Shingo Kakeda

Summary

Affiliation: University of Occupational and Environmental Health
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Parkinson's disease: diagnostic potential of high-resolution phase difference enhanced MR imaging at 3 T
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Eur Radiol 23:1102-11. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Pitfalls of 3D FLAIR brain imaging: a prospective comparison with 2D FLAIR
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Acad Radiol 19:1225-32. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Improved detection of lung nodules by using a temporal subtraction technique
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanisi ku, Kitakyushu shi 807 8555, Japan
    Radiology 224:145-51. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint 3D digital subtraction angiography of intracranial aneurysms: comparison of flat panel detector with conventional image intensifier TV system using a vascular phantom
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:839-43. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint A cone-beam volume CT using a 3D angiography system with a flat panel detector of direct conversion type: usefulness for superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for head and neck tumors
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:1783-8. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint The usefulness of three-dimensional angiography with a flat panel detector of direct conversion type in a transcatheter arterial chemoembolization procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma: initial experience
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
    Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 31:281-8. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Usefulness of cone-beam volume CT with flat panel detectors in conjunction with catheter angiography for transcatheter arterial embolization
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 18:1508-16. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Diagnostic accuracy and reading time to detect intracranial aneurysms on MR angiography using a computer-aided diagnosis system
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 190:459-65. 2008
  9. doi request reprint Reduction of the radiation dose for multidetector row CT angiography of cerebral aneurysms using an edge-preserving adaptive filter: a vascular phantom study
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 31:827-9. 2010
  10. doi request reprint Signal intensity of the motor cortex on phase-weighted imaging at 3T
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:1171-5. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications44

  1. doi request reprint Parkinson's disease: diagnostic potential of high-resolution phase difference enhanced MR imaging at 3 T
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Eur Radiol 23:1102-11. 2013
    ..To determine whether it is possible to diagnose patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on an individual basis using magnetic resonance imaging with phase difference enhanced imaging (PADRE)...
  2. doi request reprint Pitfalls of 3D FLAIR brain imaging: a prospective comparison with 2D FLAIR
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Acad Radiol 19:1225-32. 2012
    ..To prospectively compare the image contrast of various brain lesions on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images and to highlight the pitfalls of 3D FLAIR...
  3. ncbi request reprint Improved detection of lung nodules by using a temporal subtraction technique
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanisi ku, Kitakyushu shi 807 8555, Japan
    Radiology 224:145-51. 2002
    ..To evaluate the effect of a temporal subtraction technique for digital chest radiography with regard to the accuracy of detection of lung nodules...
  4. ncbi request reprint 3D digital subtraction angiography of intracranial aneurysms: comparison of flat panel detector with conventional image intensifier TV system using a vascular phantom
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:839-43. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of 3D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the FPD and conventional I.I.-TV systems using a vascular phantom...
  5. ncbi request reprint A cone-beam volume CT using a 3D angiography system with a flat panel detector of direct conversion type: usefulness for superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for head and neck tumors
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:1783-8. 2007
    ..Our purpose was to assess the usefulness of cone-beam CT using the FPD in conjunction with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for performing superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for head and neck tumors...
  6. ncbi request reprint The usefulness of three-dimensional angiography with a flat panel detector of direct conversion type in a transcatheter arterial chemoembolization procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma: initial experience
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
    Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 31:281-8. 2008
    ..The high-quality 3D DSA with flat panel detector angiography system provided a precise vascular road map, which was useful for performing subsegmental TACE of HCCs...
  7. ncbi request reprint Usefulness of cone-beam volume CT with flat panel detectors in conjunction with catheter angiography for transcatheter arterial embolization
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 18:1508-16. 2007
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Diagnostic accuracy and reading time to detect intracranial aneurysms on MR angiography using a computer-aided diagnosis system
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 190:459-65. 2008
    ..The objective of our study was to determine whether the use of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can shorten the reading time while maintaining the diagnostic performance of MR angiography for the detection of intracranial aneurysms...
  9. doi request reprint Reduction of the radiation dose for multidetector row CT angiography of cerebral aneurysms using an edge-preserving adaptive filter: a vascular phantom study
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 31:827-9. 2010
    ..Our results demonstrated that the radiation dose of CTA can be reduced by at least 25% and the image quality for visualizing aneurysms can be preserved by applying the QDS...
  10. doi request reprint Signal intensity of the motor cortex on phase-weighted imaging at 3T
    S Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:1171-5. 2008
    ..The goal of this study was to assess the signal intensity of the motor cortices on the phase-weighted imaging performed with a Windows-based software program that we developed ourselves...
  11. doi request reprint Superficial siderosis associated with a chronic subdural hematoma: T2-weighted MR imaging at 3T
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Acad Radiol 17:871-6. 2010
    ....
