Laszlo Kohidai


Affiliation: Chemotaxis Research Group, Dept. Genetics, Cell- & Immunobiology, Semmelweis University
Location: Budapest, Hungary
Head of the Chemotaxis Research Group
Investigations of
- chemotaxis
- cell adhgesion
- phylogeny of signal molecules
- hormonal imprinting - epigenetics
- drug targeting
- impedimetry based cell physiological assays
- endogenous bioactive substances in protozoa

Most frequently applied model cells:
- tumor cell lines (leukemia, melanoma, adeno cc.)
- Tetrahymena pyriformis


  1. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Katona J, Csaba G. Effects of steroid hormones on five functional parameters of Tetrahymena: evolutionary conclusions. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003;21:19-26 pubmed
    ..The results call attention to the fine molecular recognition capacity of Tetrahymena and to the possible rapid effects of steroid hormones at membrane receptors at a very low evolutionary eukaryotic level. ..
  2. request reprint
    Schiess N, Csaba G, Kohidai L. Chemotactic selection with insulin, di-iodotyrosine and histamine alters the phagocytotic responsiveness of Tetrahymena. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;128:521-30 pubmed
    ..These experiments call attention to the evolutionary role of selection in the later developing receptor-hormone relationship. ..
  3. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Kovacs P, Lazar Molnar E, Csaba G. Presence, uptake and localization of an immunoreactively interleukin 6 (IL-6)-like molecule in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cell Biol Int. 2000;24:749-55 pubmed
    ..IL-6 antibody binding was enhanced after IL-6 pretreatment (hormonal imprinting). The experiments call attention to the presence of an IL-6-like molecule and its uptake at a very low level of phylogeny. ..
  4. request reprint
    Kovacs P, Kohidai L, Csaba G. Effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) on the phospholipid metabolism of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cell Biochem Funct. 1998;16:87-97 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the effects of TNF alpha at a low level of evolution, what is realized by changes in the phospholipid metabolism participating in signalling pathways. ..
  5. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Kovacs P, Csaba G. Cyclic changes of concanavalin-A binding sites in Tetrahymena cell membrane. Acta Morphol Hung. 1985;33:117-21 pubmed
    ..The cap formation shown by the sugar components is a physiological phenomenon in Tetrahymena occurring mostly periorally and to a lesser extent aborally. ..
  6. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G. Effects of the mammalian vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin-1, on Tetrahymena pyriformis GL, and the immunocytological detection of endogenous endothelin-like activity. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1995;111:311-6 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that hormones are of considerable antiquity in their phylogenetic appearance and have been highly conserved throughout evolution. ..
  7. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Toth K, Ruskoaho H, Csaba G. Effect of vasoactive peptides on Tetrahymena. chemotactic properties of endothelins (ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, fragment 11-21 of ET-1 and big endothelin-1): a short-term inducible signalling mechanism of chemotaxis. Cell Biol Int. 2001;25:1173-7 pubmed
    ..Chemotactic selection with endothelins underlines the possibility that there may be separate mechanisms responsible for the short-term chemotactic responses and the long-lasting effects of chemotactic selection. ..
  8. Láng O, Illyes E, Menyhárd D, Láng J, Sebestyen F, Hudecz F, et al. Chemotaxis induced by SXWS tetrapeptides in Tetrahymena--overlapping chemotactic effects of SXWS sequences and their identical amino acids. J Mol Recognit. 2012;25:24-31 pubmed publisher
  9. Lajkó E, Szabo I, Andódy K, PUNGOR A, Mezo G, Kohidai L. Investigation on chemotactic drug targeting (chemotaxis and adhesion) inducer effect of GnRH-III derivatives in Tetrahymena and human leukemia cell line. J Pept Sci. 2013;19:46-58 pubmed publisher

Detail Information


  1. Láng J, Kohidai L. Effects of the aquatic contaminant human pharmaceuticals and their mixtures on the proliferation and migratory responses of the bioindicator freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena. Chemosphere. 2012;89:592-601 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary authors suggest Tetrahymena as a sensible model of testing aquatic contaminants as well as underline the significance using more specific endpoints to understand the complex mechanisms investigated...
  2. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G. Influence of enkephalins on the ACTH-induced hormonal imprinting in tetrahymena. Acta Physiol Hung. 1990;76:21-6 pubmed
    ..Similarities can be found between the pharmacological and imprinting effects of enkephalin in mammals, and the effects seen in the present investigations. ..
