Robert W Snow

Summary

Affiliation: Kenya Medical Research Institute
Country: Kenya

Publications

  1. pmc The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Robert W Snow
    Public Health Group, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories PO Box 43640, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
    Nature 434:214-7. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Estimating the needs for artesunate-based combination therapy for malaria case-management in Africa
    Robert W Snow
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, PO Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trends Parasitol 19:363-9. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Pediatric mortality in Africa: plasmodium falciparum malaria as a cause or risk?
    Robert W Snow
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, Nairobi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:16-24. 2004
  4. pmc The risks of malaria infection in Kenya in 2009
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMC Infect Dis 9:180. 2009
  5. pmc A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007
    Simon I Hay
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute University of Oxford Wellcome TrustCollaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 6:e1000048. 2009
  6. pmc The use of artemether-lumefantrine by febrile children following national implementation of a revised drug policy in Kenya
    Caroline W Gitonga
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 13:487-94. 2008
  7. pmc The effect of mobile phone text-message reminders on Kenyan health workers' adherence to malaria treatment guidelines: a cluster randomised trial
    Dejan Zurovac
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 378:795-803. 2011
  8. pmc The effect of an anti-malarial subsidy programme on the quality of service provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Kenya: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial
    Beth P Kangwana
    Malaria Public Health Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 12:81. 2013
  9. pmc Access and barriers to measures targeted to prevent malaria in pregnancy in rural Kenya
    Priscilla W Gikandi
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 13:208-17. 2008
  10. pmc Spatial modelling of healthcare utilisation for treatment of fever in Namibia
    Victor A Alegana
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, PO Box 43640, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya
    Int J Health Geogr 11:6. 2012

Detail Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Robert W Snow
    Public Health Group, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories PO Box 43640, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
    Nature 434:214-7. 2005
    ..Without an informed understanding of the cartography of malaria risk, the global extent of clinical disease caused by P. falciparum will continue to be underestimated...
  2. ncbi request reprint Estimating the needs for artesunate-based combination therapy for malaria case-management in Africa
    Robert W Snow
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, PO Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trends Parasitol 19:363-9. 2003
    ..Better diagnostics would also be an important consideration for a new ACT policy in Africa...
  3. ncbi request reprint Pediatric mortality in Africa: plasmodium falciparum malaria as a cause or risk?
    Robert W Snow
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, Nairobi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:16-24. 2004
    ..In conclusion, the disability and death burden due to malaria in African children could be higher than that detectable from cause-specific DALY estimations...
  4. pmc The risks of malaria infection in Kenya in 2009
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMC Infect Dis 9:180. 2009
    ..Here we present a new map of malaria risk for Kenya in 2009...
  5. pmc A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007
    Simon I Hay
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute University of Oxford Wellcome TrustCollaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 6:e1000048. 2009
    ..It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007...
  6. pmc The use of artemether-lumefantrine by febrile children following national implementation of a revised drug policy in Kenya
    Caroline W Gitonga
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 13:487-94. 2008
    ..To examine access to, timing and use of artemisinin-based combination therapy among rural Kenyan febrile children before and following the introduction of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as first-line antimalarial drug policy...
  7. pmc The effect of mobile phone text-message reminders on Kenyan health workers' adherence to malaria treatment guidelines: a cluster randomised trial
    Dejan Zurovac
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 378:795-803. 2011
    ..We assessed whether text-message reminders sent to health workers' mobile phones could improve and maintain their adherence to treatment guidelines for outpatient paediatric malaria in Kenya...
  8. pmc The effect of an anti-malarial subsidy programme on the quality of service provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Kenya: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial
    Beth P Kangwana
    Malaria Public Health Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 12:81. 2013
    ....
  9. pmc Access and barriers to measures targeted to prevent malaria in pregnancy in rural Kenya
    Priscilla W Gikandi
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 13:208-17. 2008
    ....
