Shigeru Kobayashi

Summary

Affiliation: University of Fukui
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. ncbi Effect of lumbar nerve root compression on primary sensory neurons and their central branches: changes in the nociceptive neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:276-82. 2005
  2. ncbi Changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide in primary sensory neurons and their central branch after nerve root compression of the dog
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86:527-33. 2005
  3. ncbi Localization and changes of intraneural inflammatory cytokines and inducible-nitric oxide induced by mechanical compression
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Res 23:771-8. 2005
  4. ncbi Changes in nerve root motion and intraradicular blood flow during intraoperative femoral nerve stretch test. Report of four cases
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Physiology Laboratory of Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Neurosurg 99:298-305. 2003
  5. ncbi Effect of mechanical compression on the lumbar nerve root: localization and changes of intraradicular inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and cyclooxygenase
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:1699-705. 2005
  6. ncbi A case of nerve root heat injury induced by percutaneous laser disc decompression performed at an outside institution: technical case report
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Neurosurgery 60:ONSE171-2; discussion ONSE172. 2007
  7. ncbi Motor neuron involvement in experimental lumbar nerve root compression: a light and electron microscopic study
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:627-34. 2007
  8. ncbi Microvascular system of anterior cruciate ligament in dogs
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui, 910 1193, and Department of Orthopedics, Kawasaki Municipal Hospital, Japan
    J Orthop Res 24:1509-20. 2006
  9. ncbi A schwannoma of the S1 dural sleeve was resected while the intact nerve fibers were preserved using a microscope. Report of a case with early MRI findings
    S Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Fukui University School of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Minim Invasive Neurosurg 50:120-3. 2007
  10. ncbi Atlantoaxial subluxation-induced myelopathy in cleidocranial dysplasia. Case report
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 7:243-7. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Effect of lumbar nerve root compression on primary sensory neurons and their central branches: changes in the nociceptive neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:276-82. 2005
    ..This study examined the effect of lumbar nerve root compression on nociceptive neuropeptides in the axonal flow using an in vivo model...
  2. ncbi Changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide in primary sensory neurons and their central branch after nerve root compression of the dog
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86:527-33. 2005
    ..To investigate changes in axonal flow after nerve root compression by using immunohistochemical techniques to detect calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is thought to be involved in pain sensation...
  3. ncbi Localization and changes of intraneural inflammatory cytokines and inducible-nitric oxide induced by mechanical compression
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Res 23:771-8. 2005
    ..Investigation of intraneural inflammation induced by mechanical compression...
  4. ncbi Changes in nerve root motion and intraradicular blood flow during intraoperative femoral nerve stretch test. Report of four cases
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Physiology Laboratory of Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Neurosurg 99:298-305. 2003
    ..An FNST was conducted in patients with lumbar disc herniation to observe the changes in IRBF, and results were then compared with clinical features...
  5. ncbi Effect of mechanical compression on the lumbar nerve root: localization and changes of intraradicular inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and cyclooxygenase
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:1699-705. 2005
    ..Investigation of intraradicular inflammation induced by mechanical compression...
  6. ncbi A case of nerve root heat injury induced by percutaneous laser disc decompression performed at an outside institution: technical case report
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Neurosurgery 60:ONSE171-2; discussion ONSE172. 2007
    ..However, there is a risk of nerve root and endplate injury owing to heat generated by laser irradiation during PLDD. We recently performed salvage surgery on a patient with heat injury to the L5 nerve root that developed after PLDD...
  7. ncbi Motor neuron involvement in experimental lumbar nerve root compression: a light and electron microscopic study
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:627-34. 2007
    ..This study is to investigate the changes of lumbar motor neuron induced by mechanical nerve root compression using in vivo model...
  8. ncbi Microvascular system of anterior cruciate ligament in dogs
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui, 910 1193, and Department of Orthopedics, Kawasaki Municipal Hospital, Japan
    J Orthop Res 24:1509-20. 2006
    ..The clinical relevance of the fine vascular anatomy of the ACL in trauma surgery is considered. This deserves further consideration...
