Toshiyasu Sasaoka

Summary

Affiliation: University of Tokyo
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Synergistic role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in the regulation of insulin receptor trafficking
    T Sasaoka
    First Department of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan
    Endocrinology 140:3826-34. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of endogenous SHIP2 ameliorates insulin resistance caused by chronic insulin treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    T Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Diabetologia 48:336-44. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Impact of transgenic overexpression of SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 on glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in mice
    Syota Kagawa
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Endocrinology 149:642-50. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 predominantly regulates Akt2, and not Akt1, phosphorylation at the plasma membrane in response to insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Toshiyasu Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and First Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:14835-43. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Dual role of SRC homology domain 2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 in the regulation of platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I signaling in rat vascular smooth muscle cells
    Toshiyasu Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 144:4204-14. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent and -independent role of Shc in the regulation of IGF-1-induced mitogenesis and glycogen synthesis
    T Sasaoka
    First Department of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 142:5226-35. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 negatively regulates insulin-induced glycogen synthesis in L6 myotubes
    T Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan
    Diabetologia 44:1258-67. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint Impact of Src homology 2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 on the regulation of insulin signaling leading to protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with excess amino acids
    Shihou Murakami
    Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 145:3215-23. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Membrane localization of Src homology 2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 via Shc association is required for the negative regulation of insulin signaling in Rat1 fibroblasts overexpressing insulin receptors
    Hajime Ishihara
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 16:2371-81. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Association of SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 with the insulin resistance of diabetic db/db mice
    Hiroyuki Hori
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan
    Diabetes 51:2387-94. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. ncbi request reprint Synergistic role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in the regulation of insulin receptor trafficking
    T Sasaoka
    First Department of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan
    Endocrinology 140:3826-34. 1999
    ..These results suggest that PI3-kinase and MAP kinase pathways synergistically regulate insulin receptor trafficking at a step subsequent to the receptor internalization...
  2. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of endogenous SHIP2 ameliorates insulin resistance caused by chronic insulin treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    T Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Diabetologia 48:336-44. 2005
    ..In the present study, we examined the effect of inhibiting the endogenous SHIP2 function on the insulin resistance caused by chronic insulin treatment...
  3. ncbi request reprint Impact of transgenic overexpression of SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 on glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in mice
    Syota Kagawa
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Endocrinology 149:642-50. 2008
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 predominantly regulates Akt2, and not Akt1, phosphorylation at the plasma membrane in response to insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Toshiyasu Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and First Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:14835-43. 2004
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Dual role of SRC homology domain 2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 in the regulation of platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I signaling in rat vascular smooth muscle cells
    Toshiyasu Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 144:4204-14. 2003
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent and -independent role of Shc in the regulation of IGF-1-induced mitogenesis and glycogen synthesis
    T Sasaoka
    First Department of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 142:5226-35. 2001
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 negatively regulates insulin-induced glycogen synthesis in L6 myotubes
    T Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan
    Diabetologia 44:1258-67. 2001
    ..We have recently cloned rat SHIP2 cDNA which is abundantly expressed in target tissues of insulin. Here, we clarify the role of SHIP2 possessing 5'-phosphatase activity toward PI(3,4,5)P3 in insulin signalling in the skeletal muscle...
  8. ncbi request reprint Impact of Src homology 2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 on the regulation of insulin signaling leading to protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with excess amino acids
    Shihou Murakami
    Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 145:3215-23. 2004
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Membrane localization of Src homology 2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 via Shc association is required for the negative regulation of insulin signaling in Rat1 fibroblasts overexpressing insulin receptors
    Hajime Ishihara
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 16:2371-81. 2002
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Association of SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 with the insulin resistance of diabetic db/db mice
    Hiroyuki Hori
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan
    Diabetes 51:2387-94. 2002
    ....
  11. doi request reprint The association of genotypic combination of the DRD3 and BDNF polymorphisms on the adhesio interthalamica and medial temporal lobe structures
    Tsutomu Takahashi
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1236-42. 2008
    ....
  12. doi request reprint The Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 Ser704Cys polymorphism and brain morphology in schizophrenia
    Tsutomu Takahashi
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Psychiatry Res 172:128-35. 2009
    ..Our findings also suggest that the DISC1 genotype variation might have some relevance to the medication effect on brain morphology in schizophrenia...
  13. doi request reprint Central versus peripheral impact of estradiol on the impaired glucose metabolism in ovariectomized mice on a high-fat diet
    Rika Yonezawa
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303:E445-56. 2012
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Impact of lipid phosphatases SHIP2 and PTEN on the time- and Akt-isoform-specific amelioration of TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Mariko Ikubo
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296:E157-64. 2009
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Cilostazol ameliorates systemic insulin resistance in diabetic db/db mice by suppressing chronic inflammation in adipose tissue via modulation of both adipocyte and macrophage functions
    Tsutomu Wada
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 707:120-9. 2013
    ..Thus, the present study reveals an additional benefit in the use of cilostazol in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes...
