R Kaul

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Immunol 164:1602-11. 2000
  2. ncbi Reduced HIV risk-taking and low HIV incidence after enrollment and risk-reduction counseling in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial in Nairobi, Kenya
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:69-72. 2002
  3. ncbi Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 185:1525-9. 2002
  4. ncbi New insights into HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    Immunol Lett 79:3-13. 2001
  5. pmc CD8(+) lymphocytes respond to different HIV epitopes in seronegative and infected subjects
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Clin Invest 107:1303-10. 2001
  6. pmc Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Clin Invest 107:341-9. 2001
  7. doi Coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic immune activation
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Infect Dis 197:1394-401. 2008
  8. ncbi Disproportionately high semen shedding of HIV is associated with compartmentalized cytomegalovirus reactivation
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
    J Infect Dis 193:45-8. 2006
  9. ncbi Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya
    Judie B Alimonti
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Immunol Cell Biol 84:482-5. 2006
  10. ncbi Strong TCR conservation and altered T cell cross-reactivity characterize a B*57-restricted immune response in HIV-1 infection
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 177:3893-902. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications46

  1. ncbi HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Immunol 164:1602-11. 2000
    ..HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission...
  2. ncbi Reduced HIV risk-taking and low HIV incidence after enrollment and risk-reduction counseling in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial in Nairobi, Kenya
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:69-72. 2002
    ..This finding should be considered in the design of clinical trials with an endpoint of HIV incidence, in particular HIV preventive vaccine trials...
  3. ncbi Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 185:1525-9. 2002
    ..Impaired function of virus-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes may partly explain the deleterious effects of gonococcal cervicitis on HIV-1 immune control and susceptibility...
  4. ncbi New insights into HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    Immunol Lett 79:3-13. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection...
  5. pmc CD8(+) lymphocytes respond to different HIV epitopes in seronegative and infected subjects
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Clin Invest 107:1303-10. 2001
    ..The association between differential recognition of distinct CTL epitopes and protection from HIV-1 infection may have significant implications for vaccine design...
  6. pmc Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Clin Invest 107:341-9. 2001
    ..Seroconversion generally occurs in the absence of detectable CTL escape mutations and may relate to the waning of HIV-specific CD8+ responses due to reduced antigenic exposure...
  7. doi Coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic immune activation
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Infect Dis 197:1394-401. 2008
    ....
  8. ncbi Disproportionately high semen shedding of HIV is associated with compartmentalized cytomegalovirus reactivation
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
    J Infect Dis 193:45-8. 2006
    ..Semen levels of HIV and CMV were closely correlated (r=0.5; P<.01), independently of blood HIV load and CD4(+) T cell count. Prevention of CMV reactivation warrants further study as a possible strategy to reduce semen shedding of HIV...
  9. ncbi Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya
    Judie B Alimonti
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Immunol Cell Biol 84:482-5. 2006
    ..Overall, many of the HIV(ES) women possess a HIV-1 p24-specific CD8+ IFN-gamma response, providing evidence to the specificity needed for an effective HIV vaccine...
  10. ncbi Strong TCR conservation and altered T cell cross-reactivity characterize a B*57-restricted immune response in HIV-1 infection
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 177:3893-902. 2006
    ..Collectively, our findings highlight unusual features of the B*5701/B*5703-KF11-specific immune responses which could influence disease progression and that might be important to consider when designing future vaccine regimens...
  11. ncbi Plasma and mucosal fluid from HIV type 1-infected patients but not from HIV type 1-exposed uninfected subjects prevent HIV type 1-exposed DC from infecting other target cells
    Johan Söderlund
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:101-6. 2007
    ..However, they readily neutralized HIV-1 infection of PBMC alone. This may suggest that protection against HIV-1 infection in HEPS individuals occurs prior to interaction between HIV-1-exposed DC and other target cells...
  12. ncbi Negative mucosal synergy between Herpes simplex type 2 and HIV in the female genital tract
    Anuradha Rebbapragada
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 21:589-98. 2007
    ..The present study aimed to elucidate the mucosal immune interactions between HIV and HSV2 in the genital tract...
  13. ncbi Sustained changes in sexual behavior by female sex workers after completion of a randomized HIV prevention trial
    Elizabeth N Ngugi
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:588-94. 2007
    ..Behavioral interventions in female sex workers (FSWs) are associated with changes in sexual behavior and reduced rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV We examined the sustainability of such interventions...