  9. ncbi A schwannoma of the S1 dural sleeve was resected while the intact nerve fibers were preserved using a microscope. Report of a case with early MRI findings
    S Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Fukui University School of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Minim Invasive Neurosurg 50:120-3. 2007
    ..Microsurgery allowed the tumor to be removed with minimal impairment from cutting of nerve fibers in the nerve root...
  10. ncbi Atlantoaxial subluxation-induced myelopathy in cleidocranial dysplasia. Case report
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 7:243-7. 2007
    ..When managing cleidocranial dysplasia, the practitioner should always be aware that atlantoaxial subluxation may be the cause of cervical myelopathy...
  11. doi Synapse involvement of the dorsal horn in experimental lumbar nerve root compression: a light and electron microscopic study
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Yoshida, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33:716-23. 2008
    ..This study was aimed at investigating changes in the dorsal horn of the lumbar cord induced by mechanical compression using an in vivo model...
  12. doi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors contribute to apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord of spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy) sustaining chronic mechanical compression
    Tomoo Inukai
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:2848-57. 2009
    ....
  13. doi Changes in blood flow, oxygen tension, action potentials, and vascular permeability induced by arterial ischemia or venous congestion on the lumbar dorsal root ganglia in dogs
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurotrauma 26:1167-75. 2009
    ..From a clinical perspective, intraganglionic edema formation, rather than arterial ischemia, may be an earlier phenomenon inducing DRG dysfunction...
  14. ncbi Herniated and spondylotic intervertebral discs of the human cervical spine: histological and immunohistological findings in 500 en bloc surgical samples. Laboratory investigation
    Yasuo Kokubo
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 9:285-95. 2008
    ..In this paper the authors' goal was to identify histological and immunohistochemical differences between cervical disc hemrniation and spondylosis...
  15. doi Blood flow analysis of compressed nerve root after intravenous injection of lipo-prostaglandin E1
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine Fukui, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    J Orthop Res 27:1252-7. 2009
    ..It is concluded that lipo-PGE(1) has less effect on markedly degenerated nerve roots than it does on those that are normal...
  16. doi Vertebroplasty-augmented short-segment posterior fixation of osteoporotic vertebral collapse with neurological deficit in the thoracolumbar spine: comparisons with posterior surgery without vertebroplasty and anterior surgery
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 13:612-21. 2010
    ....
  17. doi Target muscles for retrograde gene delivery to specific spinal cord segments
    Hideaki Nakajima
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji cho, Yoshida gun, Fukui 910 1193, Fukui, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 435:1-6. 2008
    ..Adenovirus vector is an efficient retrograde tracer since it can deliver the carried gene to a wide area of the spinal cord and not to other body organs...
  18. ncbi Rescue of rat anterior horn neurons after spinal cord injury by retrograde transfection of adenovirus vector carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene
    Hideaki Nakajima
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurotrauma 24:703-12. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that in vivo targeted retrograde AdV-BDNF-gene delivery may enhance neuronal survival following traumatic injury of the spinal cord...
  19. doi Changes of blood flow, oxygen tension, action potential and vascular permeability induced by arterial ischemia or venous congestion on the spinal cord in canine model
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Fukui, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Res 31:139-46. 2013
    ..In conclusions, venous congestion may be a preceding and essential factor of circulatory disturbance in the compressed spinal cord inducing myelopathy...
  20. doi Microvascular system of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia in rats. Part II: neurogenic control of intraganglionic blood flow
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Matsuoka, FukuiJapan
    J Neurosurg Spine 12:203-9. 2010
    ..The authors used an immunohistochemical technique to investigate the presence and distribution of autonomic and sensory nerves in blood vessels of the DRG...
  21. doi Rapidly progressive neuropathic arthropathy of the knee in possible association with a huge extruded cervical intervertebral disc herniation
    Hideaki Nakajima
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shimoaizuki 23, Eiheiji Matsuoka, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    Rheumatol Int 30:811-5. 2010
    ..We stress the possibility of rapid progression of knee joint arthropathy, as neuropathic knee, even in a patient with less significant symptoms and signs of cervical myelopathy caused by a huge extruded intervertebral disc...