  12. doi request reprint The efficacy of a voxel-based morphometry on the analysis of imaging in schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment: a review
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
    Neuroradiology 52:711-21. 2010
    ..Thus, in the future, large cohort studies to monitor whole brain changes on a VBM basis will lead to a further understanding of the neuropathology of several conditions...
  13. ncbi request reprint Improved detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs using a commercial computer-aided diagnosis system
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanisi ku, Kitakyushu shi 807 8555, Japan
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 182:505-10. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new commercially available computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with an automated method of detecting nodules due to lung cancers on chest radiograph...
  14. doi request reprint A novel tract imaging technique of the brainstem using phase difference enhanced imaging: normal anatomy and initial experience in multiple system atrophy
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
    Eur Radiol 21:2202-10. 2011
    ....
  15. doi request reprint MRA of intracranial aneurysms embolized with platinum coils: a vascular phantom study at 1.5T and 3T
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, Japan
    J Magn Reson Imaging 28:13-20. 2008
    ..To analyze the influence of matrix and echo time (TE) of three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) on the depiction of residual flow in aneurysms embolized with platinum coils at 1.5T and 3T...
  16. doi request reprint Influence of work shift on glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): evaluation with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Psychiatry Res 192:55-9. 2011
    ..Our preliminary finding represents a possible alteration of GABA content in the brain related to an irregular work schedule...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effect of temporal subtraction technique on interpretation time and diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 187:1253-9. 2006
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Detection of brain metastasis at 3T: comparison among SE, IR-FSE and 3D-GRE sequences
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
    Eur Radiol 17:2345-51. 2007
    ..At 3T, the contrast-enhanced 3D fast SPGR with 1.4 mm isotropic voxel is clinically more valuable for detecting small brain metastases than the SE and IR-FSE with section thickness of 6 mm...
  19. ncbi request reprint Intracranial 2D and 3D DSA with flat panel detector of the direct conversion type: initial experience
    Yoshihisa Hatakeyama
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
    Eur Radiol 16:2594-602. 2006
    ....
  20. doi request reprint Critical examination of a correlation between brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations and a personality trait of extroversion in healthy volunteers as measured by a 3 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
    Naoki Goto
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 8078555, Japan
    Psychiatry Res 182:53-7. 2010
    ..A negative correlation was found between the GABA/creatine ratios in the frontal lobe and scores of extroversion on the NEO-FFI. These results suggest that GABAergic neurons are related to personality traits of healthy subjects...
  21. doi request reprint Partial loss of hippocampal striation in medial temporal lobe epilepsy: pilot evaluation with high-spatial-resolution T2-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T
    Mai Hanamiya
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Radiology 251:873-81. 2009
    ..0 T is more accurate than the currently accepted methods of using conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to detect hippocampal sclerosis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE)...
  22. doi request reprint Delineation of optic radiation and stria of Gennari on high-resolution phase difference enhanced imaging
    Satoru Ide
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    Acad Radiol 19:1283-9. 2012
    ..Our purpose is to assess the delineations of the optic radiation and primary visual cortex (stria of Gennari) using PADRE...
  23. doi request reprint Signal intensity of motor and sensory cortices on T2-weighted and FLAIR images: intraindividual comparison of 1.5T and 3T MRI
    Koji Kamada
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, 807 8555, Japan
    Eur Radiol 18:2949-55. 2008
    ..The decreased signal intensity in the motor cortex was frequently seen at 3T compared with 1.5T. Knowledge of the finding at 3T can help the recognition of abnormalities of the motor cortex caused by various pathologic conditions...
  24. pmc Six-month treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased frontal-lobe levels of glutamate plus glutamine in early-stage first-episode schizophrenia
    Naoki Goto
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 8:119-22. 2012
    ..To study the effects of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs on brain levels of glutamate plus glutamine in early-stage first-episode schizophrenia...
  25. doi request reprint No alterations of brain GABA after 6 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs in early-stage first-episode schizophrenia
    Naoki Goto
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu 8078555, Fukuoka, Japan
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:1480-3. 2010
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Gray and white matter volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia
    Junji Moriya
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Japan
    Schizophr Res 116:196-203. 2010
    ....
  27. doi request reprint Delineation of optic nerves and chiasm in close proximity to large suprasellar tumors with contrast-enhanced FIESTA MR imaging
    Keita Watanabe
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyusyu 807 8555, Japan
    Radiology 264:852-8. 2012
    ..To evaluate whether contrast material-enhanced (CE) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) can depict the anterior optic pathways in patients with large suprasellar tumors...
  28. ncbi request reprint Improved detection of lung cancer arising in diffuse lung diseases on chest radiographs using temporal subtraction
    Hiroko Okazaki
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Japan
    Acad Radiol 11:498-505. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of temporal subtraction for the detection of lung cancer arising in pneumoconiosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary emphysema...
  29. doi request reprint Abnormal White Matter Integrity in the Corpus Callosum among Smokers: Tract-Based Spatial Statistics
    Wakako Umene-Nakano
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan
    PLoS ONE 9:e87890. 2014
    ..580, pā€Š=ā€Š0.023). These results suggest that the corpus callosum may be one of the key areas influenced by chronic smoking. ..