  10. pmc Spatial modelling of healthcare utilisation for treatment of fever in Namibia
    Victor A Alegana
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, PO Box 43640, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya
    Int J Health Geogr 11:6. 2012
    ..Here, empirical household survey data on treatment seeking for fever were used to model the utilisation of public health facilities and define their catchment areas and populations in northern Namibia...
  11. pmc Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 4:e255. 2007
    ..In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups...
  12. pmc The challenges of changing national malaria drug policy to artemisinin-based combinations in Kenya
    Abdinasir A Amin
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 6:72. 2007
    ....
  13. pmc The spatial-temporal clustering of Plasmodium falciparum infection over eleven years in Gezira State, The Sudan
    Samia E Mirghani
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 9:172. 2010
    ..Here, the space-time clustering of Plasmodium falciparum infections using data from repeat cross-sectional surveys in Gezira State, a low transmission area in northern Sudan, is investigated...
  14. pmc Reducing stock-outs of life saving malaria commodities using mobile phone text-messaging: SMS for life study in Kenya
    Sophie Githinji
    Malaria Public Health Cluster, KEMRI Wellcome Trust University of Oxford Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 8:e54066. 2013
    ..We evaluated whether SMS based reporting of stocks of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) can result in reduction of stock-outs at peripheral facilities in Kenya...
  15. pmc Paediatric malaria case-management with artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: a repeat cross-sectional study
    Dejan Zurovac
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 6:31. 2007
    ..Improvements in the case-management of uncomplicated malaria two years after the initial evaluation and three years after the change of policy in Zambia are reported...
  16. pmc The magnitude and trend of artemether-lumefantrine stock-outs at public health facilities in Kenya
    Raymond K Sudoi
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, PO Box 43640, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 11:37. 2012
    ..Here, 2010-2011 data are reported from public facilities in Kenya where alarming stock-outs were revealed in 2008...
  17. pmc Why don't health workers prescribe ACT? A qualitative study of factors affecting the prescription of artemether-lumefantrine
    Beatrice Wasunna
    Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control ESACIPAC KEMRI, P O Box 54840 00200, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 7:29. 2008
    ..New national guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention were developed and disseminated to health workers together with in-service training...
  18. pmc Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P O Box 43640, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 7:159. 2008
    ..There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa...
  19. pmc Health worker performance in the management of paediatric fevers following in-service training and exposure to job aids in Kenya
    Beatrice Wasunna
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast CGMRC, Nairobi, Kenya Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 9:261. 2010
    ..In 2007, a new initiative was launched in one part of Kenya to improve malaria case-management through enhanced in-service training and provision of job aids...
  20. pmc Health service providers in Somalia: their readiness to provide malaria case-management
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI, Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 8:100. 2009
    ..The readiness of the public health sector to provide malaria case-management in Somalia, a country where there has been no functioning central government for almost two decades, was investigated...
  21. pmc Age patterns of severe paediatric malaria and their relationship to Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity
    Emelda A Okiro
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds PO Box 43640 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 8:4. 2009
    ....
  22. pmc Promoting the social value of research in Kenya: examining the practical aspects of collaborative partnerships using an ethical framework
    Geoffrey Mbaabu Lairumbi
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P O Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya
    Soc Sci Med 67:734-47. 2008
    ....
  23. pmc Plasmodium infection, anaemia and mosquito net use among school children across different settings in Kenya
    Caroline W Gitonga
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 17:858-70. 2012
    ..To investigate risk factors, including reported net use, for Plasmodium infection and anaemia among school children and to explore variations in effects across different malaria ecologies occurring in Kenya...
  24. pmc The changing limits and incidence of malaria in Africa: 1939-2009
    Robert W Snow
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Adv Parasitol 78:169-262. 2012
    ..One result is a more informed mapped definition of the changing margins of transmission in 1939, 1959, 1979, 1999 and 2009...