  22. doi A phenotypic comparison of proteoglycan production of intervertebral disc cells isolated from rats, rabbits, and bovine tails; which animal model is most suitable to study tissue engineering and biological repair of human disc disorders?
    Tsuyoshi Miyazaki
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Tissue Eng Part A 15:3835-46. 2009
    ..Animals with notochordal cells in the NP, such as rats and rabbits, may not provide good models for investigation of biological repair and tissue engineering for human disc disorders...
  23. doi Vasomotion of intraradicular microvessels in rat
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:990-7. 2009
    ..This study is to investigate the changes of vasomotion of intraradicular microvessels in vivo...
  24. doi High-mobility group box-1 and its receptors contribute to proinflammatory response in the acute phase of spinal cord injury in rats
    Ke Bing Chen
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 36:2122-9. 2011
    ..To examine the localization and expression of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) protein and its receptors after rat spinal cord injury...
  25. doi Lidocaine cytotoxicity to the zygapophysial joints in rabbits: changes in cell viability and proteoglycan metabolism in vitro
    Kenichi Takeno
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:E945-51. 2009
    ..CONCLUSION.: While these in vitro results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical setting, this data suggestcaution in prolonged exposure of zygapophysial cartilage to high concentration lidocaine...
  26. doi High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and 18FDG-PET findings of the cervical spinal cord before and after decompressive surgery in patients with compressive myelopathy
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:1185-91. 2009
    ..Evaluation of cervical spinal cord (CSC) of patients with compressive myelopathy by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution (18F)fluoro-deoxyglucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)...
  27. doi Targeted retrograde gene delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor suppresses apoptosis of neurons and oligodendroglia after spinal cord injury in rats
    Hideaki Nakajima
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 35:497-504. 2010
    ..Histologic and immunohistochemical studies after targeted retrograde adenovirus (AdV)-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene delivery via intramuscular injection in rats with injured spinal cord...
  28. ncbi Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition in the ligamentum flavum of degenerated lumbar spine: histopathological and immunohistological findings
    Takafumi Yayama
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Clin Rheumatol 27:597-604. 2008
    ..Calcium crystal deposition in the lumbar ligamentum flavum progresses with reduction in elastic fibers and accumulation of collagen fibrils in the matrix as well as expansion of chondrometaplastic areas...
  29. doi Ultrastructural analysis on lumbar disc herniation using surgical specimens: role of neovascularization and macrophages in hernias
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Fukui, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:655-62. 2009
    ..The mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous regression of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) were studied by examining herniated tissue collected at operation from patients with LDH...
  30. doi Effects of arterial ischemia and venous congestion on the lumbar nerve root in dogs
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rebhailitation Medicine, The University of Fukui, 23 3 Shimozizuki, Matsuoka, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan
    J Orthop Res 26:1533-40. 2008
    ..In conclusion, venous congestion may be an essential factor precipitating circulatory disturbance in compressed nerve roots and inducing neurogenic intermittent claudication...
  31. ncbi Exceedingly large femoral condyle intraosseous ganglion cyst following high tibial osteotomy
    Chikara Kubota
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Sci 12:592-6. 2007
  32. doi Fine structure of cartilage canal and vascular buds in the rabbit vertebral endplate. Laboratory investigation
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 9:96-103. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to clarify the ultrastructure of the vascular bud seen in the bone-disc junction in comparison to the cartilage canal...
  33. doi Gene expression profiles of neurotrophic factors in rat cultured spinal cord cells under cyclic tensile stress
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33:2596-604. 2008
    ..An experimental study to investigate the in vitro gene expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors in cultured rat spinal cord cells subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch forces...