  14. pmc Sexual risk factors for HIV infection in early and advanced HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic overview of 68 epidemiological studies
    Li Chen
    Centre for Global Health Research, St Michael s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 2:e1001. 2007
    ..It is commonly assumed that sexual risk factors for heterosexual HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, such as multi-partner sex, paid sex and co-infections, become less important as HIV epidemics mature and prevalence increases...
  15. ncbi Prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is associated with altered vaginal flora and an increased susceptibility to multiple sexually transmitted infections
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 196:1692-7. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that HSV-2 infection might also predispose individuals to acquire other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  16. ncbi Reduced rates of HIV acquisition during unprotected sex by Kenyan female sex workers predating population declines in HIV prevalence
    Joshua Kimani
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 22:131-7. 2008
    ..We examined temporal trends in HIV prevalence and per-act incidence, adjusted for behavioral and other variables, in FSWs from Nairobi, Kenya...
  17. ncbi Mucosal innate immunity as a determinant of HIV susceptibility
    Shehzad M Iqbal
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Am J Reprod Immunol 59:44-54. 2008
    ..Given the great challenges to the development of HIV microbicides and vaccines, identification and enhancement of 'natural' innate immune defenses present attractive avenues for development of safe, non-toxic microbicides...
  18. ncbi HIV-1 neutralizing activity is correlated with increased levels of chemokines in saliva of HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals
    Taha Hirbod
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden
    Curr HIV Res 6:28-33. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that other immune molecules might also contribute to the HIV-1 neutralizing activity observed in the mucosal secretions of HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals...
  19. doi HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers
    Taha Hirbod
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden
    AIDS 22:727-35. 2008
    ..We performed a prospective, nested case-control study to examine the association of genital IgA and systemic cellular immune responses with subsequent HIV acquisition in high-risk Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs)...
  20. doi Mucosal Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection during HIV acquisition is associated with enhanced systemic HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses
    Anthony Sheung
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 22:1729-37. 2008
    ..As Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T-cell immune function, we hypothesized that coinfection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses...
  21. ncbi Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial
    Geeta Yadav
    Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:329-34. 2005
    ..Female sex workers (FSWs) often lack the ability to negotiate safer sex and are at high risk for HIV-1 infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  22. ncbi Preferential apoptosis of HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells
    Feng Yun Yue
    Clinical Sciences Division, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Immunol 174:2196-204. 2005
    ....
  23. ncbi Cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a HIV-1 p24 epitope in slow progressors with B*57
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    AIDS 16:961-72. 2002
    ....
  24. ncbi Cross-clade HIV-1-specific neutralizing IgA in mucosal and systemic compartments of HIV-1-exposed, persistently seronegative subjects
    Claudia Devito
    Department of Clinical Virology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:413-20. 2002
    ..In conclusion, mucosal and plasma IgA from HEPS subjects neutralizes HIV-1 of different clades. This ability to induce HIV-1-specific systemic and mucosal IgA may be an important feature of an effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine...
  25. ncbi HLA typing in a Kenyan cohort identifies novel class I alleles that restrict cytotoxic T-cell responses to local HIV-1 clades
    Thomas G Bird
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 16:1899-904. 2002
    ..To investigate HLA class I allele frequencies in a Kenyan commercial sex worker (CSW) cohort, and to examine HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses directed against epitopes derived from locally prevalent clade A virus...
  26. ncbi HIV-1 and AIDS: what are protective immune responses?
    Tara Beattie
    Clinical Sciences Division, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J HIV Ther 7:35-9. 2002
    ..Achieving this goal will at least require the induction of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses at the site of initial viral contact (generally the genital tract), perhaps in combination with HIV-1-specific neutralising antibody...
  27. ncbi Quantitative ex vivo analysis of functional virus-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected women
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 17:1139-44. 2003
    ..The induction and monitoring of mucosal CD8 cell responses will be an important component of HIV-1 vaccine trials, but information regarding the frequency, phenotype and function of genital tract CD8 cell responses is lacking...
  28. ncbi Recombination following superinfection by HIV-1
    Guowei Fang
    Wadsworth Center, NY State Department of Health, Albany, 12208, USA
    AIDS 18:153-9. 2004
    ..There is increasing recognition of recombinant HIV-1 strains globally, but it has been unclear whether recombination results from superinfection during untreated, chronic infection...