  25. pmc Progress towards implementation of ACT malaria case-management in public health facilities in the Republic of Sudan: a cluster-sample survey
    Tarig M Abdelgader
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMC Public Health 12:11. 2012
    ..Three years after the launch of the strategy a health facility survey was undertaken to evaluate case-management practices and readiness of the health facilities and health workers to implement a new malaria case-management strategy...
  26. pmc Malaria paediatric hospitalization between 1999 and 2008 across Kenya
    Emelda A Okiro
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P O Box 43640, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMC Med 7:75. 2009
    ..Here we present a nationwide assessment of changes over 10 years in paediatric malaria hospitalization across Kenya...
  27. pmc Equity and adequacy of international donor assistance for global malaria control: an analysis of populations at risk and external funding commitments
    Robert W Snow
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 376:1409-16. 2010
    ..We aimed to identify the unmet financial needs that would be biologically and economically equitable and would increase the chances of reaching worldwide malaria-control ambitions...
  28. pmc The clinical burden of malaria in Nairobi: a historical review and contemporary audit
    Sandra A Mudhune
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, PO Box 43640, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 10:138. 2011
    ..This paper presents a combined historical and contemporary review of the clinical burden of malaria within one of Africa's largest urban settlements, Nairobi, Kenya...
  29. pmc The limits and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission: implications for malaria control and elimination worldwide
    Carlos A Guerra
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenyan Medical Research Institute University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 5:e38. 2008
    ..This paper aims to define the global geographic distribution of P. falciparum malaria in 2007 and to provide a preliminary description of its transmission intensity within this range...
  30. pmc Malaria case-management under artemether-lumefantrine treatment policy in Uganda
    Dejan Zurovac
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 7:181. 2008
    ..Here the quality of AL case-management is reported from Uganda; approximately one year after AL replaced combination of chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ+SP) as recommended first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria...
  31. pmc The use of mosquito nets and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in rural South Central Somalia
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 3:e2081. 2008
    ..Little is known, however, on the effectiveness of ITN in areas of Africa that support low transmission. This hinders the accurate estimation of impact of ITN use on disease burden and its cost-effectiveness in low transmission settings...
  32. pmc International funding for malaria control in relation to populations at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum transmission
    Robert W Snow
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenyan Medical Research Institute, University of Oxford, Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 5:e142. 2008
    ..To examine this relationship, we compare an audit of international commitments with an objective assessment of national need: the population at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in 2007...
  33. pmc Insecticide-treated net coverage in Africa: mapping progress in 2000-07
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 373:58-67. 2009
    ..We gathered subnational ITN coverage sample survey data from 40 malaria-endemic countries in Africa between 2000 and 2007...
  34. pmc Costs and cost-effectiveness of a mobile phone text-message reminder programmes to improve health workers' adherence to malaria guidelines in Kenya
    Dejan Zurovac
    Malaria Public Health Cluster, KEMRI Wellcome Trust University of Oxford Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 7:e52045. 2012
    ..In this paper we examine costs and cost-effectiveness of this intervention...
  35. pmc Predicting the unmet need for biologically targeted coverage of insecticide-treated nets in Kenya
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, Nairobi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:854-60. 2010
    ..4 to 18.1 million nets if not restricted to areas of greatest malaria risk. In Kenya, this evidence-based approach could save the national program at least 55 million US dollars...
  36. pmc Ownership and use of mobile phones among health workers, caregivers of sick children and adult patients in Kenya: cross-sectional national survey
    Dejan Zurovac
    Malaria Public Health Cluster, KEMRI Wellcome Trust University of Oxford Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Global Health 9:20. 2013
    ..To inform policy makers about the feasibility of facility-based SMS interventions, the coverage data on mobile phone ownership and SMS use among health workers and patients are needed...
  37. pmc Mitigating the threat of artemisinin resistance in Africa: improvement of drug-resistance surveillance and response systems
    Ambrose O Talisuna
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, University of Oxford and Kemri Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:888-96. 2012
    ....