  3. request reprint
    Mezo G, Kalászi A, Remenyi J, Majer Z, Hilbert A, Láng O, et al. Synthesis, conformation, and immunoreactivity of new carrier molecules based on repeated tuftsin-like sequence. Biopolymers. 2004;73:645-56 pubmed
    ..Data suggest that these new oligotuftsin derivatives can be considered as promising carriers for synthetic vaccine. ..
  4. request reprint
    Csaba G, Gaal A, Kovacs P, Simon G, Kohidai L. Prolonged elevation of insulin content in the unicellular tetrahymena after insulin treatment: induction of insulin production or storage?. Cell Biochem Funct. 1999;17:165-73 pubmed
    ..Insulin contained by Tetrahymena 48 h after imprinting stimulated glucose uptake of rat diaphragm. ..
  5. request reprint
    Kuruvilla H, Hennessey T. Purification and characterization of a novel chemorepellent receptor from Tetrahymena thermophila. J Membr Biol. 1998;162:51-7 pubmed
    ..This is not only the first time that a chemoreceptor potential has been recorded from Tetrahymena but also the first time that a chemorepellent receptor has been purified from any unicellular eukaryote. ..
  6. request reprint
    Kovacs P, Kohidai L, Csaba G. Effect of 3-amino-1-propanol on the phosphatidylinositol (PI) and glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) systems of Tetrahymena. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1997;118:83-7 pubmed
    ..3H-arachidonate incorporation into PI was also inhibited, while that into diacylglycerol (DAG) was high. The experiments indicate the presence and metabolism of inositol phospholipids and GPI in T. pyriformis. ..
  7. Szabó R, Mezo G, Pallinger E, Kovacs P, Kohidai L, Bosze S, et al. In vitro cytotoxicity, chemotactic effect, and cellular uptake of branched polypeptides with poly[L-lys] backbone by J774 murine macrophage cell line. Bioconjug Chem. 2008;19:1078-86 pubmed publisher
  8. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Kovacs P, Csaba G. Chemotaxis of the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina and the ciliated Tetrahymena pyriformis--effects of glycine, lysine, and alanine, and their oligopeptides. Biosci Rep. 1996;16:467-76 pubmed
    ..Divergences in chemotaxis and binding assays of both species suggest that trends of functional and binding parameters do not run parallel at this level of evolution. ..
  9. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G. Different and selective chemotactic responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis to two families of signal molecules: lectins and peptide hormones. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 1996;43:83-91 pubmed
    ..Below 10(-9) M the sugar specific, receptor level effect of lectins is probable. The experiments draw attention to the perceptional selectivity of Tetrahymena embodied in chemotaxis. ..
  10. request reprint
    Csaba G, Kohidai L. Effects of L-alanine and L-alanine peptides on the chemotaxis of tetrahymena: evolutionary conclusions. Biosci Rep. 1995;15:185-90 pubmed
    ..The chain length is important in the imprinting, however the reaction is not consistent. The experiments call the attention to the significance of imprinting in the receptor and hormone evolution. ..
  11. request reprint
    Csaba G, Kovacs P, Kohidai L. Tetrahymena cells distinguish insulin preparations according to either their amorphous and crystalline form or their bovine and porcine origin: aspects of hormone binding and chemotaxis in relation to imprinting. Microbios. 1994;80:215-21 pubmed
    ..The imprinter capacity evident in binding was independent of the chemotactic preference and the imprinting embodied in chemotaxis. ..
  12. request reprint
    Bohdaneczky E, Csaba G, Csiky J, Kohidai L. Imprinting with oxytocin and vasopressin in Chang liver cell cultures: hormonal overlap, binding and influence on cell division. Acta Physiol Hung. 1988;71:35-40 pubmed
    ..Treatment for 24 hours results also in some functional imprinting. ..
  13. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Darvas Z, Csaba G. The effect of varying illumination on imprinting of Tetrahymena by insulin. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1987;34:179-85 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the dark-induced structural transformation of the membrane, manifesting among others in a changed hormone binding, may be caused by alterations in haem synthesis due to varying illumination...
  14. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G. Chemotaxis and chemotactic selection induced with cytokines (IL-8, RANTES and TNF-alpha) in the unicellular Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cytokine. 1998;10:481-6 pubmed
    ..The changed reaction of these cells to the chemoattraction of the culturing medium was also observed. The results call attention to the presence of cytokine-dependent processes at a low phylogenetic level. ..