  34. ncbi Physical limitations to tissue engineering of intervertebral disc cells: effect of extracellular osmotic change on glycosaminoglycan production and cell metabolism. Laboratory investigation
    Kenichi Takeno
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Science, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 7:637-44. 2007
    ..In this study, the authors examined how physiological levels of extracellular osmolality influence proteoglycan accumulation in nucleus pulposus cells in a 3D culture system...
  35. doi Lidocaine cytotoxicity to the bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro: changes in cell viability and proteoglycan metabolism
    Tsuyoshi Miyazaki
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19:1198-205. 2011
    ..This study was performed to determine the effects of varying concentrations and exposure times of lidocaine on the viability and proteoglycan metabolism of chondrocytes in vitro...
  36. ncbi Quantitative gait analysis of patients with bilateral hip osteoarthritis excluding the influence of walking speed
    Masafumi Kubota
    Division of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui Hospital, 23 Matsuoka Shimoaizuki, Eiheiji, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Sci 12:451-7. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate gait characteristics of patients with bilateral hip osteoarthritis (BHO) independent of walking speed...
  37. ncbi Salvage operation for persistent low back pain and sciatica induced by percutaneous laser disc decompression performed at outside institution: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative and pathological findings
    Kenichi Takeno
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, and Aikou Orthopaedic Clinic, Aichi, Japan
    Photomed Laser Surg 24:414-23. 2006
    ..We identified several problems associated with percutaneous lumbar disc decompression (PLDD) based on a study of patients who required salvage operations for complications after undergoing PLDD at an outside institution...
  38. ncbi Anterior expandable strut cage replacement for osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral collapse
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 4:454-62. 2006
    ..The authors investigated the usefulness of using an expandable cage strut in anterior reconstruction after osteoporotic vertebral collapse in patients with neurological deficits...
  39. doi Microvascular system of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia in rats. Part I: a 3D analysis with scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 12:197-202. 2010
    ..However, in the past most of these studies lacked 3D observations. This study presents the details of the microvasculature of the lumbar DRG visualized by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts...
  40. doi Cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with kyphosis or sagittal sigmoid alignment: outcome after anterior or posterior decompression
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 11:521-8. 2009
    ..The aim in this study was to determine the effects of kyphotic sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in terms of neurological morbidity and outcome after 2 types of surgical intervention...
  41. doi Pathogenesis of the discal cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disc. Histological and ultrastructual studies of two cases
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Faculty of Medical Science, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, 23 3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Eiheiji, Fukui, 910 1193 Japan
    Joint Bone Spine 77:184-6. 2010
    ..In this study, we confirmed that the discal cyst could have developed from the absorption process of a disc herniation...
  42. doi Visualization of intraneural edema using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of carpal tunnel syndrome
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, 23 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Sci 14:24-34. 2009
    ..Therefore, detecting intraneural edema may be a way of diagnosing entrapment neuropathy. The present study investigated the diagnostic role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of CTS...
  43. doi Effects of graded mechanical compression of rabbit sciatic nerve on nerve blood flow and electrophysiological properties
    Takafumi Yayama
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Matsuoka Shimoaizuki 23, Eiheiji, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    J Clin Neurosci 17:501-5. 2010
    ..These changes may be critical factors in the development of symptoms associated with nerve compression...
  44. doi Adenovirus-mediated retrograde transfer of neurotrophin-3 gene enhances survival of anterior horn neurons of twy/twy mice with chronic mechanical compression of the spinal cord
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosci Res 86:1789-800. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that targeted retrograde NT-3 gene delivery is feasible in the intact animal and that it enhances neuronal survival even under chronic mechanical compression of the spinal cord...
  45. doi Effects of alendronate on bone metabolism in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis measured by 18F-fluoride PET: a prospective study
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    J Nucl Med 50:1808-14. 2009
    ....
  46. pmc Multivariate analysis of the neurological outcome of surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy
    Kenzo Uchida
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Sci 10:564-73. 2005
    ..We examined the results of multivariate analysis and multiple regression analysis of the neurological outcome of patients treated by cervical cord decompression...
