analysis and a novel discriminatory real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus strains
    Fiona Wightman
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3809-12. 2004
    ..Excellent concordance was demonstrated between sequencing and the discriminatory real-time assay; however, a mixture of quasispecies was more frequently detected by discriminatory real-time PCR...
  39. ncbi Major causes of antiviral drug resistance and implications for treatment of hepatitis B virus monoinfection and coinfection with HIV
    Stephen Locarnini
    Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Antivir Ther 12:H15-23. 2007
    ..Thus, prevention of resistance requires the adoption of strategies that effectively control virus replication, including the use of combination chemotherapy...
  40. ncbi Entecavir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B
    Tim Shaw
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Victoria, 3051 Australia
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2:853-71. 2004
    ..It is the most potent antihepatitis B virus agent discovered to date...
  41. ncbi Hepatitis B virus: pathogenesis, viral intermediates, and viral replication
    Jia Yee Lee
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia
    Clin Liver Dis 8:301-20. 2004
    ..1)...
  42. ncbi Evolving therapies for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection
    William Delaney
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Carlton South, VIC 3053, Australia
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 11:169-87. 2002
    ....
  43. ncbi Regulation of Toll-like receptor-2 expression in chronic hepatitis B by the precore protein
    Kumar Visvanathan
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia
    Hepatology 45:102-10. 2007
    ..In the absence of HBeAg, HBV replication was associated with up-regulation of the TLR2 pathway leading to increased TNF-alpha production...
  44. pmc Phenylpropenamide derivatives AT-61 and AT-130 inhibit replication of wild-type and lamivudine-resistant strains of hepatitis B virus in vitro
    William E Delaney
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3057-60. 2002
    ..40 +/- 0.92 micro M, respectively, compared to 0.064 +/- 0.020 micro M lamivudine. There were no significant differences in sensitivity between wild-type and nucleoside analogue-resistant (rtL180M, rtM204I, and rtL180M + rtM204V) HBV...
  45. doi Increasing hepatitis B viral load is associated with risk of significant liver fibrosis in HBeAg-negative but not HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B
    Catherine M N Croagh
    Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent s Hospital, Fitzroy, Vic, Australia
    Liver Int 30:1115-22. 2010
    ..To evaluate the association between demographical features, serum ALT and HBV DNA and the prevalence of significant fibrosis and inflammation on liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis B...
  46. pmc Viral adaptation to host immune responses occurs in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and adaptation is greatest in HBV e antigen-negative disease
    Christopher P Desmond
    Department of Gastroenterology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia
    J Virol 86:1181-92. 2012
    ..003). Thus, HBV appears to be under immune pressure in chronic HBV infection, particularly in HBeAg-negative disease...
  47. ncbi Quantification of HBV covalently closed circular DNA from liver tissue by real-time PCR
    Scott Bowden
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    Methods Mol Med 95:41-50. 2004
  48. ncbi A parsimonious method for screening drug combinations for antihepadnaviral activity using a parametric dose-response surface approach
    Tim Shaw
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    Methods Mol Med 96:387-413. 2004
  49. ncbi Hepatic iron overload does not prevent a sustained virological response to interferon-alpha therapy: a long term follow-up study in hepatitis C-infected patients with beta thalassemia major
    William Sievert
    Monash University Department of Medicine, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia
    Am J Gastroenterol 97:982-7. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hepatic iron concentration (HIC) on response to interferon monotherapy in patients with massive hepatic iron overload...
  50. pmc No increase in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CD8+ T cells in patients with HIV-1-HBV coinfections following HBV-active highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Megan Crane
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    J Virol 84:2657-65. 2010
    ..These findings may have implications for the duration of treatment of HBV in HIV-HBV coinfected patients, particularly in HBeAg-positive disease...
  51. ncbi Stimulation of the interleukin-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 2 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in hepatoma cell lines in vitro
    Alex J Thompson
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Antivir Ther 14:797-808. 2009
    ..We investigated the role of TLR2 stimulation of virus-infected hepatocyte cell lines as a potential antiviral mechanism in vitro...
  52. ncbi HBV genotyping and analysis for unique mutations
    Anna Ayres
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    Methods Mol Med 95:125-49. 2004
  53. pmc Impaired quality of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell response in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-HBV coinfection
    J Judy Chang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    J Virol 83:7649-58. 2009
    ..The quality of the HBV-specific T-cell response is impaired in the setting of HIV-1-HBV coinfection and is related to the CD4+ T-cell count...
  54. doi Bioinformatic analysis of the hepadnavirus e-antigen and its precursor identifies remarkable sequence conservation in all orthohepadnaviruses
    Peter Revill
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    J Med Virol 82:104-15. 2010
    ..Whilst much of this sequence conservation was within key immunomodulatory epitopes, highest conservation was observed at the unique HBeAg N-terminus, suggesting this sequence in particular may play an important role in HBeAg function...
  55. ncbi The phenotype of hepatitis B virus-specific T cells differ in the liver and blood in chronic hepatitis B virus infection
    J Judy Chang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Australia
    Hepatology 46:1332-40. 2007
    ....
  56. ncbi Reduced antigenicity of the hepatitis B virus HBsAg protein arising as a consequence of sequence changes in the overlapping polymerase gene that are selected by lamivudine therapy
    Joseph Torresi
    Department of Medicine RMH, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Virology 293:305-13. 2002
    ..These findings raise the possibility of lamivudine-resistant mutants arising that possess antigenically distinct HBsAg proteins...
  57. ncbi Chronic hepatitis B: current testing strategies
    Robert G Gish
    Division of Hepatology and Complex GI, Physician Foundation, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:666-76. 2006
    ..Suggested frequencies for HBV DNA monitoring are presented...
  58. ncbi Hepatic failure due to fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in a patient with pre-surface mutant hepatitis B virus and mixed connective tissue disease treated with prednisolone and chloroquine
    Simon A Zanati
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Prahran, VIC 3181, Australia
    J Clin Virol 31:53-7. 2004
    ..As in the transplantation setting, viral DNA levels should be kept to undetectable if viral replication or recurrence is to be prevented...
  59. pmc In vitro study of the effects of precore and lamivudine-resistant mutations on hepatitis B virus replication
    Richard A Heipertz
    Milton S Hershey Medical Center, The Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, P O Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Virol 81:3068-76. 2007
    ..We concluded that the rtM204I mutation generates a polymerase that is not only resistant to lamivudine but also replicates nucleic acids to lower levels in vitro...