  15. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Barsony J, Roth J, Marx S. Rapid effects of insulin on cyclic GMP location in an intact protozoan. Experientia. 1992;48:476-81 pubmed
    ..Insulin caused cGMP localization in cilia and near the plasma membrane (0.5-1 min). Later (1-5 min) cGMP localization was diffuse in cytoplasm with perinuclear accentuation. Inactive insulin analogs did not elicit these changes. ..
  16. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Bosze S, Soos P, Illyes E, Láng O, Mák M, et al. Chemotactic activity of oligopeptides containing an EWS motif on Tetrahymena pyriformis: the effect of amidation of the C-terminal residue. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003;21:113-20 pubmed
    ..The high discriminative ability and good chemotactic responsiveness of Tetrahymena support the theory that a chemotactic signalling mechanism working in higher levels of phylogeny is a well conserved and inducible one even in protozoa. ..
  17. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Kovacs P, Nozawa Y, Csaba G. Effects of membrane fluidity changes on lectin binding in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cell Mol Biol. 1986;32:303-8 pubmed
  18. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Lajkó E, Pallinger E, Csaba G. Verification of epigenetic inheritance in a unicellular model system: multigenerational effects of hormonal imprinting. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:951-9 pubmed
    ..The results - together with results obtained earlier in mammals - point to the validity of epigenetic imprinting effects throughout the animal world. ..
  19. Lajkó E, Polgár L, Láng O, Lengyel J, Kohidai L, Magyar K. Basic cell physiological activities (cell adhesion, chemotaxis and proliferation) induced by selegiline and its derivatives in Mono Mac 6 human monocytes. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119:545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the adhesion inducer activity, chemorepellent and advantageous cytotoxic effects of selegiline and some derivatives indicate that these drug molecules might have inhibitory effects in metastasis formation in primary tumors. ..
  20. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Karsa J, Csaba G. Effects of hormones on chemotaxis in Tetrahymena: investigations on receptor memory. Microbios. 1994;77:75-85 pubmed
    ..The first encounter with these molecules may modify the chemotactic behaviour of the progeny cells. In a significant number of cases there was a different response after repeated encounters of cells and hormones. ..
  21. request reprint
    Kovacs P, Csaba G, Kohidai L, Torok O. Adaptation of the ASTRIN staining technique for quantitative determination of the functional state of the cellular nucleus. Experiments on the nucleoli of CHO cells. Acta Histochem. 1987;81:95-8 pubmed
    ..It appears that the ASTRIN staining technique is suitable for the quantitative determination of changes in the functional state of the nucleus and nucleolus. ..
  22. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G. Mitochondrial dehydrogenases in different taxa of tetrahymena: effect of insulin. Biosci Rep. 1997;17:529-35 pubmed
    ..There was also no correlation between the degree of relationship (of the taxa) and the dehydrogenase profile after insulin treatment. ..
  23. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Lovas B, Csaba G. Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin on the phagocytic capacity of Tetrahymena. Zoolog Sci. 1995;12:277-81 pubmed
    ..In the light of the literary data on hormone effects to phagocytosis in mammals and men, the similarity of the effects in species being very far from each other in evolution, could be concluded. ..
  24. request reprint
    Kohidai L. Method for determination of chemoattraction in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Curr Microbiol. 1995;30:251-3 pubmed
    ..Beside the two-channel chamber, the multi-channel one seems to be also useful in characterization of different taxons or different chemoattractants. ..
  25. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Kovacs P, Csaba G. Chemotactic response of unicellular Tetrahymena to a leukocyte attractant peptide and its repellent derivative: evolutionary conclusions. Cell Biol Int. 1994;18:119-22 pubmed
    ..The observed homology of action concurs with our theory about the wide evolutionary background of signal molecules and receptors. ..
  26. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Kun L, Eva P, Csaba G, Mihala N, Majer Z, et al. Cell-physiological effects of elastin derived (VGVAPG)n oligomers in a unicellular model system. J Pept Sci. 2004;10:427-38 pubmed
    ..The characteristic cell-physiological effects of VGVAPG oligomers signal that molecules of the extracellular matrix can induce identical responses even in lower levels of phylogeny, e.g. in the Ciliates. ..