  47. doi Metaphyseal-loading anterolaterally-flared femoral stem in cementless total hip arthroplasty: five- to eleven-year follow-up evaluation
    Hideo Kawahara
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Matsuoka Shimoaizuki 23, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan
    Artif Organs 34:377-83. 2010
    ..Our analysis confirmed reduced radiolucency around the stem in Gruen zones, minimal subsidence, appropriate stress shielding, and promising medium-term stability within the femoral canal in our patients...
  48. doi Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist reduces apoptosis of neurons and oligodendroglia in rat spinal cord injury
    Ke Bing Chen
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 36:1350-8. 2011
    ..To examine the effects of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonist (etanercept) on rat spinal cord injury and identify a possible mechanism for its action...
  49. doi Intraneural blood flow analysis during an intraoperative Phalen's test in carpal tunnel syndrome
    Takafumi Yayama
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 3, Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan 910 1193
    J Orthop Res 28:1022-5. 2010
    ..After carpal tunnel release, there was no marked decrease in intraneural blood flow. This study demonstrated that the blood flow in the median nerve is reduced when Phalen's test is performed in vivo...
  50. pmc Microarray analysis of expression of cell death-associated genes in rat spinal cord cells exposed to cyclic tensile stresses in vitro
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    BMC Neurosci 11:84. 2010
    ..Changes in expression of 12 genes were validated with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  51. doi Immunohistochemical findings of multiple ossified en plaque meningiomas in the thoracic spine
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Matsuoka Shimoaizuki 23, Eiheiji, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    J Clin Neurosci 16:1660-2. 2009
    ..Immunostaining for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly positive in the areas surrounding mature bone tissues in the metaplastic and psammomatous subtypes...
  52. doi Epidural abscess associated with pyogenic spondylodiscitis of the lumbar spine; evaluation of a new MRI staging classification and imaging findings as indicators of surgical management: a retrospective study of 37 patients
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Matsuoka Shimoaizuki 23, Eiheiji, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 130:111-8. 2010
    ....
  53. ncbi Thoracic ossification of the human ligamentum flavum: histopathological and immunohistochemical findings around the ossified lesion
    Takafumi Yayama
    Departments of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 7:184-93. 2007
    ....
  54. ncbi Anterior versus posterior surgery for osteoporotic vertebral collapse with neurological deficit in the thoracolumbar spine
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, Fukui University School of Medicine, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Eur Spine J 15:1759-67. 2006
    ..In single-level osteoporotic vertebral collapse with neurological deficit, anterior surgery tended to improve neurological deficit in wedge type, but not in flat type collapse, compared with posterior surgery...
  55. pmc Ossification process involving the human thoracic ligamentum flavum: role of transcription factors
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui University, Eiheiji, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Arthritis Res Ther 13:R144. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the pathomechanism of the ossification process, including the roles of various transcriptional factors in the ossification of human thoracic ligamentum flavum...
  56. ncbi Metabolic neuroimaging of the cervical spinal cord in patients with compressive myelopathy: a high-resolution positron emission tomography study
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, and Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 1:72-9. 2004
    ....
  57. ncbi Effects of disease severity on response to lateral wedged shoe insole for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis
    Seiichiro Shimada
    Gait Analysis Laboratory, Division of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Fukui University Hospital, Fukui, Japan
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87:1436-41. 2006
    ..To determine the effects of lateral wedged insoles on knee kinetics and kinematics during walking, according to radiographic severity of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA)...
  58. doi Pathomechanisms of sciatica in lumbar disc herniation: effect of periradicular adhesive tissue on electrophysiological values by an intraoperative straight leg raising test
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 35:2004-14. 2010
    ..This study is aimed to investigate the changes of nerve root functions during the straight leg raising (SLR) test in vivo...
  59. ncbi [Blood circulation of cauda equina and nerve root]
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine
    Clin Calcium 15:63-72. 2005
    ..In this article, we have reviewed about the blood circulation of cauda equina and nerve root under normal and pathologic conditions...