  38. pmc Reconciling national treatment policies and drug regulation in Kenya
    Abdinasir A Amin
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, P O Box 43640, Nairobi, 00100 GPO, Kenya
    Health Policy Plan 22:111-2. 2007
  39. pmc The relationship between reported fever and Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children
    Emelda A Okiro
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, PO Box 43640, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 9:99. 2010
    ....
  40. pmc Modelling distances travelled to government health services in Kenya
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 11:188-96. 2006
    ..To systematically evaluate descriptive measures of spatial access to medical treatment, as part of the millennium development goals to reduce the burden of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria...
  41. pmc Changing malaria intervention coverage, transmission and hospitalization in Kenya
    Emelda A Okiro
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 9:285. 2010
    ..Whether this transition is directly related to the scaling of intervention coverage remains a moot point...
  42. pmc Implementing school malaria surveys in Kenya: towards a national surveillance system
    Caroline W Gitonga
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 9:306. 2010
    ..To design and implement surveys of malaria infection and coverage of malaria control interventions among school children in Kenya in order to contribute towards a nationwide assessment of malaria...
  43. pmc Use of rapid diagnostic tests in malaria school surveys in Kenya: does their under-performance matter for planning malaria control?
    Caroline W Gitonga
    Malaria Public Health Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:1004-11. 2012
    ..Use of polymerase chain reaction-corrected RDT results is recommended in school malaria surveys, especially in settings with low-to-moderate malaria transmission...
  44. pmc Malaria risk mapping for control in the republic of Sudan
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health Cluster, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, Nairobi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:1012-21. 2012
    ..About 80% of Sudan's population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR(2-10). Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s...
  45. pmc Wealth, mother's education and physical access as determinants of retail sector net use in rural Kenya
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute, PO Box 43640, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 5:5. 2006
    ..The influence of homestead wealth on use of nets purchased from the retail sector is well documented, however, the competing influence of mother's education and physical access to net providers is less well understood...
  46. pmc The decline in paediatric malaria admissions on the coast of Kenya
    Emelda A Okiro
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P, O, Box 43640, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 6:151. 2007
    ..There is only limited information on the health impact of expanded coverage of malaria control and preventative strategies in Africa...
  47. pmc Effect of expanded insecticide-treated bednet coverage on child survival in rural Kenya: a longitudinal study
    Greg W Fegan
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 370:1035-9. 2007
    ..ITN coverage has increased rapidly in Kenya from 7% in 2004 to 67% in 2006. We aimed to assess the extent to which this investment has led to improvements in child survival...
  48. ncbi request reprint The difference between effectiveness and efficacy of antimalarial drugs in Kenya
    Abdinasir A Amin
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 9:967-74. 2004
    ..To demonstrate the difference between effectiveness and efficacy of antimalarial (AM) drugs in Kenya...
  49. pmc The use of schools for malaria surveillance and programme evaluation in Africa
    Simon Brooker
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 8:231. 2009
    ..Finally, areas requiring further investigation are highlighted...
  50. pmc Distribution of the main malaria vectors in Kenya
    Robi M Okara
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, PO Box 43640 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 9:69. 2010
    ..The methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in Kenya are presented here...
  51. pmc Fever treatment in the absence of malaria transmission in an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya
    Yazoume Ye
    African Population and Health Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 8:160. 2009
    ..This paper presents the results of an investigation into infection prevalence and treatment of recent febrile events among a slum population in Nairobi, Kenya...
  52. pmc Modeling the financial and clinical implications of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the case-management of older children and adults in Kenya
    Dejan Zurovac
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:884-91. 2008
    ..In both districts, adherence to revised clinical practices with RDTs has the potential to further decrease treatment errors with acceptable costs...
  53. pmc Abandoning presumptive antimalarial treatment for febrile children aged less than five years--a case of running before we can walk?
    Mike English
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 6:e1000015. 2009
    ....
  54. pmc Plasmodium-helminth coinfection and its sources of heterogeneity across East Africa
    Simon J Brooker
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 205:841-52. 2012
    ..This study investigates the distribution and heterogeneity of coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum and 3 major helminth species across East Africa...