  30. doi request reprint Severe subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cerebral venous thrombosis in early pregnancy: a case report
    Junkoh Yamamoto
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan
    J Emerg Med 45:849-55. 2013
    ..During late pregnancy and puerperium, CVT is an uncommon but important cause of stroke. However, severe SAH resulting from CVT is extremely rare during early pregnancy...
  31. ncbi request reprint Postsurgical change in the tracheal bifurcation angle after upper lobectomy: radiographic evaluation
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanisi ku, Kitakyushu shi 807 8555, Japan
    Acad Radiol 10:644-9. 2003
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Associations between plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and negative symptoms or cognitive impairments in early-stage schizophrenia
    Naoki Goto
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Hum Psychopharmacol 24:639-45. 2009
    ..420, p = 0.0836). These results suggest that noradrenergic neurons might be involved in neuropsychological functions in early-stage of schizophrenia...
  33. doi request reprint Diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions: comparison between 3D-SWAN (3D T2*-weighted imaging with multi-echo acquisition) and 2D-T2*-weighted imaging
    Yoshiko Hayashida
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Acta Radiol 55:201-7. 2014
    ..3D-susceptibility-weighted angiography (SWAN) can produce high-resolution images that yield excellent susceptibility-weighted contrast at a relatively short acquisition time...
  34. doi request reprint Dural attachment of intracranial meningiomas: evaluation with contrast-enhanced three-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) at 3 T
    Junkoh Yamamoto
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyusyu, Japan
    Neuroradiology 53:413-23. 2011
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Reduction of radiation dose for cerebral angiography using flat panel detector of direct conversion type: a vascular phantom study
    Y Hatakeyama
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:645-50. 2007
    ..Our purpose was to evaluate the detection of simulated aneurysmal blebs under dose reduction with the FPD system in comparison with the I.I.-TV system...
  36. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid leakage in intracranial hypotension syndrome: usefulness of indirect findings in radionuclide cisternography for detection and treatment monitoring
    Tomoaki Morioka
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi ku, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Clin Nucl Med 33:181-5. 2008
    ..To evaluate indirect findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage on radionuclide cisternography and their changes after treatment...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effect of 8-MHz radiofrequency-capacitive regional hyperthermia with strong superficial cooling for unresectable or recurrent colorectal cancer
    T Ohguri
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanisi ku, Kitakyushu shi 807 8555, Japan
    Int J Hyperthermia 20:465-75. 2004
    ..1 months for Group B (p<0.05). Eight-megahertz radiofrequency-capacitive regional hyperthermia with strong superficial cooling is potentially useful for improving treatment results in unresectable or recurrent colorectal cancers...
  38. doi request reprint Effect of tube voltage on image quality in 64-section multidetector 3D CT angiography: Evaluation with a vascular phantom with superimposed bone skull structures
    Y Murakami
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 31:620-5. 2010
    ..The purpose of our study was to investigate the image quality on 3D CT angiograms of the brain at various kilovoltage settings by evaluating the depiction of simulated intracranial lesions by using a vascular phantom...
  39. ncbi request reprint An unusual case of split cord malformation
    J Moriya
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, 1 1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanashi ku, Kitakyushu 807 8555, Japan
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:1562-4. 2006
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Effect of prophylactic hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation-induced brain injury after stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases
    Takayuki Ohguri
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:248-55. 2007
    ..The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for radiation-induced brain injury in patients with brain metastasis treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)...
  41. ncbi request reprint [3D angiography with FPD system]
    Shingo Kakeda
    Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine
    Nihon Rinsho 64:384-7. 2006
  42. ncbi request reprint Oncocytic schneiderian papilloma confined to the sphenoid sinus detected by FDG-PET
    Tsuyoshi Udaka
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Rhinology 45:89-92. 2007
    ..FDG-PET is thought to be a powerful tool to search for malignant lesions, but the present case demonstrates the fallibility of this technique. This should be taken into consideration when interpreting FDG-PET images...
  43. doi request reprint 3D TOF MRA of intracranial aneurysms at 1.5 T and 3 T: influence of matrix, parallel imaging, and acquisition time on image quality - a vascular phantom study
    Yasuhiro Hiai
    Department of Course of Radiological Sciences, Kumamoto University School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, 4 24 1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862 0976, Japan
    Acad Radiol 15:635-40. 2008
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint [Effect of diagnostic X-rays on implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and its management]
    Nobuhiro Oda
    Department of Radiological Technology, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyoto College of Medical Science, Japan
    Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 64:805-13. 2008
    ..Using a copper sheet of 2.0 mm thickness or more prevented over-sensing of pacemakers in the present study, especially when serial X-ray exposures were used with an over-table fluoroscopy system or cone-beam CT unit...