  16. ncbi request reprint Chronic nicotine exposure enhances insulin-induced mitogenic signaling via up-regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in isolated rat aortic smooth muscle cells
    Tsutomu Wada
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 148:790-9. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Impact of SRC homology 2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 gene polymorphisms detected in a Japanese population on insulin signaling
    Syota Kagawa
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:2911-9. 2005
    ..These results indicate that the polymorphisms of SHIP2 are implicated, at least in part, in type 2 diabetes, possibly by affecting the metabolic and/or mitogenic insulin signaling in the Japanese population...
  18. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-1alpha inhibits insulin signaling with phosphorylating insulin receptor substrate-1 on serine residues in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Jianying He
    The First Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 20:114-24. 2006
    ..IL-1alpha may suppress insulin signaling downstream of IRS-1 in the presence of other cytokines, such as IL-6...
  19. ncbi request reprint Impact of the liver-specific expression of SHIP2 (SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2) on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in mice
    Kazuhito Fukui
    Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, 930 0194, Japan
    Diabetes 54:1958-67. 2005
    ..These results indicate that hepatic SHIP2 has an impact in vivo on the glucose metabolism in both physiological and diabetic states possibly by regulating hepatic gene expression...
  20. ncbi request reprint Altered subcellular distribution of estrogen receptor alpha is implicated in estradiol-induced dual regulation of insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Kiyofumi Nagira
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Japan
    Endocrinology 147:1020-8. 2006
    ....
  21. doi request reprint Hypothalamic orexin prevents hepatic insulin resistance induced by social defeat stress in mice
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Japan
    Neuropeptides 47:213-9. 2013
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Impact of divergent effects of astaxanthin on insulin signaling in L6 cells
    Manabu Ishiki
    The First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Endocrinology 154:2600-12. 2013
    ..Collectively these findings indicate astaxanthin is a very effective antioxidant for ameliorating insulin resistance by protecting cells from oxidative stress generated by various stimuli including TNF╬▒ and palmitate. ..
  23. doi request reprint Spironolactone improves glucose and lipid metabolism by ameliorating hepatic steatosis and inflammation and suppressing enhanced gluconeogenesis induced by high-fat and high-fructose diet
    Tsutomu Wada
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocrinology 151:2040-9. 2010
    ..These results indicate that inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptor might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for diet-induced phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver...
  24. ncbi request reprint Role of orexin in the central regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Endocr J 59:365-74. 2012
    ..Taken together, hypothalamic orexin system may manage multiple tasks to coordinate the interconnection among the arousal, feeding, circadian, and glucose homeostasis pathways...
  25. pmc The radioprotective 105/MD-1 complex contributes to diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation
    Yasuharu Watanabe
    Department of Immunobiology and Pharmacological Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Diabetes 61:1199-209. 2012
    ..Thus, the RP105/MD-1 complex is a major mediator of adipose tissue inflammation independent of TLR4 signaling and may represent a novel therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic disorders...
  26. doi request reprint Both type I and II IFN induce insulin resistance by inducing different isoforms of SOCS expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Tsutomu Wada
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300:E1112-23. 2011
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Marine alkaloids (-)-pictamine and (-)-lepadin B block neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 28:611-4. 2005
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Aldosterone inhibits insulin-induced glucose uptake by degradation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 1 and IRS2 via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Tsutomu Wada
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan
    Endocrinology 150:1662-9. 2009
    ..Thus, aldosterone appears to be a novel key factor in the development of insulin resistance in visceral obesity...
  29. ncbi request reprint Antiangiogenic activity of beta-eudesmol in vitro and in vivo
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 512:105-15. 2005
    ..These results indicate that beta-eudesmol inhibits angiogenesis, at least in part, through the blockade of the ERK signaling pathway. We considered that beta-eudesmol may aid the development of drugs to treat angiogenic diseases...
  30. doi request reprint Protective effects of coenzyme Q10 against angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 701:218-27. 2013
    ....
  31. pmc Effect of green tea on blood glucose levels and serum proteomic patterns in diabetic (db/db) mice and on glucose metabolism in healthy humans
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    BMC Pharmacol 4:18. 2004
    ..The present study was aimed at providing evidence of improvement in glucose metabolism in diabetic mice and healthy humans upon green tea consumption...
  32. ncbi request reprint Coenzyme Q10 prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 566:1-10. 2007
    ..Thus, we provide the first evidence that coenzyme Q10 has a beneficial effect in protecting against the endothelial dysfunction by high glucose-induced oxidative stress in vitro...
  33. pmc Flexible synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine-class. II: Synthesis of (-)-209B, (-)-231C, (-)-233D, (-)-235B", (-)-221I, and an epimer of 193E and pharmacological effects at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine recepto
    Soushi Kobayashi
    Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani 2630, Toyama, 930 0194, Japan
    Beilstein J Org Chem 3:30. 2007
    ....