  55. pmc The relationship between the Plasmodium falciparum parasite ratio in childhood and climate estimates of malaria transmission in Kenya
    Judith A Omumbo
    Public Health Group, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories P, O, Box 43640, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    Malar J 3:17. 2004
    ....
  56. pmc Brands, costs and registration status of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector
    Abdinasir A Amin
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, P O Box 43640, Nairobi, 00100 GPO, Kenya
    Malar J 4:36. 2005
    ..This study aimed to assess the range, costs, sources and registration of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector...
  57. pmc Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission
    Simon I Hay
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:369-78. 2008
    ..These considerations are also important to an international community that has recently been challenged to revaluate the prospects for malaria eradication...
  58. ncbi request reprint The management of fevers in Kenyan children and adults in an area of seasonal malaria transmission
    Helen L Guyatt
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, GPO 00100, Nairobi, PO Box 43640, Kenya
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:111-5. 2004
    ..In light of the proposed new, more costly anti-malarial drug combinations these findings have major implications for the effective allocation of limited financial resources at household and government levels...
  59. pmc Operational strategies to achieve and maintain malaria elimination
    Bruno Moonen
    Clinton Health Access Initiative, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 376:1592-603. 2010
    ..Elimination will thus additionally need identification and treatment of incoming infections before they lead to transmission, or, more realistically, embarking on regional initiatives to dry up importation at its source...
  60. pmc Increasing malaria hospital admissions in Uganda between 1999 and 2009
    Emelda A Okiro
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMC Med 9:37. 2011
    ..Less well described are changing patterns of malaria burden in areas of high parasite transmission and slower increases in control and treatment access...
  61. pmc A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI, University of Oxford, Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds behind NASCOP, Nairobi, Kenya
    Int J Health Geogr 8:13. 2009
    ..The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized...
  62. pmc The malaria Atlas Project: developing global maps of malaria risk
    Simon I Hay
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical ResearchInstitute, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 3:e473. 2006
  63. pmc Using remotely sensed night-time light as a proxy for poverty in Africa
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds behind NASCOP, P, O, Box 43640 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
    Popul Health Metr 6:5. 2008
    ..Remotely sensed data on artificial night time lights (NTL) have been shown to correlate with gross domestic product in developed countries...
  64. pmc Treatment of paediatric malaria during a period of drug transition to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: cross sectional study
    Dejan Zurovac
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, PO Box 43640, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMJ 331:734. 2005
    ..To evaluate treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria after the policy change from chloroquine to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia...
  65. pmc Malaria in Kenya's western highlands
    G Dennis Shanks
    US Army Medical Research Unit Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1425-32. 2005
    ..Antimalarial drugs can limit the pool of gametocytes available to infect mosquitoes during the brief transmission season...
  66. ncbi request reprint Malaria prevention in highland Kenya: indoor residual house-spraying vs. insecticide-treated bednets
    Helen L Guyatt
    Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories KEMRI, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 7:298-303. 2002
    ..This study suggests that IRS may be both more effective and cheaper than ITNs in communities subjected to low, seasonal risks of infection and as such should be considered as part of the control armamentarium for malaria prevention...
  67. ncbi request reprint Too poor to pay: charging for insecticide-treated bednets in highland Kenya
    Helen L Guyatt
    Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories KEMRI, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 7:846-50. 2002
    ..One option to have an immediate equitable impact on ITN coverage and break the cycle between malaria and poverty is to provide this service free of charge...
  68. ncbi request reprint Free bednets to pregnant women through antenatal clinics in Kenya: a cheap, simple and equitable approach to delivery
    Helen L Guyatt
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 7:409-20. 2002
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya
    Mike English
    KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya
    Lancet 363:1948-53. 2004
    ..The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya...