  60. doi Development of a chronic cervical cord compression model in rat: changes in the neurological behaviors and radiological and pathological findings
    Masafumi Kubota
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurotrauma 28:459-67. 2011
    ....
  61. doi Microsurgical excision of hematoma of the lumbar ligamentum flavum
    Kenichi Takeno
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Science, and Research and Education Program for Life Science, The University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Joint Bone Spine 77:351-4. 2010
    ....
  62. doi Anterior and posterior decompressive surgery for progressive amyotrophy associated with cervical spondylosis: a retrospective study of 51 patients
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 11:330-7. 2009
    ....
  63. ncbi Motion analysis of the wrist joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    Takafumi Yayama
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, 23 Matsuoka Shimoaizuki, Eiheiji, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    Mod Rheumatol 17:322-6. 2007
    ..Our results indicate that disturbed coupling of FE and RUD results in difficulties in the cooperative movements and have great influence on the daily activities in RA wrist joint...
  64. ncbi Successful treatment of nonclostridial gas gangrene extending from retroperitoneum to thigh associated with occult cecal cancer
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics, Fukui University School of Medicine, 23 3 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Eiheiji, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    J Orthop Sci 12:585-91. 2007
  65. ncbi Changes in nerve root motion and intraradicular blood flow during an intraoperative straight-leg-raising test
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 28:1427-34. 2003
    ..An intraoperative straight-leg-raising (SLR) test was conducted to investigate patients with lumbar disc herniation to observe the changes in intraradicular blood flow, which then were compared with the clinical features...
  66. doi Anterior spinal artery syndrome complicating massive paravertebral abscess
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    J Orthop Sci 13:85-8. 2008
  67. ncbi Targeted retrograde transfection of adenovirus vector carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene prevents loss of mouse (twy/twy) anterior horn neurons in vivo sustaining mechanical compression
    Kan Xu
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Fukui Faculty of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 31:1867-74. 2006
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis after adenovirus (AdV)-mediated BDNF gene transfer in and around the area of mechanical compression in the cervical spinal cord of the hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy)...
  68. ncbi Calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition in the ligamentum flavum of the cervical spine: histopathological and immunohistochemical findings
    E S Mwaka
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 27:430-8. 2009
    ..To investigate the histopathological and immunohistochemical properties of degenerative changes in the ligamentum flavum of the cervical spine with calcium crystal deposition...
  69. ncbi Targeted retrograde gene delivery into the injured cervical spinal cord using recombinant adenovirus vector
    Hideaki Nakajima
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 385:30-5. 2005
    ....
  70. ncbi Dynamic analysis of the resultant force acting on the hip joint during level walking
    Naoki Hashimoto
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Fukui Faculty of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Artif Organs 29:387-92. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that muscle strength and walking speed are significant determinants of the resultant force acting on the hip...
  71. ncbi Metastatic involvement of sacral nerve roots from uterine carcinoma: a case report
    Kenzo Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Spine J 8:849-52. 2008
    ..It is also possible that perineural and endoneural invasion occur in presacral local recurrence. Little is reported about metastasis in pelvic lesions including sacral nerve roots...
  72. ncbi Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine: histopathological findings around the calcification and ossification front
    Ryuichiro Sato
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Japan
    J Neurosurg Spine 7:174-83. 2007
    ..The authors studied the histological and immunohistochemical features of ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) of the cervical spine, especially in the calcification and ossification front...
  73. ncbi Plasticity of the spinal cord contributes to neurological improvement after treatment by cervical decompression. A magnetic resonance imaging study
    H Baba
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukui Medical School, Japan
    J Neurol 244:455-60. 1997
    ....
  74. doi Microsurgical intraneural extracapsular resection of neurinoma around the cervical neuroforamen: a technical note
    K Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    Minim Invasive Neurosurg 52:271-4. 2009
    ....
  75. ncbi Pathogenesis of calcium crystal deposition in the ligamentum flavum correlates with lumbar spinal canal stenosis
    T Yayama
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Fukui, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 23:637-43. 2005
    ..To investigate the histological and immunohistochemical properties of degenerative changes and calcium crystal deposition in the lumbar ligamentum favum...