  34. doi request reprint The inositol phosphatase SHIP2 negatively regulates insulin/IGF-I actions implicated in neuroprotection and memory function in mouse brain
    Yoshiyuki Soeda
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 24:1965-77. 2010
    ..These results suggest that SHIP2 is a potent negative regulator of insulin/IGF-I actions in the brain, and excess amounts of SHIP2 may be related, at least in part, to brain dysfunction in insulin resistance with type 2 diabetes...
  35. ncbi request reprint Deletion of the PDGFR-beta gene affects key fibroblast functions important for wound healing
    Zhiyang Gao
    Department of Pathology, Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:9375-89. 2005
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Lipid phosphatases as a possible therapeutic target in cases of type 2 diabetes and obesity
    Toshiyasu Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Pharmacol Ther 112:799-809. 2006
    ..Inhibition of PTEN in the tissues specifically targeted, including skeletal muscle and fat, may result in an amelioration of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, although caution against the formation of tumors is needed...
  37. ncbi request reprint Synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids 233A, 235U, and 251AA and their inhibitory effects on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Naoki Toyooka
    Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani 2630, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17:5872-5. 2007
    ..Thus, based on these studies, it would appear that C4 substituents greater in length than the allyl of 1-epi-207I reduce alpha7-potency without affecting alpha4beta2-potency...
  38. ncbi request reprint Novel G423S mutation of human alpha7 nicotinic receptor promotes agonist-induced desensitization by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Mol Pharmacol 71:777-86. 2007
    ..Thus, we provide the first evidence that a variant in the human CHRNA7 gene alters the function of alpha7 nicotinic receptors...
  39. doi request reprint Characteristics of signalling properties mediated by long-acting insulin analogue glargine and detemir in target cells of insulin
    Tsutomu Wada
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 81:269-77. 2008
    ..In contrast, detemir-induced metabolic signaling is less potent in all cell types studied, and is reduced further by increasing concentrations of albumin...
  40. doi request reprint Rational design and synthesis of 4-substituted 2-pyridin-2-ylamides with inhibitory effects on SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2)
    Yoshinori Ichihara
    Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Eur J Med Chem 62:649-60. 2013
    ..CPDA was found to enhance in vitro insulin signaling through the Akt pathway more efficiently than the previously reported SHIP2 inhibitor AS1949490, and ameliorated abnormal glucose metabolism in diabetic (db/db) mice...
  41. doi request reprint Association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and brain morphology in a Japanese sample of schizophrenia and healthy comparisons
    Tsutomu Takahashi
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 435:34-9. 2008
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Nicotinic enhancement of proliferation in bovine and porcine cerebral microvascular endothelial cells
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 27:1951-6. 2004
    ..These results demonstrate that nicotinic stimulation promotes the proliferation of bovine and porcine cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, at least in part, through the MAP kinase activation...
  43. ncbi request reprint Alkaloids indolizidine 235B', quinolizidine 1-epi-207I, and the tricyclic 205B are potent and selective noncompetitive inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, 930 0194, Japan
    Mol Pharmacol 66:1061-9. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Telmisartan reduced blood pressure and HOMA-IR with increasing plasma leptin level in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patients
    Isao Usui
    The First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77:210-4. 2007
    ..In conclusion, Telmisartan improved insulin resistance with increased serum leptin level in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patients...
  45. ncbi request reprint Active Src expression is induced after rat peripheral nerve injury
    Ying Luan Zhao
    Department of Pathology II, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan
    Glia 42:184-93. 2003
    ..Due to its potent biological activity, the increased amounts of the active form of Src probably enhance axonal regrowth, the Schwann cell response, and axon-Schwann cell contact for peripheral nerve regeneration...
  46. ncbi request reprint Reduction of blood glucose level by orexins in fasting normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mice
    Hiroshi Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 448:245-52. 2002
    ..These results demonstrate that orexins lower the blood glucose levels exclusively in the fasting state. The orexins may stimulate some neural and hormonal network and thereby promote blood glucose utilization...
  47. ncbi request reprint [Glucose intolerance induced by interferon therapy]
    Toshiyasu Sasaoka
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
    Nihon Rinsho 60:760-5. 2002
  48. ncbi request reprint [Ectopic ACTH-producing bronchial carcinoid tumor]
    Minoru Iwata
    First Department of Internal Medicine, First Department of Pathology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama
    Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 93:370-2. 2004
  49. ncbi request reprint Association of the polymorphisms in the 5'-untranslated region of PTEN gene with type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population
    Hajime Ishihara
    Sainou Hospital, Toyama 930 0887, Japan
    FEBS Lett 554:450-4. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that the change of C to G at position -9 of the PTEN gene is associated with the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes due possibly to a potentiated hydrolysis of the PI3-kinase product...