  29. ncbi Monthly antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and incidence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 infection in Kenyan sex workers: a randomized controlled trial
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    JAMA 291:2555-62. 2004
    ..Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in female sex workers (FSWs) and may enhance susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  30. ncbi Screening for HIV-specific T-cell responses using overlapping 15-mer peptide pools or optimized epitopes
    Tara Beattie
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 18:1595-8. 2004
    ..These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials...
  31. ncbi Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations
    Guowei Fang
    Wadsworth Center, NY State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:697-701. 2004
    ..0048). Studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV-1 subtypes may increase our understanding of slow HIV-1 disease progression...
  32. ncbi HIV-1 Env-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, uninfected Kenyan sex workers: a prospective analysis
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 18:2087-9. 2004
    ..Annual HIV incidence was 5.8%. CTL were independently associated with age and recent HIV-1 exposure,but were not prospectively associated with protection in a multivariable model that included HIV-1 exposure and duration of sex work...
  33. ncbi HIV viral shedding in semen: lack of correlation with systemic virus-specific CD8 responses
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    AIDS 18:2202-5. 2004
    ..No correlation was observed between viral load in either semen or blood and systemic CD8 T-cell responses. Further studies of immune correlates of semen HIV shedding are needed...
  34. ncbi HIV-specific CD8+ lymphocytes in semen are not associated with reduced HIV shedding
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Immunol 175:4789-96. 2005
    ..6; p = 0.03) and of several proinflammatory cytokines. Neither the presence nor the frequency of semen HIV-specific CD8+ T cell IFN-gamma responses in semen correlated with reduced levels of HIV RNA in semen...
  35. doi Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness are increased in viraemic HIV-1 infection
    Richard T Lester
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    AIDS 22:685-94. 2008
    ..Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling...
  36. doi Reduced mother-to-child transmission of HIV associated with infant but not maternal GB virus C infection
    Wendy Bhanich Supapol
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Infect Dis 197:1369-77. 2008
    ..We investigated whether maternal or infant GBV-C infection was associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection...
  37. pmc Progressive hypertrophic genital herpes in an HIV-infected woman despite immune recovery on antiretroviral therapy
    Mark H Yudin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2008:592532. 2008
    ..HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART...
  38. doi Stay it with flora: maintaining vaginal health as a possible avenue for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition
    Lucy Y Shin
    J Infect Dis 197:1355-7. 2008
  39. doi Transition from long-term nonprogression to HIV-1 disease associated with escape from cellular immune control
    Kimdar Sherefa Kemal
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:119-26. 2008
    ..These data are relevant to vaccine design and identification of the correlates of protection from disease progression...
  40. doi Otosyphilis in HIV-coinfected individuals: a case series from Toronto, Canada
    Sharmistha Mishra
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 22:213-9. 2008
    ..Increased awareness of uncommon manifestations of syphilis in high-risk individuals is warranted to prompt appropriate investigation and treatment...
  41. ncbi Maternal milk IgA and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: not a silver spoon
    Rupert Kaul
    J Pediatr 149:591-3. 2006
  42. ncbi Conflicting selective forces affect T cell receptor contacts in an immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus epitope
    Astrid K N Iversen
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9AD, UK
    Nat Immunol 7:179-89. 2006
    ..Thus, viral escape from CTL responses does not necessarily correlate with disease progression...
  43. ncbi Construction of an infectious HIV type 1 molecular clone from an African patient with a subtype D/C Recombinant Virus
    Binshan Shi
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:1015-8. 2004
    ..This infectious HIV-1 subtype D/C recombinant molecular clone obtained from a Kenyan long-term survivor promises to be useful to study pathogenesis and vaccine design...
  44. ncbi Structures of three HIV-1 HLA-B*5703-peptide complexes and identification of related HLAs potentially associated with long-term nonprogression
    Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones
    Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 175:2459-68. 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi Clinical and immunogenetic correlates of abacavir hypersensitivity
    Elizabeth J Phillips
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Canada
    AIDS 19:979-81. 2005
    ..001). Five of seven PT (71%) versus one of 11 controls (9%) (P = 0.005) showed significant abacavir-specific CD8 proliferation, suggesting a direct role for HLA-B*5701-restricted CD8 cells in the pathophysiology of AHS...
  46. ncbi Development of functional human monoclonal single-chain variable fragment antibody against HIV-1 from human cervical B cells
    Jody D Berry
    Monoclonal Antibody Section, National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Hybrid Hybridomics 22:97-108. 2003
    ..This work demonstrates, for the first time, cloning of a functional scFv MAb to a sexually transmitted disease pathogen from local cervical B-cell pools in exposed humans...