  76. ncbi Imaging of cauda equina edema in lumbar canal stenosis by using gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging: experimental constriction injury
    S Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:346-53. 2006
    ..We created a model of LSCS to clarify the mechanism of enhancement within the cauda equina on gadolinium-enhanced MR images from patients with LSCS...
  77. ncbi Ligamentum flavum hematoma in the thoracic spine
    Y Maezawa
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Clin Imaging 25:265-7. 2001
    ..The resected T11 and T12 laminas showed old hematoma with degenerative changes in the ligamentum flavum. Hematoma occurring in the thoracic spine has never been reported previously...
  78. ncbi Herniation of cervical intervertebral disc: immunohistochemical examination and measurement of nitric oxide production
    N Furusawa
    Departmenr of Orthopaedic Surgerey, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Fukui, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 26:1110-6. 2001
    ..Surgically obtained cervical herniated intervertebral discs were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The production of nitric oxide (NO) in the local tissue was examined using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method...
  79. pmc Spontaneous remission of a solitary intraspinal synovial cyst of the lumbar spine
    Y Maezawa
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka, Japan
    Eur Spine J 9:85-7. 2000
    ..Conservative treatment for several months may be one treatment option if the cyst wall is not calcified and the symptoms and signs related to radiculopathy show a gradual decrease...
  80. doi Microsurgical excision of ganglioneuroma arising from the C8 nerve root within the neuroforamen
    K Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
    Minim Invasive Neurosurg 50:350-4. 2007
    ....
  81. ncbi Histological investigation of spinal cord lesions in the spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy): morphological changes in anterior horn cells and immunoreactivity to neurotropic factors
    K Uchida
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka, Japan
    J Neurol 245:781-93. 1998
    ..We speculate that the presence of BDNF and NT-3 in neurons and astrocyte-like cells is proportionate to the severity of chronic mechanical compression and may contribute to the heterotropic neuronal reserve and survival...
  82. ncbi Lordotic alignment and posterior migration of the spinal cord following en bloc open-door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy: a magnetic resonance imaging study
    H Baba
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukui Medical School, Japan
    J Neurol 243:626-32. 1996
    ..01). Our results suggest that a significant neurological improvement is associated with posterior cord migration after cervical laminoplasty...
  83. ncbi Imaging of intraneural edema by using gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging: experimental compression injury
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Physiology Laboratory of Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:973-80. 2005
    ..CONCLUSION: Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging can detect morphologic and functional changes of blood-nerve barrier in the nerve induced by mechanical compression...
  84. ncbi Effect of cell density on the rate of glycosaminoglycan accumulation by disc and cartilage cells in vitro
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Orthop Res 26:493-503. 2008
    ....
  85. doi Microsurgical excision of multiple clear cell meningiomas of the cauda equina: a case report
    H Nakajima
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, Yoshida gun, Fukui, Japan
    Minim Invasive Neurosurg 52:32-5. 2009
    ..Histopathological diagnosis was clear cell meningioma...
  86. ncbi Gait analysis of spastic walking in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy
    Y Maezawa
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukui Medical University, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui 910-1193, Japan
    J Orthop Sci 6:378-84. 2001
    ..Our results show that kinesiological gait analysis is clinically useful for the functional assessment of the severity of spastic walking in cervical myelopathy...
  87. ncbi Insidious progression of paraparesis secondary to type III spinal meningeal cyst: a study of six difficult cases
    T Yayama
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University, Fukui, Japan
    Spinal Cord 46:159-61. 2008
    ..Case report...
  88. ncbi Primary osteosarcoma of the thoracic spine: report of an unusual elderly patient with autopsy findings
    Y Kokubo
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukui University, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan
    Spinal Cord 43:508-11. 2005
    ..A case report of primary osteosarcoma of the spine in an elderly patient...
