Yoshizawa F, Sekizawa H, Hirayama S, Yamazaki Y, Nagasawa T, Sugahara K. Tissue-specific regulation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation by alpha-ketoisocaproate. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2004;50:56-60 pubmed
..The results showing that the efficacy of L-leucine and alpha-KIC in stimulating phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is equivalent in skeletal muscle, may be explained by the conversion of alpha-KIC to L-leucine. ..