  70. pmc Case definitions of clinical malaria under different transmission conditions in Kilifi District, Kenya
    Tabitha W Mwangi
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 191:1932-9. 2005
    ..We defined and quantified cases of malaria in people of different age groups from 2 areas with different rates of transmission of malaria...
  71. pmc Negative epistasis between the malaria-protective effects of alpha+-thalassemia and the sickle cell trait
    Thomas N Williams
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, PO Box 230, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya
    Nat Genet 37:1253-7. 2005
    ..Negative epistasis could explain the failure of alpha(+)-thalassemia to reach fixation in any population in sub-Saharan Africa...
  72. pmc Sickle cell trait and the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and other childhood diseases
    Thomas N Williams
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 192:178-86. 2005
    ..Nevertheless, >50 years after this hypothesis was first proposed, the epidemiological description of the relationships between HbAS, malaria, and other common causes of child mortality remains incomplete...
  73. pmc Clinical algorithms for malaria diagnosis lack utility among people of different age groups
    Tabitha W Mwangi
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, CGMRC Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, Kilifi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 10:530-6. 2005
    ....
  74. pmc An immune basis for malaria protection by the sickle cell trait
    Thomas N Williams
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 2:e128. 2005
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya
    Mike English
    KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya
    Lancet 364:1622-9. 2004
    ..The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival...
  76. ncbi request reprint The burden of the neurocognitive impairment associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-saharan Africa
    Victor Mung'ala-Odera
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kilifi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:64-70. 2004
    ..The figure is likely to be considerably higher, since these estimates do not include neurocognitive impairment following non-cerebral malaria in children or adults in stable endemic areas, or populations in low stable or epidemic areas...
  77. ncbi request reprint The effects of untreated bednets on malaria infection and morbidity on the Kenyan coast
    Tabitha W Mwangi
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, CGMRC Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:369-72. 2003
    ..In the face of persistent failure of communities to take up net retreatment, there is hope that untreated nets will offer some protection against malaria infection and disease compared with not using nets at all...
  78. ncbi request reprint The cost of not treating bednets
    Helen L Guyatt
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, PO Box 43640, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trends Parasitol 18:12-6. 2002
    ..The evidence for a protective effect of untreated nets against malaria is presented here alongside an analysis of how well untreated nets would need to work in order to compete with treated nets within a cost-effectiveness framework...
  79. pmc The use of insecticide treated nets by age: implications for universal coverage in Africa
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMC Public Health 9:369. 2009
    ..Here we examine the age pattern of use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) in Africa in relation to biological vulnerabilities and the implications for future prospects for universal coverage...
  80. pmc Establishing the extent of malaria transmission and challenges facing pre-elimination in the Republic of Djibouti
    Abdisalan M Noor
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P O Box 43640, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya
    BMC Infect Dis 11:121. 2011
    ....
  81. pmc Mobile phone text messaging: tool for malaria control in Africa
    Dejan Zurovac
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Program, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS Med 9:e1001176. 2012
    ..Dejan Zurovac and colleagues discuss six areas where text messaging could improve the delivery of health services and health outcomes in malaria in Africa...
  82. ncbi request reprint Iron and folic acid supplementation and malaria risk
    Mike English
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 367:90-1. 2006
  83. pmc Impact of malaria during pregnancy on low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa
    Helen L Guyatt
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, P O Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:760-9, table of contents. 2004
    ..These estimates imply that around 100,000 infant deaths each year could be due to LBW caused by malaria during pregnancy in areas of malaria endemicity in Africa...
  84. pmc Comparing methods of estimating the global morbidity burden from Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Robert W Snow
    Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:189-90. 2006
  85. ncbi request reprint The use of formal and informal curative services in the management of paediatric fevers in four districts in Kenya
    Abdinasir A Amin
    Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 8:1143-52. 2003
    ..To assess the sources, costs, timing and types of treatment for fevers among children under 5 years of age in four ecologically distinct districts of Kenya...