  27. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Lang O, Csaba G. Chemotactic-range-fitting of amino acids and its correlations to physicochemical parameters in Tetrahymena pyriformis--evolutionary consequences. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49 Online Pub:OL487-95 pubmed
  28. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Török K, Illyes E, Tamási J, Sebestyen F, Láng O, et al. Characterization of chemotactic ability of peptides containing N-formyl-methionyl residues in Tetrahymena fMLP as a targeting ligand. Cell Biol Int. 2003;27:695-700 pubmed
    ..The results call attention to the possible presence of f-Met receptors at a unicellular level and to the evolutionary conservation of chemotaxis-activating processes. ..
  29. Bai K, Láng O, Orbán E, Szabó R, Kohidai L, Hudecz F, et al. Design, synthesis, and in vitro activity of novel drug delivery systems containing tuftsin derivatives and methotrexate. Bioconjug Chem. 2008;19:2260-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that our tuftsin-based drug delivery systems might be potential candidates for targeting cancer chemotherapy. ..
  30. Leurs U, Lajkó E, Mezo G, Orbán E, Öhlschläger P, Marquardt A, et al. GnRH-III based multifunctional drug delivery systems containing daunorubicin and methotrexate. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;52:173-83 pubmed publisher
  31. request reprint
    Csaba G, Bohdaneczky E, Kohidai L. An attempt at transmission of hormonal imprinting between foreign cell lines. Cytobios. 1991;67:77-83 pubmed
  32. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Vakkuri O, Keresztesi M, Leppäluoto J, Csaba G. Melatonin in the unicellular Tetrahymena pyriformis: effects of different lighting conditions. Cell Biochem Funct. 2002;20:269-72 pubmed
    ..In contrast to this, storage of melatonin was observed, which was more expressed in dark conditions. Prolonged light exposure suppressed melatonin production and secretion alike, however it did not block it completely...
  33. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G, Laszlo V. Persistence of receptor "memory" induced in Tetrahymena by insulin imprinting. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1990;37:269-75 pubmed
    ..The experiments demonstrated that the imprinting-induced receptor "memory" lasted long, but was vulnerable to treatment with another polypeptide hormone. ..
  34. request reprint
    Csaba G, Kohidai L. Overlap of concanavalin-A and insulin imprinting in rat thymocytes. Acta Physiol Hung. 1990;75:107-10 pubmed
    ..Treatment with Concanavalin-A also accounted for an increase in adult insulin binding, whereas neonatal treatment with insulin did not alter the binding relations of Concanavalin-A in adulthood. ..
  35. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Schiess N, Csaba G. Chemotactic selection of Tetrahymena pyriformis GL induced with histamine, di-iodotyrosine or insulin. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000;126:1-9 pubmed
    ..T2 data suggest that the long lasting responsiveness is not general, but might be subpopulation specific. ..
  36. request reprint
    Kohidai L. Chemotaxis: the proper physiological response to evaluate phylogeny of signal molecules. Acta Biol Hung. 1999;50:375-94 pubmed
  37. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G. Effects of insulin and histamine in themselves and in combination on the glucose metabolism of Tetrahymena. Acta Biol Hung. 1985;36:281-5 pubmed
  38. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Muto Y, Nozawa Y, Csaba G. Impact of changes in intracellular Ca2+ and K+ concentration on the development of hormonal imprinting in a Tetrahymena model system. Cell Mol Biol. 1987;33:265-74 pubmed
  39. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Soos P, Csaba G. Effects of dipeptides containing the amino acid, proline on the chemotaxis of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Evolutionary conclusions on the formation of hormone receptors and hormones. Cell Biol Int. 1997;21:341-5 pubmed
    ..With valine on any terminus the proline-containing dipeptide induced a weak repellent effect. ..
  40. request reprint
    Illyes E, Hudecz F, Kohidai L, Láng O, Szabo P, Sebestyen F. Synthesis of oligopeptides with the sequence SXWS and their chemotactic effects on a ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. J Pept Sci. 2002;8:13-22 pubmed
    ..Hca-SKWS, however, bound remarkably to the cell surface. The binding activity of the Hca-peptides was less pronounced than that of the naOx-peptides, indicating the importance of the fluorophores applied...
  41. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Thomka M, Csaba G. Age of the cell culture: a factor influencing hormonal imprinting of Tetrahymena. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1986;33:295-300 pubmed
    ..Lipid transformation processes, alteration of the guanyl cyclase activity and enhanced cell division may be responsible for this effect. Cell-growth phase G1 was especially favourable for development of imprinting. ..