  89. doi Parosteal aneurysmal bone cyst of the humerus with birdcage-like ossification on three-dimensional CT scanning: a case report
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of Fukui, Shimoaizuki 23, Matsuoka, Fukui, 910 1193, Japan
    Joint Bone Spine 76:705-7. 2009
    ..The tumor was excised en bloc with a clear margin. At 3 years after surgery, there is no evidence of recurrent tumor...
  90. ncbi Cervical angina: a seemingly still neglected symptom of cervical spine disorder?
    H Nakajima
    Division of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, Japan
    Spinal Cord 44:509-13. 2006
    ..Retrospective, case series...
  91. ncbi Effect of osmolarity on glycosaminoglycan production and cell metabolism of articular chondrocyte under three-dimensional culture system
    K Negoro
    Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui University School of Medicine, Fukui, Japan
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 26:534-41. 2008
    ..This study examined how physiological levels of extracellular osmolarity influence proteoglycan accumulation in articular chondrocytes in a three-dimensional culture system...
  92. ncbi Potential usefulness of 18F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in cervical compressive myelopathy
    H Baba
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 24:1449-54. 1999
    ..18FDG-PET images may also offer additional information related to neuronal dysfunction induced by mechanical compression...
  93. ncbi Sodium sensitivity and sympathetic nervous system in hypertension induced by long-term nitric oxide blockade in rats
    S Yuasa
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kagawa Medical University, Japan
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 27:18-24. 2000
    ....
  94. ncbi Retroperitoneal lymphocele associated with lumbar spine fracture: report of an unusual case
    R Sato
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Fukui University, Fukui, Japan
    Spinal Cord 43:687-90. 2005
    ..To describe a case of retroperitoneal lymphocele as an extremely rare complication after lumbar spine fracture...
  95. ncbi Intravenous injection of high and medium concentrations of computed tomography contrast media and related heat sensation, local pain, and adverse reactions
    Takayuki Masui
    Department of Radiology, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 29:704-8. 2005
    ..To evaluate the incidence of acute adverse reactions and degrees of heat sensation and local pain after intravenous injection of high and medium concentrations of iodinated contrast medium for computed tomography (CT)...
  96. ncbi Neuropeptide substance P stimulates the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells
    Takaaki Matayoshi
    Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803 8580, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 327:756-64. 2005
    ..These results suggest that SP in the joint cavity may cause both hypertrophy of the synovium and induction of increased osteoclast formation through the increased expression of RANKL in the synovium...
  97. ncbi Pathology of lumbar nerve root compression. Part 2: morphological and immunohistochemical changes of dorsal root ganglion
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics, Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, 1 98, Dengakugakubo, Kutukake cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470 1192, Japan corrected
    J Orthop Res 22:180-8. 2004
    ..This study is to investigate the changes of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) induced by mechanical compression using in vivo model...
  98. ncbi Pathology of lumbar nerve root compression. Part 1: Intraradicular inflammatory changes induced by mechanical compression
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopaedics, Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, 1 98, Dengakugakubo, Kutukake cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470 1192, Japan corrected
    J Orthop Res 22:170-9. 2004
    ..This study is to investigate the intraradicular inflammation induced by mechanical compression using in vivo model...
  99. ncbi Effect of mechanical compression on the vascular permeability of the dorsal root ganglion
    Shigeru Kobayashi
    Department of Orthopedics, Fujita Health, University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan
    J Orthop Res 20:730-9. 2002
    ..It was proven that the increased vascular permeability occurred as well as in leakage of dye within the dorsal root ganglion after a single hour of compression of the dorsal root ganglion...
  100. ncbi Long-term follow-up and knee osteoarthritis change after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation
    Eiki Nomura
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saitama Municipal Hospital, 2460, Mimuro, Midori ku, Saitama 336 8522, Japan
    Am J Sports Med 35:1851-8. 2007
    ..A new approach, medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, has recently started, but there have been no reports on the long-term follow-up...
  101. ncbi Diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging of ovarian tumors: is it useful to measure apparent diffusion coefficients?
    Motoyuki Katayama
    Department of Radiology, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Japan
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 26:250-6. 2002
    ....