  86. pmc Effect of a fall in malaria transmission on morbidity and mortality in Kilifi, Kenya
    Wendy P O'Meara
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Wellcome Trust Collaborative Program, Kilifi, Kenya Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Lancet 372:1555-62. 2008
    ..We aimed to assess the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Kilifi, Kenya, during a period of decreasing transmission intensity...
  87. pmc Global warming and malaria: a call for accuracy
    Paul Reitera
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:323-4. 2004
  88. ncbi request reprint WHO, the Global Fund, and medical malpractice in malaria treatment
    Nicholas White
    Lancet 363:1160. 2004
  89. ncbi request reprint Scaling-up coverage with insecticide-treated nets against malaria in Africa: who should pay?
    Christopher Curtis
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:304-7. 2003
    ..This expenditure is affordable by the world community as a whole, but not by its poorest members. Recently, funding of this order of magnitude has been committed by donor agencies for malaria control...
  90. ncbi request reprint The consequences of reducing transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa
    Robert W Snow
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK
    Adv Parasitol 52:235-64. 2002
    ..However, at all levels of transmission the overall balance of benefits, including reduced load on families and health services from non-life-threatening malaria, favours the widespread introduction of ITNs in endemic areas of Africa...
  91. pmc Meteorologic influences on Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Highland Tea Estates of Kericho, Western Kenya
    G Dennis Shanks
    U S Army Medical Research Unit Kenya, Nairobi, Africa
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1404-8. 2002
    ..We conclude that climate changes have not caused the highland malaria resurgence in western Kenya...
  92. pmc Hot topic or hot air? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African highlands
    Simon I Hay
    Dept of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Trends Parasitol 18:530-4. 2002
    ..We find the widespread increase in resistance of the malaria parasite to drugs and the decrease in vector control activities to be more likely driving forces behind the malaria resurgence...
  93. pmc Defining and detecting malaria epidemics in the highlands of western Kenya
    Simon I Hay
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:555-62. 2002
    ..The performance of these methods is discussed and comments made about their appropriateness for the highlands of western Kenya...
  94. pmc Clinical epidemiology of malaria in the highlands of western Kenya
    Simon I Hay
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:543-8. 2002
    ..The malaria of the region is best described as seasonal and meso-endemic. We discuss the implications for malaria control options in the Kenyan highlands...
  95. ncbi request reprint Plasmodium falciparum infections are associated with agglutinating antibodies to parasite-infected erythrocyte surface antigens among healthy Kenyan children
    Peter C Bull
    Kenya Medical Research Insitute KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 185:1688-91. 2002
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint Clinical status and implications of antimalarial drug resistance
    Peter A Winstanley
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, L69 3GE, Liverpool, UK
    Microbes Infect 4:157-64. 2002
    ..Artemisinin combination therapy may offer considerable advantages over alternative therapies, but its introduction faces considerable logistic difficulty...
  97. ncbi request reprint Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa -- a quantitative review
    Eline L Korenromp
    World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 9:1050-65. 2004
    ..To review the impact of malaria control on haemoglobin (Hb) distributions and anaemia prevalences in children under 5 in malaria-endemic Africa...
  98. pmc Standardizing estimates of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate
    David L Smith
    Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Building 16, 16 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Malar J 6:131. 2007
    ..This confounds simple comparisons of PfPR surveys conducted at different times or places...
  99. ncbi request reprint Measurement of trends in childhood malaria mortality in Africa: an assessment of progress toward targets based on verbal autopsy
    Eline L Korenromp
    Malaria Control Department of WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:349-58. 2003
    ....
  100. pmc Relationship between exposure, clinical malaria, and age in an area of changing transmission intensity
    Wendy P O'Meara
    Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:185-91. 2008
    ..However, the age group experiencing the clinical attacks of malaria increased steadily as exposure declined and may precede changes in the number of episodes in an area with declining transmission...
  101. pmc From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia
    Naawa Sipilanyambe
    Department of Community Medicine, University of Zambia, RW 0001, Lusaka, Zambia
    Malar J 7:25. 2008
    ....