  42. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Muto Y, Nozawa Y, Csaba G. Studies on the interrelationship between hormonal imprinting and membrane potential in model experiments on Tetrahymena. Cell Mol Biol. 1986;32:641-5 pubmed
  43. Láng J, Rákász V, Magyar A, Pallinger E, Kohidai L. Chemotactic effect of odorants and tastants on the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2011;31:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant activation of PLC or PI3K could be observed following stimulation with attractant odorants which implies that some other pathways may be involved, hence further investigation is needed. ..
  44. Szabó R, Bánóczi Z, Mezo G, Láng O, Kohidai L, Hudecz F. Daunomycin-polypeptide conjugates with antitumor activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:2209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that attachment of polypeptide and cell penetrating peptide to the bioactive agent, depending on the cell line, could significantly improve the antitumor activity of the drug. ..
  45. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Csaba G, Karsa J. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the unicellular Tetrahymena pyriformis model. Microbios. 1995;82:27-40 pubmed
    ..The similarities between the most effective concentrations (10(-13) - 10(-12) M) and the human serum level of ANP shows that the effects of ANP have a more evolutionary background than previously considered. ..
  46. request reprint
    Lang O, Mezo G, Hudecz F, Kohidai L. Effect of tuftsin and oligotuftsins on chemotaxis and chemotactic selection in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cell Biol Int. 2006;30:603-9 pubmed
    ..The chemotactic selection data indicated that tuftsin-induced chemotaxis results from fairly short-term signalling in Tetrahymena. ..
  47. request reprint
    Mezo G, Láng O, Jakab A, Bai K, Szabo I, Schlosser G, et al. Synthesis of oligotuftsin-based branched oligopeptide conjugates for chemotactic drug targeting. J Pept Sci. 2006;12:328-36 pubmed
    ..The spacer with N-terminal methotrexate was coupled to the chloroacetylated chemotactic carrier molecule by thioether bond formation. The chemotactic activity and cytotoxity of Mtx conjugates were also studied. ..
  48. request reprint
    Kovacs P, Hegyesi H, Kohidai L, Nemes P, Csaba G. Effect of C2 ceramide on the inositol phospholipid metabolism (uptake of 32P, 3H-serine and 3H-palmitic acid) and apoptosis-related morphological changes in Tetrahymena. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1999;122:215-24 pubmed
  49. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Vakkuri O, Keresztesi M, Leppäluoto J, Csaba G. Induction of melatonin synthesis in Tetrahymena pyriformis by hormonal imprinting--a unicellular "factory" of the indoleamine. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49:521-4 pubmed
    ..The experiments call attention to the light-sensitivity of imprinting-provoked melatonin production in Tetrahymena and to the possibility of using this property for important physiological functions in higher grades of phylogeny. ..
  50. request reprint
    Bozoky Z, Fulop L, Kohidai L. A short-run new analytical ultracentrifugal micromethod for determining low-density lipoprotein sub-fractions using Schlieren refractometry. Eur Biophys J. 2001;29:621-7 pubmed
  51. request reprint
    Kohidai L, Kovacs K, Csaba G. Direct chemotactic effect of bradykinin and related peptides-significance of amino- and carboxyterminal character of oligopeptides in chemotaxis of tetrahymena pyriformis. Cell Biol Int. 2002;26:55-62 pubmed
    ..Study of chemotactic selection with BK derivatives supports our previous findings that only phylogenetically selected ligands or their close derivatives are able to induce long-term selection with chemotaxis. ..
  52. Kőhidai L, Tóth K, Samotik P, Ranganathan K, Láng O, Tóth M, et al. Effect of vasoactive peptides in Tetrahymena: chemotactic activities of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;411:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The results draw attention to the characteristic effects of vasoactive peptides at this low level of phylogeny. ..
  53. Lajkó E, Tuka B, Fulop F, Krizbai I, Toldi J, Magyar K, et al. Kynurenic acid and its derivatives are able to modulate the adhesion and locomotion of brain endothelial cells. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..g. migration/motility) could be potential new targets of KYNA. ..
  54. Láng O, Kohidai L, Wegener J. Label-free profiling of cell dynamics: A sequence of impedance-based assays to estimate tumor cell invasiveness in vitro. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:243-250 pubmed publisher
    ..000 cells), it is highly automated and easily adapted to 96-well formats. It provides an in-depth dynamic profile of adherent cells that might be useful in other areas besides cancer research as well. ..